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Pedagogy and Praxis Teaching and Learning in the Professions


Pedagogy and Praxis. Teaching and Learning in the Professions ... Loris Malaguzzi (1920 1994) Traditional models. of teaching and learning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pedagogy and Praxis Teaching and Learning in the Professions

Pedagogy and PraxisTeaching and Learning in the
International Higher Education Support
Program Academic Fellowship Program 2-5 April,
2009 Istanbul, Turkey Denise Burnette, Ph.D.,
M.S.S.W. Columbia University School of Social
Work New York, New York
Workshop Objectives
  • Describe purpose and key attributes of
    professions and how these relate to professional
  • Distinguish between management-centered and
    learner-centered educational models.
  • Describe the rationale and process of
    problem-based learning as a learner-centered
    educational model.

Attributes of Professions
  • A systematic body of knowledge
  • Professional authority and credibility
  • Regulation and control of members
  • A professional code of ethics
  • A culture of values, norms, and symbols
  • -Greenwood, 1957

Common domains of learning
  • Knowledge derivative, situated generative
  • Skills applied, targeted
  • Values contextual (social, cultural, political,

Management-Centered Strategic Planning Process
  • Hierarchical
  • Rational
  • Linear

Steps in process
  • Mission
  • Goals
  • Objectives

Columbia University Mission Statement
  • Columbia University is one of the world's most
    important centers of research and at the same
    time a distinctive and distinguished learning
    environment for undergraduates and graduate
    students in many scholarly and professional
    fields. The University recognizes the importance
    of its location in New York City and seeks to
    link its research and teaching to the vast
    resources of a great metropolis. It seeks to
    attract a diverse and international faculty and
    student body, to support research and teaching on
    global issues, and to create academic
    relationships with many countries and regions. It
    expects all areas of the University to advance
    knowledge and learning at the highest level and
    to convey the products of its efforts to the

CUSSW Mission Statement
  • Columbia University School of Social Work derives
    its mission from the Universitys goal to advance
    knowledge and learning at the highest level and
    to use that knowledge for human betterment and
    societal advancement.

CUSSW Program Goals
  • Goal 1. Prepare graduate students as advanced
    social work practitioners. (EDUCATION)
  • Goal 2. Develop and apply scientific and
    professional knowledge for social work practice
    and education. (RESEARCH)
  • Goal 3. Serve as a resource for and a
    collaborator with local, national, and
    international communities and with the
    University community. (SERVICE)
  • Goal 4. Serve and strengthen the social work
    profession locally, nationally and
    internationally. (PROFESSION)

  • Masters of Science Curriculum
  • Columbia University School of Social Work
  • 2008-2009
  • http//

Professional Seminar
Foundations of Social Work Practice 7100
Quant Methods for Social Work 6502
Social Welfare Policy 6801
Field Education 6010
Direct Practice with Individuals, Families, and
Groups 7102
Advocacy in Social Work Practice Organizations,
Communities, Policies 7103
Social Work Research 6501
Advanced Practice Method
Field of Practice
  • Field of Practice
  • Aging 6930
  • F C Services 6910
  • Cont Soc Issue 6970
  • H/MH/Disability 6920
  • International 6925
  • Schools 6960
  • World of Work 6950
  • Advanced Practice III
  • Clinical 7113
  • AGPP 7133
  • Policy 7143
  • SEA 7124
  • and 7123
  • Advanced Research
  • Clinical 7501
  • AGPP 6416
  • Policy 8213/8216
  • or 4595/4596
  • SEA 6416

Field Education T6020
  • Advanced Practice IV
  • Clinical 7114
  • AGPP 7134
  • Policy 7144
  • SEA 7122
  • and 7125 7126

  • Electives
  • Clinical (3)
  • AGPP (3)
  • Policy (2)
  • SEA (0)

Curriculum-Centered Strategic Planning Process
  • Focus on Higher Education

Innovation in Education for the New Millennium
American Psychological Association (1997)
Curriculum-Centered Strategic Planning Model
  • Five interlocking planning activities
  • Key performance indicators
  • Learner-centered curriculum architecture
  • External environmental scan
  • Continuous self study
  • Action planning and implementation

1. Key Performance Indicators
  • Establish frame of reference for the planning
    cycle by specifying the outcomes to be used to
    monitor performance, e.g., learning outcomes, job
    placement, successful accreditation...

2. Learner-Centered Curriculum Architecture
  • Seven interlocking components structure the
  • Thoroughly understand the populations we can
    serve by our programs and services
  • Know the objectives that learners in those
    populations seek
  • Evaluate learning provider models available to
  • Integrate learning theory, methods and principles
    for successful learning and student success
  • Strategically re-conceptualize overall curriculum
    architecture to provide a full scope of programs
    and approaches to the populations you seek to
  • Synthesize specific curriculum configurations
    designed to meet the specific needs of the array
    of learners served
  • Design, develop and deploy the array of services
    required by learners to meet their objectives.

3. External Environmental Scan
  • Trends and events in external environment that
    have impacted or have potential to impact key
    performance indicators and the curriculum.
    Analyses are conducted continuously and include
    such things as
  • Trends political, economic, educational, social,
  • Learner markets market forces, market dynamics,
    competitor initiatives, existing and potential
  • Consumers Learning populations, learner
    objectives, learner restraints, learners key
    performance indicators

4. Continuous Self Study Process
  • Examine institutional aspects and incorporates
    the findings into strategic, organizational, and
    operational plans.
  • To begin, take inventory of existing reports and
    self-study documents to help build foundation for
    strategic planning.
  • Self study includes processes such as
    accreditation self study, annual budget
    development, employee performance evaluations,
    annual report development, work-plan development,
  • Together, these activities provide a continuous
    flow of information about organizational
    performance vis-à-vis Key Performance
    Indicators, the curriculum, and the external

5. Action Planning
  • A series of steps to develop the organizations
    action agenda that will capitalize upon
    opportunities, mitigate threats, make strengths
    stronger and weaknesses weaker. (SWOT)
  • The process of generating ideas formulating
    mission, strategies, goals and objectives and
    establishing an implementation and evaluation
  • May include unit plans, tactical plans, project
    plans etc.

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Models and Methods for a New Millennium
Learner-centered Evidence-based Problem-based C
ritical and active Accountability
  • .

Learner Centered
  • Learning and teaching should not stand on
    opposite banks and just watch the river flow by
    instead, they should embark together on a
  • Loris Malaguzzi (19201994)

Traditional models of teaching and learning
  • Social Cooperative learning communities
  • Information processing Inductive, concept and
    classification oriented
  • Personal Student-teacher partnership teacher as
  • Behavioral systems Social learning behavior

Evidence-based practice
  • Evidence-based practice is the conscientious,
    explicit, and judicious use of current best
    evidence in making decisions about the care of
    individuals (Sackett et al. 1997, p. 2).
  • Recognizes that care is individualized, ever
    changing and involves uncertainties and
    probabilities and complex, conscientious
    decision-making based on
  • the available evidence
  • client characteristics
  • situations
  • preferences

Evidence-based Practice (EBP) and Problem-based
learning (PBL)
  • EBP describes a process and a professional
  • education format (problem-based learning PBL)
  • designed to help practitioners to link
  • evidentiary (knowledge),
  • ethical (values), and
  • application (skills) issues.

Problem-Based Learning

Pragmatist philosophy of education John
Problem-based learning (PBL)
  • Teaching and learning are oriented toward
    formulating problems and accessing, critiquing,
    employing and evaluating evidence in the broadest
    sense of the term.
  • PBL is used to enhance content knowledge and
    foster development of communication,
    problem-solving, and self-directed learning skill
  • Principles
  • Learning is driven by challenging, open-ended
  • Students work in small collaborative groups.
  • Teachers function as "facilitators" of learning.
  • Emphasizes critical thinking skills,
    understanding, learning how to learn, and working
    cooperatively with others.

At heart of PBL and professional expertise lies
  • an iterative process of reflection whereby
  • an experience of some kind
  • a process of reflective observation on the
  • abstract conceptualization through which new
    theories of action are constructed and
  • active experimentation where these theories are
    tried out in practice.

Underlying assumptions
  • Gets learners involved with whole tasks or
    problems as contrasted with the topic-by-topic
    approach that typifies more traditional
    curriculum approaches.
  • Involvement with realistic whole situations helps
    students to form appropriate schema and mental
  • These more complete internal representations
    facilitate their later application of newly
    acquired knowledge and skill.

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Tutorial Process
  • Step 1 Identify and clarify any unfamiliar terms
    in the scenario the scribe lists those that
    remain unexplained after discussion.
  • Step 2 Define the problem or problems to be
    discussed students may have different views on
    the issues, but all should be considered scribe
    records a list of agreed upon problems.
  • Step 3 Brainstorming session to describe the
    problem suggesting possible explanations on
    basis of prior knowledge students draw on each
    others knowledge and identify areas of
    incomplete knowledge scribe records all
  • Step 4 Review 2 3 and arrange explanations
    into tentative solutions scribe organizes
    explanations and restructures if necessary.

  • Step 5 Formulate learning objectives group
    reaches consensus on the learning objectives
    tutor ensure learning objectives are focused,
    achievable, comprehensive and appropriate
  • Step 6 Private study (all students gather
    information related to each learning objective)
  • Step 7 Group shares results of private study
    (students identify their learning resources and
    share their results) tutor checks learning and
    may assess the group

Creating effective PBL scenarios
  • The learning objectives students are likely to
    define after studying the scenario should be
    consistent with the faculty learning objectives
  • Problems should be appropriate to the stage of
    curriculum and students level of understanding.
  • Scenarios should have sufficient intrinsic
    interest for the students or relevance to future
  • Present technical issues in the context of a
    clinical scenario to encourage knowledge

  • Scenarios should contain cues to stimulate
    discussion and encourage students to seek
  • The problem should be sufficiently open, so that
    discussion is not curtailed too early in the
  • Scenarios should promote participation by the
    students in seeking information from various
    learning resources.

Trigger materials for PBL
  • Paper based clinical scenarios
  • Experimental or clinical laboratory data
  • Photographs
  • Video clips (YouTube)
  • Newspaper articles
  • All or part of a journal article
  • Real or simulated patient or population

Active and cooperative learning
  • Individual Exercises
  • 1-minute paper
  • Muddiest or clearest point
  • Questions and Answers
  • Student summary or another students question
  • Fishbowl
  • Immediate Feedback
  • Finger Signals
  • Flash cards
  • http//

  • Critical Thinking
  • Puzzles and paradoxes, e.g., logics, data,
    opposing theories
  • Pre-theoretical intuitions quiz before course
    readings / lectures
  • Share / Pair
  • Compare notes to improve note-taking
  • Evaluate another students work
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Role playing
  • Panel discussions
  • Debates

Accountability Consumers and Professionals
  • Community partnerships
  • Collaboratories
  • Service user consultancies (Green Wilks, 2009)

Case-based teaching learning
  • VITAL_practice with older adults
  • http//

  • In section 4900, Jack gives a message to social
    workers. What are the main points of his message?

  • He said that from his experiences, he has learned
    that a social worker must create a warm and be
    sincere with the clients, as to create a trust
    with the social worker. I was ashamed and guilty
    to hear his confession about his desire to become
    closer with the social worker, who was always
    there to listen and empathize with him. The best
    skill is to really listenp2  to what the
    patient is concerned about and to his hopes and
    fears about his condition. Without judgment for
    his insight or medical condition, I will
    concentrate my attention to their anxiety with
    the bottom of my heart.  p1

  • I think that Jacks main message is to LISTEN, to
    show true compassion, and just accept that the
    client is indeed the authority of their life. I
    think he was advising social workers to try to
    offer sincere support and find out who they are
    as human beings with true experiences and not a
    person with a diagnosis. I think he also asked
    that social workers look beyond the diagnosis and
    problems to identify the strengths of the person.
    He repeatedly utilized the words warmth,
    really care, and sincerity.

  • Social workers should transmit warmth, sincerity,
    competence, support and expertise in their field.
    These concepts are important in establishing
    rapport and providing a safe place for the client
    to reveal their struggles, pain, doubts,
    frustrations, stressors, concerns and questions.
    They allow clients to feel that the social worker
    is competent and sincere enough to provide a
    positive and helpful therapeutic experience that
    will enable them to feel supported and
    enlightened to their own strengths, resources and
    capabilities so that they may feel empowered and
    able to generalize these tools to future
    situationsp1 .

Instructional Methods
  • Direct teaching
  • Cooperative learning
  • Lecture
  • Lecture with discussion
  • Panel of experts
  • Brainstorming
  • Videotapes / slides

Instructional methods (cont.)
  • Discussion
  • Small group discussion
  • Case studies
  • Role playing
  • Worksheet surveys
  • Guest speakers
  • Values clarification

  • Doel, M. Shardlow, S.M. (2005) Modern social
    work practice Teaching and learning in practice
    settings. Burlington, VT Ashgate
  • Greenwood E. (1957). Attributes of a profession.
    Social Work, 2, 45-55.
  • Vella, J. (2002). Learning to listen, learning to
    teach The power of dialogue in educating adults.
    San Francisco Jossey Bass.
  • Joyce, B.R., Weil, M., Calhoun, E. (2004) Models
    of Teaching (7th ed.). Boston Allyn Bacon.

We learn
  • 10 of what we read.
  • 20 of what we hear.
  • 30 of what we see.
  • 50 of what we both see and hear.
  • 70 of what is discussed with others
  • 80 of what we experience
  • 95 of what we teach
  •          - William Glasser