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Health Care Systems

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Beliefs about health care from ancient to current times ... What are some possibilities for the future of health care? ... Trends in Health Care ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Health Care Systems


1
Unit 1 Health Care Systems
2
11 History of Health Care
  • Beliefs and Developments
  • Beliefs about health care from ancient to current
    times
  • Change in treatment of patients from ancient to
    current times
  • Major historical events from 4000 BC to current
    century

3
Future of Health Care
  • When did most of the significant changes in
    health care occur?
  • Why were the greatest advances made in this time
    period?
  • What are some possibilities for the future of
    health care?

4
Summary
  • Health care has seen many changes over the
    centuries
  • Future changes may be even more dramatic

5
12/13/14 Health Care Systems
  • Different Health Care Systems
  • Private health care facilities
  • Government agencies
  • Voluntary or nonprofit agencies

6
Trends in Health Care
  • Growth one of the largest and fastest growing
    industries in the United States
  • Employment opportunities employs over 10
    million workers in over 200 careers
  • Expenditures it is a two billion dollar per day
    business and growing

7
Types of Services
  • Inpatient services (e.g., hospitals, long-term
    care)
  • Outpatient services (e.g., clinics, provider
    offices)
  • Specialty services (e.g., laboratories, mental
    health)

8
Health Care Facilities
  • Hospitals
  • Long-term care facilities (LTC or LTCF)
  • Medical offices
  • Dental offices
  • Clinics
  • Optical centers
  • Emergency care services

9
Health Care Facilities (continued)
  • Laboratories
  • Home health care
  • Hospice agencies
  • Mental health facilities
  • Genetic counseling centers
  • Rehabilitation facilities
  • Health maintenance organizations (HMOs)

10
Health Care Facilities (continued)
  • Industrial health care centers or occupational
    health clinics
  • School health services
  • Government agencies
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    (USDHHS)
  • State and local departments
  • Voluntary and nonprofit agencies

11
Summary
  • Many different types of health care facilities
  • Employ many types of health care workers
  • Important to be aware of facilities and
  • type of services

12
15 Health Insurance Plans
  • Health care costs are rising faster than other
    costs of living
  • Most people rely on health insurance plans to pay
    for health care costs
  • Without insurance, the cost of an illness can
    become a financial disaster

13
Insurance Terminology
  • Deductible
  • Co-insurance
  • Co-payment
  • Preferred provider
  • Monthly fee or premium
  • Managed care

14
Types of Plans
  • Health insurance plans
  • Health maintenance organizations (HMO)
  • Preferred provider organizations (PPO)
  • Medicare
  • Medicaid
  • Workers Compensation
  • U.S. government plans

15
Summary
  • Health insurance plans do not solve all the
    problems of health care costs
  • Do help many people pay for all or part of cost
  • Important for individuals to understand what plan
    covers
  • Also need understanding of co-insurance and other
    restrictions plan may have

16
16 Organizational Structure
  • Line of authority or chain of command
  • Indicates areas of responsibility
  • Goal most efficient operation of facility
  • Complex or simple structure determined by size
    and needs of organization
  • Sample organizational charts See Figure 1-4
    and 1-5 in text

17
Summary
  • The line of authority must be clearly indicated
    in any organizational structure
  • Workers must identify and understand their
    position in the organization structure
  • To follow proper channels of communication,
    workers must take problems, reports, and
    questions to their immediate supervisor

18
17 Trends in Health Care
  • Changes in Health Care
  • Many events lead to changes in health care
  • Changes in health care are inevitable and occur
    rapidly
  • Health care workers must be flexible
  • to face and keep pace with
  • the rapid changes

19
Some Current Issues
  • Cost containment
  • Home health care
  • Geriatric care
  • Telemedicine
  • Wellness
  • Alternative and complementary health care
  • National health care plans

20
Cost Containment
  • Purpose control the rising cost of health care
    and achieve maximum benefit for every dollar
    spent
  • Necessity costs increasing with technological
    advances, improved survival rates, aging
    population, and lawsuits

21
Cost Containment Methods
  • Diagnostic related groups (DRGs)
  • Combination of services
  • Outpatient services
  • Mass or bulk purchasing
  • Early intervention and preventive services
  • Energy conservation

22
Cost Containment Issues
  • Important not to decrease quality of care
  • Workers can decrease costs (e.g., look for areas
    to control costs and avoid waste, keep
    expenditures down)
  • Consumers can decrease costs (e.g., take
    responsibility for their own care, follow
    preventative measures to decrease need for
    services, use services appropriately)

23
Home Health Care
  • Industry grew rapidly when DRGs initiated
  • Services provided in patients home
  • Visits must be pre-authorized by insurance agency
    (unless private pay)
  • Often necessary to teach family members to
    perform care since visits are limited
  • Emphasis on cost containment also applies to Home
    Health

24
Geriatric Care
  • Care for the elderly
  • Percentage of elderly population growing
    rapidly
  • Need for more facilities
  • Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1987

25
OBRA
  • Federal law regarding long-term care and home
    health care
  • States must establish training and competency
    evaluation programs for nursing/geriatric
    assistants and maintain registry of qualified
    individuals
  • Requires compliance with patients/
  • residents rights

26
Telemedicine
  • Use of audio, video, and computers to provide
    health care from a distance
  • Interactive services are expected to grow rapidly
    in the future
  • Increases accessibility to specialty
    information
  • Decreases need for trip to medical center
  • Decreases need for Home Health visits

27
Wellness
  • State of optimal health
  • Increase awareness of maintaining health and
    preventing disease
  • Emphasis on preventative measures rather than
    waiting for need for curative intervention
  • Different facilities will develop to meet needs
    of wellness emphasis

28
Promoting Wellness
  • Physical wellness
  • Emotional wellness
  • Social wellness
  • Mental and intellectual wellness
  • Spiritual wellness

29
Holistic Health
  • Treat the whole body, mind, and spirit
  • Each person is unique with different needs
  • Use many methods of diagnosis and treatment
  • Emphasis on protection and restoration
  • Promote bodys natural healing processes
  • Patient responsible for choosing care and worker
    respects the choice

30
Alternative and Complementary Methods of Treatment
  • Increasingly used to replace or supplement
    traditional medical treatment
  • Holistic approach belief that the effect on one
    part effects the whole person
  • Based on belief that the person has a life force
    or energy that can be used in the healing
    process
  • May vary by cultural values or beliefs

31
Types of Practitioners
  • Ayurvedic
  • Chinese medicine
  • Chiropractors
  • Homeopaths
  • Hypnotists
  • Naturopaths

32
Types of Therapies
  • Refer to Table 1-2 in text
  • Most are noninvasive and holistic
  • Often less expensive than traditional
    treatments
  • Nonjudgmental attitude is essential patients
    have right to choose treatment
  • Increased use requires increased awareness by
    health care workers

33
Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM)
  • Established in 1992 at the National Institutes of
    Health (federal government)
  • Purpose research therapies and establish
    standards of quality care
  • Many states have passed laws
  • Know your states law regarding the legal
    requirements of alternative therapies

34
National Health Care Plan
  • Goal ensure that all Americans can get health
    coverage
  • Various plan proposals
  • Costs
  • Potential problems

35
Past, Present, and Future Trends
  • Advances in the past that impact care today
  • Current changes and challenges that are changing
    the face of health care
  • Projected discoveries that will change the future
    of health care

36
Summary
  • Health care has changed and will continue to
    change
  • Workers must be constantly aware of changes that
    occur
  • Workers must make every attempt to learn about
    trends
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