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Exam 3 begins here

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Title: Exam 3 begins here


1
Exam 3 begins here
2
Recall Three components interact to produce
different biocontrol approaches
Emphasize effect of cropping system on NE
Cropping System
Natural Enemy
Ideal
NE lacks persistence, emphasize introduction
Emphasize the NE-Pest Interaction
Pest Complex
3
Types of Biological Control
  • Classical Use of NE taken from native home of a
    foreign pest. Release once.
  • Inoculative Release occasionally. Builds up,
    controls pest, then dies out must be
    re-introduced.
  • Augmentative Add to existing population as
    needed.
  • Inundative Flood area with NE. Not persistent.
    Similar to pesticides.
  • Competitive Exclusion Mostly applies to use of
    hypovirulent pathogen strains out competing
    virulent strain.
  • Conservation Avoid harming existing NE complex.
  • Suppressive Soils In some soils, pest (usually
    a pathogen) does not cause much damage.

4
BC type and three components
Conservation, Suppressive Soils
Cropping System
Natural Enemy
Classical
Augmentation
Inoculative, Competitive Exclusion
Pest Complex
5
Points on Inoculative vs. Inundative Releases
6
Points on NE Conservation
  • Judicious pesticide use
  • Reduce other mortality caused by other management
    activity
  • Control secondary enemies
  • Manipulate host plant attributes
  • Provide NEs ecological requirements
  • Genetic enhancement of NE

7
Points on Suppressive Soils
  • Factor responsible often not identified but is
    biological (lost on sterilization).
  • Have 3 main effects on plant pathogens
  • Pathogen may not persist
  • Pathogen establishes but doesnt cause disease
  • Initial disease declines with continued
    monoculture
  • Ways to Achieve Suppressive Soils
  • Soil amendments to alter microbial communities
  • Green manures for fungal pathogens
  • Adding chitin for nematode control
  • Crop rotations/intercropping Some crops
    encourage pest-antagonistic microflora.

8
Biocontrol Conclusion
  • Read to examples of biocontrols in the text
  • Evaluation of NE effectiveness
  • Necessary to use biocontrols in decisions
  • May be based on
  • Statistical correlations from field observations
  • Numerous types of controlled experimentations
  • Requires that NEs be monitored along with pest
    (cf. spider mite examples cited earlier)

9
Pesticides
10
Pesticides
  • Pesticides Defined Any substance or mixture of
    substances, intended for preventing, destroying,
    or mitigating any pest, or intended for use as a
    plant growth regulator, defoliant or desiccant.
    (FIFRA)
  • Technically includes biocontrols and plants bred
    for pest resistance. Common usage excludes these.

11
Pesticide Classification
  • Pesticides are commonly classified several ways
  • Chemical class -- Increasingly diverse
  • Target Organism
  • Mode of Action
  • Application timing or usage

12
Pesticides Classified by Target
13
Target classification may also specify growth
stages
  • Ovicides Eggs
  • Larvicides Larvae
  • Adulticides -- Adults

14
Mode of Action Examples
  • Broad Spectrum -- Kills broad range of pests,
    usually refers to insecticides, fungicides, and
    bactericides
  • Contact Poison -- Kills by contacting pest
  • Disinfectant (Eradicant) -- Effective against
    pathogen that has already infected the crop
  • Germination Inhibitor -- Inhibits germination of
    weed seeds, fungus spores, bacterial spores.
  • Nonselective -- Kills broad range of pests and/or
    crop plants, usually used in reference to
    herbicides
  • Nerve Poison -- Interferes with nervous system
    function
  • Protectants -- Protects crop if applied before
    pathogens infect the crop
  • Repellents -- Repels pest from crop or interferes
    with pests ability to locate crop
  • Systemic -- Absorbed and translocated throughout
    the plant to provide protection
  • Stomach Poison -- Kills after ingestion by an
    animal

15
Classification by Timing
  • Annual Crops
  • Seed Treatment -- Pesticide coats or is absorbed
    into the seed.
  • Pre-Plant -- Pesticide applied any time before
    planting
  • At-Planting -- Pesticide applied during the
    planting operation
  • In-Furrow -- In the planting row, direct contact
    with crop seed
  • Side-Dress -- Next to the row, no direct contact
    with crop seed
  • Broadcast -- Distributed over the soil surface.
  • Pre-Emergent -- Before the crop has emerged from
    the ground
  • Post-Emergent -- After the crop has emerged from
    the ground
  • Lay-By -- Final operation before harvest
    sequence
  • Perennial Crops
  • Dormant -- Applied during winter dormancy
  • Bud Break -- Applied as dormancy is broken
  • Harvest-Related Timing
  • Pre-Harvest -- Just before crop is harvested
  • Post-Harvest -- After crop is harvested

16
Benefits of Pesticides in IPM
  • Inexpensive
  • Greater control confidence
  • Effective and rapid
  • Therapeutic
  • Management efficiency
  • Can enable other management practices

17
Costs of Pesticides in IPM
  • Greater human health threat
  • Greater environmental cost
  • Detrimental effects on non-target species
  • Those useful in the CPS
  • Those useful outside the CPS
  • Those with no established uses
  • Interferes with other aspects of IPM
  • Secondary pests
  • Re-entry Intervals scouting
  • Limits other control options
  • Less sustainable

18
Role of Pesticides in IPM
  • Pest complex Some require pesticides
  • Multiple, simultaneous species in same group
  • At least one species that causes excessive damage
    at low density
  • Important species new/poorly understood
  • Key pest(s) lacking control alternatives
  • Key pest(s) especially vulnerable to pesticide
    placement/timing

19
Pesticide Strategy Vs. Tactic
  • As a group, pesticides may be therapeutic or
    preventative, broad or narrow spectrum, fast or
    slow acting, long or short lived, etc.
  • As individuals, each pesticide occupies one point
    on this multidimensional continuum.
  • The key is to consider each individual pesticide
    as a separate tactic in an overall IPM plan.

20
The Selectivity Concept
  • Key concept in pesticide usage in IPM
  • Pesticides often classified as selective or
    non-selective
  • Meaning of these terms in common usage is
    context-dependent (weeds vs. insects)
  • More formally, there are two types of selectivity
    Physiological and Ecological

21
Physiological Selectivity
  • Relative toxicity of pesticides under controlled
    application conditions
  • Species-specific susceptibility to a pesticide.
  • Measured as a ratio of LD50s of
    non-target/target species (cf. table handout)
  • Assumes all individuals species equally dosed.
  • Three general methods
  • Residues (cf. handout)
  • Topical application to individuals
  • Before/after assessment of field populations

22
Ecological Selectivity
  • Differential mortality based on pesticide use
  • Formulation (e.g. granules result in more
    mortality on soil pests than on foliar NEs)
  • Placement (e.g. spot sprays, seed treatments,
    wicks, in-furrow).
  • Timing (e.g. pre vs. post-emergent applications,
    diurnal timing for bees)
  • Dosage Reduced dosage usually used in
    conjunction with one of those above

23
Uses of Selectivity in IPM
  • Mammalian toxicity of decreasing significance
    except in urban/structural IPM
  • Insecticides Physiological selectivity favored
    (target non-target intermingled)
  • Herbicides Historically favored ecological
    selectivity
  • Bactericides/Fungicides Non-selective
    pesticides usually favored.

24
Types of Pesticides
  • Your book identifies two kinds (pp. 250 257)
  • Traditional Toxic Chemicals
  • Inorganic
  • Organic (Synthetic)
  • Biopesticides ( Biorational Pesticides)
  • Living Systems (Microbial pesticides)
  • Fermentation Products
  • Botanical Pesticides
  • Transgenic (Plant Incorporated Pesticides)
    cover under host plant resistance

25
What are Reduced Risk Pesticides?
  • Any pesticide that meets any of the following
    criteria
  • Reduce human health risk
  • Reduce risk to non-target organisms
  • Reduce environmental contamination
  • Enhance IPM adoption
  • All ingredients of a pesticide must meet these
    criteria
  • Can include traditional or biorational
  • Reduced risk pesticides have greatly reduced
    regulatory burdens incentive to manufacturers
    farmers

26
Growth in the use of Reduced Risk Pesticides in
California 1990 - 1998
Tons Applied (Thousands)
Acres Treated (Thousands)
27
Pay particular attention to the following
sections
  • An exam question is likely from each of these
  • Chemical Relationships pp 262 264
  • Modes of Action pp 264 266
  • Application Technology 270 280
  • Pesticide Label 303 - 306

28
Pesticide Interactions
  • Book has these three categories, mostly discussed
    as antagonistic interactions.
  • Formulation Incompatibility
  • Altered Crop Tolerance
  • Alteration of Efficacy

29
More Thoughts on Interactions
  • Additive Effects Most Common
  • Different pesticides with the same formulation
    but targeting different pests.
  • Synergistic Effects pesticides used in
    combination are more effective than when used
    alone Two types
  • Biochemical
  • Ecological
  • Antagonistic Interactions
  • Formulationbased Incompatibility
  • Biological Pesticide Antagonism

30
Resistance, Resurgence, and Replacement
  • Chapter 12 pp. 314 335
  • Three different ecological responses of pests to
    pesticides in this chapter
  • Resistance Pest susceptibility to pesticide
    decreases over time.
  • Resurgence Pest population increases
    dramatically following pesticide
  • Replacement One pest is replaced by another.
  • Well take them in reverse order

31
Pest Replacement
  • Mostly a problem with arthropods and weeds
  • Tends to be more reversible with arthropods
  • Note Fig. 12-7

32
Read Chapter 17 by Next Wednesday
  • Host-Plant Resistance and Other Genetic
    Manipulations of Crops and Pests
  • pp. 443 469
  • Do not confuse plant resistance to pests with
    pest resistance to pesticides. They are
    different.

33
Resurgence
  • Mostly documented with insect pests
  • Mostly associated with indirect, secondary/minor
    pests for several reasons.
  • Key pests are watched too closely to resurge
  • Direct pests are mainly late-season pests there
    isnt time to resurge
  • Pest must be held at least partially in check by
    some agent that is affected by the pesticide
  • Note Fig. 12-6 in book.

34
Pest Resurgence
Pest (8)
Natural Enemy
35
Pest Resurgence
Pest
Natural Enemy
36
Pest Resurgence
pest
pest
37
Pest Resurgence
Note 14 pests/leaf
38
Four processes contribute to resurgence
  • Reduced Biological Control (Secondary) most
    common with insects
  • Reduced Competition most common with weeds
    (mono vs. dicots)
  • Direct Stimulation of Pest usually due to
    sub-acute doses
  • Improved Crop Growth

39
Resistance
  • Mostly a problem with pesticides (so far) but
    applies to all management tactics. Ex
  • Biological Control Rabbits virus, Bt
  • Cultural Control corn rootworms rotation
  • Host Plant Resistance many examples
  • Most serious, general problem in IPM
  • Arises because all management actions are
    selection pressures
  • Problem is rapidly getting worse

40
(No Transcript)
41
Read about Kentuckys Herbicide Resistant Weeds
Here
42
Resistance is best understood as a process
Initially, a small proportion of population has a
resistant mechanism by chance.
43
The Resistance Process
These individuals survive at a higher rate than
others
44
Resistance as a process
Resistant individuals increase in frequency
45
Resistance as a process
Eventually, the pesticide or other management
tactic causes too little control to be effective.
46
The process has three general stages, each with
its own Management Strategy
Abandon Pesticide/Management Tactic
Manage or Reverse
Prevention
Need to monitor resistance
47
Impact of Resistance
  • Overall agricultural productivity (during build
    phase)
  • Increased pesticide usage
  • Increased damage
  • Environmental impact
  • Increased pesticide usage
  • Increased use of non-renewable resources
  • Increased acreage
  • Pest management flexibility
  • Loss of pesticide tactic
  • Constraint on new pesticides

48
Causes of Resistance
  • Independent of Pesticide
  • Genetic Factors
  • Ecological Factors
  • Severity of Selective Pressure

49
1. Genetic Causes of Resistance
  • Genetic Factors
  • Relative dominance More dominant is bad
  • Linkage to phenotype Fewer genes is bad
  • Initial resistant pop Prior exposure
  • Broad diversity diversity-maintenance
  • Low diversity associated with foreign pests
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Haplo-diploidy

50
2. Ecological Causes of Resistance
  • Population Isolation
  • More isolated develop resistance more rapidly
  • Less isolated allow resistance to spread more
    rapidly
  • Narrow host range more selective pressure
  • Intrinsic population factors
  • Voltinism
  • Generation time
  • Fecundity
  • Behavioral factors

51
3. Selection Pressure
  • Selective pressure is high if a low
    percentage of susceptibles survive to reproduce
  • Reduce pressure by (1) reduce dosage (2)
    reduce frequency
  • Site of action
  • Alternating modes of action reduces pressure
  • Spatial coverage reduce pressure by reducing
    coverage
  • Timing Using pesticides after reproduction
    reduces selective pressure

52
Resistance Categories
  • Resistance to individual pesticides
  • Delayed entrance of toxicant
  • Increased deactivation/decreased activation
  • Decreased sensitivity
  • Behavioral avoidance
  • Resistance to multiple pesticides
  • Cross-resistance class resistance
  • Multiple resistance
  • Multiplicate resistance

53
Resistance Management
  • Strategy
  • Saturation
  • Moderation
  • Multiple Attack
  • Tactics
  • Prevention
  • Reversal

54
Specific Tactics
  • Prevention
  • Use pesticides only as needed
  • Time/target applications precisely
  • Combine chemical non-chemical controls
  • Reversal
  • Cease use of pesticide causing resistance.
    Problems
  • Probably the preferred control
  • May be used for other pests
  • Area-wide enforcement usually necessary
  • Refugia
  • Use synergists
  • Genetically manipulate the pest population (Gene
    Driving)

55
Final Note
  • All management tactics are susceptible to
    resistance
  • Resistance best managed preventatively
  • Pest management needs to pay more attention to
    resistance management
  • Resistance management will become a greater part
    of pest management over the coming years

56
Host Plant Resistance in IPM
  • Your book uses the following approach
  • Host Plant Resistance (HPR) General Concepts
  • Conventional Plant Breeding
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Application of Pest Genetics in IPM
  • Our lecture will mostly concern additional
    material

57
HPR Defined
  • Any heritable characteristic that lessens the
    effect of pest attack.
  • Genetic crop and pest
  • Organismal concerned with effect
  • Biological plant-pest interactions
  • Economic Damage
  • System Traits may or may not be acceptable in a
    given CPS
  • Preference-based traits
  • Conflicting traits
  • Create other pest problems
  • Conflict with crop production/use/marketing

58
Characteristics of the Pest Complex
  • Damage Concentration Complex with most damage
    confined to a few pest species is a good
    candidate for HPR
  • Identifiable plant-pest dependency
  • No conflicting pests
  • Few direct pests (HPR will likely make product
    less usable)

59
Advantages/Disadvantages of HPR
  • Advantages See list pp 444 445
  • Disadvantages
  • Time required
  • Genetic Limitations
  • Pest Biotypes/Races
  • Conflicting Agronomic/Marketing Traits
  • Conflicting Pest Management Traits

60
HPR as an observed outcome
Pest
Cultivar
Genetics
Genetics
This is what we actually see
Injury or Density
Yield
61
HPR and the Injury Scale
  • True Resistance
  • Immunity often restricted to a specific race
  • Highly Resistant Relatively little injury
  • Low-Level Resistance Less injury than avg.
  • Susceptible About average injury
  • Highly Susceptible -- More than average
  • Partial Resistance High low-level
  • Note Susceptible does not mean defenseless,
    means average injury. Changes with change in
    prevailing cultivars.

62
HPR and the Yield Scale
  • Tolerance
  • Highly, Moderately Tolerant Intolerant, Highly
    Intolerant
  • Creates two problems
  • Pest builds up may cause other problems
  • Affected by many other factors (e.g. soil,
    nutrition, other pests) but the net effect cant
    be measured until harvest.

63
Apparent Resistance
  • Evasion Breaks synchrony between pest and crop
  • Escape Plant not attacked by pest for reasons
    other than the plant. E.g.
  • By chance
  • Geographical/meteorological barriers
  • These complicate resistance assessment

64
Factors that affect resistance expression
  • Physical Factors
  • Plant Nutrition
  • Biotic Factors
  • Plant factors
  • Pest factors
  • Biotype
  • Initial infestation level

65
HPR as a response by the pest
  • Antixenosis (non-preference) -- prevents pest
    from commencing attack. Two types
  • Chemical Allelochemicals are chemicals produced
    by one species (plant) to affect another species
    (pest).
  • Morphological can be very long lasting.
  • Antibiosis Interferes with pest attack once it
    begins.
  • Pest has reduced survival, fecundity,
    reproduction, etc.
  • Two types
  • Primary metabolite missing
  • Toxin

66
HPR as a phenotype category
  • Constitutive prepares defense as plant grows
  • Often associated with yield drag
  • Plants always commit a portion of photosynthate
    to defense
  • All target tissues must be defended
  • Several advantages
  • Young plants can be screened
  • Easier to assay
  • More dependable
  • Induced defense prepared when attack comes
  • Localized Hypersensitivity mostly with
    pathogens
  • Systemically Acquired Resistance (SAR)
  • Both have time lags can be overwhelmed by large
    initial pest population

67
Genetic Basis of HPR
  • Better understood for pathogens
  • Fewer control options
  • Effect of races more pronounced
  • Closer genetic association between pathogens
    plants
  • Horizontal vs. Vertical Resistance
  • Vertical based on one gene, gene for gene
    hypothesis
  • Horizontal based on gt1 gene, general
    resistance

68
Vertical All or None
69
Horizontal Resistance Graded with Rank Order
70
Vertical vs. Horizontal Resistance in IPM
  • Verticals advantages over horizontal
  • Amenable to simple, qualitative scouting methods
  • Easier to develop manipulate
  • Effectively resists initial attack vs. changing
    the rate of increase after attack
  • Verticals disadvantages relative to horizontal
  • May be too specific (single race)
  • May be overcome by pest more easily, this can
    happen quickly
  • From the pests perspective, these are phenotypes
  • Multiple vertical genes can be combined to give a
    synthetic horizontal cultivar Multilines
  • A single trait that is polygenetically determined
    may be overcome as easily as a monogenetic one.

71
Sources of Resistant Genes
  • Wild plants Most wild plants genetic systems
    are not well studied
  • Germplasm collections
  • Primitive (heirloom) cultivars Developed in
    thousands of years of selection
  • Tissue culture Captures somatal mutations
  • Induced mutations Limited success
  • Microbial sources
  • Rapid and straightforward
  • Preserves other agronomic traits

72
Gene Deployment Strategies
  • Objective of GDS is to prevent pest from
    overcoming the HPR mechanism
  • Sequential Release (Replacement) most common,
    least effective, several problems
  • Cultivar rotation
  • Geographic spacing older technique
  • Mosaic planting (some fields planted in one
    variety, other fields in other varieties)
  • Mixing cultivars in the same field. Two ways of
    doing this
  • Multilines -- mixtures of lines bred for
    phenotypic uniformity of agronomic traits
  • Mixtures -- mixtures of agronomically compatible
    cultivars with no additional breeding for
    phenotypic uniformity
  • Pyramiding/Stacking May be the best approach
    when applicable
  • Refugia

73
Special Case Bt Crops
Read this article for background
Toxic Crystal
Phase contrast of Bacillus thuringiensis. The
vegetative cells contain endospores (phase
bright) and crystals of an insecticidal protein
toxin (delta endotoxin). Most cells have lysed
and released the spores and toxin crystals (the
structures with a bipyramidal shape)
74
  • BT Mode of Action
  • Caterpillar consumes foliage with the protoxin
    and/or spore
  • Toxin activated by gut pH, binds to gut wall
    membrane, caterpillar stops feeding (minutes)
  • Gut wall breaks down, microflora invade body
    cavity, toxin disolves (hours)
  • Caterpillar dies from septicemia (1 2 days)

75
Different Bt strains produce different versions
of protoxin
76
Special Case Herbicide Resistant Crops
77
Bt and Herbicide Resistant Crop Prevalence in the
US, 2000
78
Herbicide Resistant Bt Crops Created the Same
Way
79
Benefits/Concerns Over HRC
  • Benefits
  • Simplifies weed management
  • Speeds adoption of reduced tillage systems
  • Overall reduction in pest losses
  • Concerns
  • Will eventually create herbicide-resistant weeds
  • Unknown pleiotropic effects
  • Regulatory/marketing issues
  • Over-reliance on them will prematurely end their
    usefulness

80
Using HPR in IPM
  • As a stand-alone tactic
  • Objective is to preserve the resistance emphasis
    on deployment strategy
  • Integrated with other tactics
  • Crop rotation if HRCs are used, must rotate
    both for pest and herbicide type.
  • Pesticides Emphasize measures to prevent
    pesticide resistance (lower doses, frequency)
  • Biological control Conflicts do occur
  • Action Thresholds Whenever there is significant,
    cultivar-specific variation in yield response to
    a pest, action thresholds should be re-examined

81
Behavioral Control
  • Your Text Follows This Outline
  • Vision-based tactics
  • Auditory-based tactics
  • Olfaction-based tactics
  • Food-based tactics
  • Lecture Will Follow This Outline
  • Behavior modifiers
  • Mating disruption
  • Genetic manipulations

82
Behavior Modifiers
  • Most insect behavior modifiers are chemical
  • Semiochemicals Facilitate communication between
    individuals
  • Pheromones within a species
  • Allelochemicals Between species
  • Allomones Producer benefits, receiver does not
  • Kairomones Receiver benefits, producer does not

See book discussion, pp 379 382. Pay
particular attention to the pheromone types.
83
Pheromone Usage
  • Sex pheromones most widely used in IPM
  • Relatively simple chemistry enables synthetic
    versions.
  • Three main uses in IPM
  • Monitoring one sex
  • Mass trapping sexually active adults
  • Interfering with mating
  • A few Anti-pheromones are now available.
    Future use unknown. Heres an example.

84
Pheromone Disperser Examples
Plastic Spiral
Card style
Cable/Twist Tie
Rubber septum (with holder)
85
Kairomone Usage
  • Most are attractants used as baits to attract
    pests to traps or bait stations. Examples
  • Curbitacin cucumber beetles
  • CO2 and mosquitoes
  • Protein hydrolysates and fruit flies
  • Normally attract both males females
  • Attracticide lure mixed with toxin

86
Allomone Usage
  • Mostly used as repellents
  • DEET
  • Neem extracts
  • Many are experimental their use is still only a
    promise
  • Plant attractants for biocontrol agents
  • Feeding deterrents
  • All have short residual activities

87
Mating Disruption
  • Floods area with sex pheromones (cf. Fig. 14-6,
    p. 387). Also known as pheromone inundation
    air permeation
  • Application may be via recoverable or
    non-recoverable methods
  • Problem Sex pheromones mostly used with species
    that have high mobility.
  • Requires large area coordination
  • Many site-based characteristics affect result

88
Genetic Controls
  • Four categories
  • Sterilization Mass release of sterilized
    individuals
  • Conditional Lethal Releases Released
    individuals carry lethal genes
  • Hybrid sterility Progeny will be non-viable
  • Other To be developed

89
1. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)
  • Steps 1. Mass rear pest, 2. Sterilize males, 3.
    Flood area with these males, 4. Females will
    mostly mate with sterile males
  • Uses one of two sterilization techniques
  • Nuclear
  • Chemical
  • Many successes
  • Most famous application was the screwworm
    eradication.

90
Progression of Screwworm Eradication
91
Requirements for SIT
  • Works best on population with low fecundity
  • Five Conditions
  • Must be able to treat entire population
  • Sterilization cannot debilitate males
  • Releases must mix sterile males well
  • Females should only mate once
  • Must sustain high ratio of sterilewild males

92
2. Conditional Lethal Release
  • Release individuals that have a gene that proves
    fatal under specific conditions
  • Main paper here
  • Advantages over SIT
  • Can release both males females
  • May require fewer released individuals
  • Can insert a wide variety of genes
  • Disadvantage Requires several pest generations
    before lethal condition

93
3. Hybrid Sterility
  • Males Females of different strains can produce
    non-viable offspring
  • Incompatible strains can be generated through
    several ways
  • Direct genetic manipulation (Transposable
    Elements)
  • Microbially-mediated (Cytoplasmic Incompatibility)

94
Example Wolbachia in lower flies
95
Physical Mechanical Tactics
  • Main Categories
  • Environmental Modification
  • Physical Exclusion
  • Direct control of pest individuals

These tend to be used in special situations such
as structural IPM or with special types of pests
such as vertebrates.
96
Environmental Modifications in Structures
  • Eliminate conditions conducive to a pest
    infestation will reduce pest attractions to a
    particular area.
  • These include
  • Removing the breeding source if possible,
  • Eliminating moisture conditions,
  • Eliminating harborages,
  • Cutting back shrubs and tree limbs next to
    buildings,
  • Using proper lighting (light management) to draw
    night flying insects away from the property.

97
Environmental Modification Categories
  • Temperature often used for stored products
  • Heat
  • Cold
  • Water
  • Flooding
  • Dessication Very important in greenhouses
  • Irrigation
  • Light
  • Mulches
  • (two kinds)

Flame weeders
Inorganic mulches were never living. Gravel,
rock, plastic, landscape fabric, etc.
Organic mulches were recently living tissue
98
Exclusion Used 4 Ways
Note Exclusion is very often associated with
structural pest management
  • Used to keep pests from entering an area or
    building
  • Limit movement within an area
  • Isolating a recurring pest problem (e.g. entrance
    or doorway)
  • Isolating a highly sensitive area (e.g. operating
    room).

99
Exclusion in Structures
  • Doors fit seal, windows screened, both kept
    shut.
  • Caulking other sealants used at
  • Utility entrances (plumbing, electrical, sewer)
  • Exterior (wood trim, brick mortar, foundation
    cracks crevices).
  • Isolation of deliveries waste.

100
Birds in structures are often managed via
exclusion
101
Physical Exclusion in Fields
  • Barriers Effectiveness varies by pest
  • Mollusks
  • Arthropods
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Traps
  • Weeds
  • Arthropods
  • Vertebrates

102
Barrier Examples
Netting and screens are often used as an insect
barrier
Floating row covers on cabbage protecting against
cabbage butterflies
Slugs wont cross copper
103
Trap Examples -- Click on picture for more detail
Numerous live traps for vertebrates can be found
here
Slug trap
Pathogen trap for use in greenhouses or
irrigation water
104
Physical Controls in Structures
Using energy factors in the environment such as
heat, cold, light, sound, x-rays, infrared rays,
etc., to kill pests or attract them to a killing
mechanism
  • Thermal Controls (heat and cold treatment)
  • Electrocution (zappers)
  • Microwave suspect materials

105
Direct Control
Removing pests by hand or using mechanical
devices to trap, kill, or keep out individuals
  • Hand picking, killing individually
  • Some Traps
  • Vacuums
  • Hoeing
  • Shooting -- Most effective when limited to
    females.

106
Hand Picking Examples
Slug Picker
Arthropod Vacuum
Swatter
107
Other Direct Control Examples
Tractor-mounted field vacuum for vacuuming
arthropods. Note this vacuums all arthropods,
good bad.
Direct control through shooting has become a
specialized sport Varmint Hunting, with
specialized equipment emphasizing small caliber,
long range and high velocity.
108
In Structures, Direct Control Using Traps Often
Relies on Effective Trap Placement
  • Place close to walls, behind objects in dark
    corners, wherever pest activity seen.
  • Place them so that pests following normal travel
    (usually close to a wall) will pass directly over
    the trigger.
  • Leave traps untriggered until the bait has been
    taken at least once prevents rats or mice
    becoming trap-shy.
  • Baits compete with other food sources.

109
Problems with Physical and Mechanical Control
  • Generally more practical in small areas than
    large ones.
  • Labor intensive
  • Cumbersome (e.g. must remember where traps are
    located service them)
  • Inefficient (removes only a small portion of pest
    population)
  • Often viewed as inhumane
  • Many of these tactics (e.g. traps) are more
    useful as a monitoring procedure.

110
Comparison of Physical Mechanical Methods
111
Pest Invasions and Legislative Prevention
  • The main sections of this chapter
  • Invasion and introduction mechanisms
  • Regulatory premise
  • Pest risk assessment
  • Exclusion early detection
  • Containment, control, eradication

112
Invasion Mechanisms -- Intentional
  • New crop plants
  • New ornamental plants
  • New animal food sources
  • Erosion control
  • Biological control
  • Misguided or lack of knowledge
  • Discarding unwanted organisms
  • Malicious intent

113
Invasion Mechanisms -- Accidental
  • Produce or human food
  • Contaminant of crop seeds/planting stock
  • Contaminant of feed for animals
  • On or in live animals
  • Contaminated soil
  • Irrigation water
  • Transportation vehicles
  • Farm machinery
  • Military activity

114
Basic Concepts of Regulatory Control
  • Main premise All of the previous mechanisms are
    a result of human behavior. Laws modify that.
  • It is almost all preventative
  • Regulatory Control Defined All forms of
    legislation and regulation that may prevent the
    establishment or slow the spread of a pest
    population.

115
Regulated Pests
  • Regulated Pest One official control and thus
    specifically identified, in laws or in
    regulations, whose establishment, propagation, or
    movement is facilitated by human actions which
    are therefore prohibited or outlawed.
  • Two Kinds of Regulated Pests
  • Quarantine Pest Not present in the regulated
    area
  • Regulated Non-Quarantine Pest One whose
    presence/occurrence is regulated.

116
Quarantine Pest Vs the Regulated Non-Quarantine
Pest
  • QP is controlled only via quarantine, RNQP may be
    controlled in any manner
  • QP is absent, focus is on preventing entry RNQP
    is present, focus on other objectives
  • Economic impact of QP unknown RNQP has a known
    economic impact
  • For QP, object of control is anything RNQP it is
    mainly hosts, host production, storage/shipping,
    or pests themselves.

117
Major Laws
  • Emphasize the regulations laws sections on pp.
    230 232. Be especially familiar with federal
    laws (pp. 231 232)
  • State Regulations are often modeled after generic
    versions by the National Plant Board
  • Example of a state quarantine Sudden Oak Death
    in Kentucky

118
Regulatory Tactics 4 Categories
  • Prevention of Entry
  • Eradication 2 steps
  • Domestic Quarantine
  • Eradication
  • Retardation Often used when eradication fails
  • Mitigation of Losses

119
Quarantine as a Regulatory Technique
  • Inspections Intensity of inspection dictated by
    level of Pest Risk (cf. pp 232 233)
  • Point-of-Origin (Phytosanitary Certificate)
  • Point-of-Entry
  • Field Inspections
  • Regional Inspections Surveys
  • Quarantine Effectiveness
  • considered a temporary control
  • Eradication planning is always part of a
    quarantine

120
Quarantine continued
  • Quarantine Costs Inspection, compliance,
    eradication
  • Quarantine Value
  • Buy time for eradication/control development
  • Keep initial pest populations small
  • Restricts biotypes of initial populations
  • Responses to intercepted pests Costs borne by
    owner
  • Goods returned
  • Goods destroyed
  • Goods may be held in isolation for confirmation
  • Goods may be treated (usually fumigation)

121
Quarantine Examples
  • Citrus Canker in Florida Spatio-temporal map
    shows the quarantine is a losing battle
  • Golden Nematode in NY Quarantined successfully
    since before WWII
  • Mediterranean Fruit Fly On-going battle

122
Eradication
  • May be primary or secondary to quarantine
  • Secondary to Quarantine. Eradication backs up a
    quarantine. Requires
  • Pest detection at low levels
  • Ability to mobilize quickly
  • Controls must be effective used excessively
  • Reintroduction is barred
  • Example Mediterranean Fruit Fly

123
Primary Eradication
  • Quarantine backs up eradication effort
  • Target is already well established (or native)
  • Quarantine is always domestic, often multiple
    simultaneous quarantines (different
    jurisdictions)
  • Must be able to establish a moving quarantine
  • Must be able to tell with certainty when a pest
    has been eradicated from an area

124
Eradication Pros
  • Once the pest is gone, no more costs
  • Long term avoidance of adverse effects of pest
    management actions
  • Eradication of a key pest may also eliminate
    other pests (e.g. secondary pests)
  • Eradication of key pests makes non-chemical
    control of other pests more feasible
  • New technologies make eradication more feasible

125
Eradication Cons
  • Low chance of success, most successes have been
    with eradication as secondary to quarantine
  • Incurs exceptionally high environmental impact
  • Removal of a pest has unpredictable impact on
    system

126
Additional Regulatory Tools
  • Control Districts
  • Enforced Crop Production Rules
  • Licensing and Certification
  • GMO-related

127
Control Districts
  • A jurisdictional area such as a county or group
    of counties, specifically identified as a
    district in which the presence of a certain pest
    is prohibited or controlled through a public
    agency. Most common types
  • Plant control landowners responsible for
    control subject to fine.
  • Mosquito Public agency has the right to
    implement control on private land

128
Enforced Crop Production Rules
  • IPM techniques is that are required by statute or
    ordinance, imposed on all growers in a given
    area, and enforced, usually by penalty. Major
    types
  • Crop or Host-Free Periods
  • Planting Date Restrictions
  • Cultivar Restrictions
  • Compulsory Sanitation Measures

129
Licensing and Certification
  • Ensures that infested or contaminated material is
    not transported, sold commercially, or used as
    breeding stock.
  • Seed Stock Certification (domestic)
  • Certification for Export Markets

130
GMO-Related Regulation
  • FDA, EPA USDA are principal GMO regulatory
    bodies in the US
  • FDA Regulates food crops if they contain
  • Something new to the human diet
  • Something that warrants suspicion (e.g. a toxin)
  • EPA Regulates crops containing pesticides
  • USDA mostly regulate crop development, testing,
    and release. If crop contains pesticides, USDA
    EPA jointly regulate.

Crop Use
Crop Production
131
IPM Implementation
  • Chapter 19 Societal and Environmental
    Limitations to IPM Tactics
  • Societal constraints and public attitudes
  • Environmental issues
  • Chapter 18 IPM Programs Development and
    Implementation
  • Chapter 20 IPM into the Future

132
Societal Limitations
  • Society places limits on pest management
    techniques because of risk perception
  • Limits often increase producer costs
  • Society must reimburse producers or must export
    risks to other societies
  • If producers are reimbursed, they will adopt IPM
  • How much is society willing to pay for IPM? See
    fs897

133
If Society is willing to pay more, farmers will
provide IPM products
IPM-Labeled Sweet Corn in NY. Labeling is by
Elements.
Source http//www.nysipm.cornell.edu/labeling/lab
el2.html
134
Many think that the key is in IPM Labeling and
Marketing
  • Labeling on a large scale began in NY.
  • National effort is now underway through the IPM
    Institute
  • Set Standards
  • Certification Program

135
IPM Programs Development and Implementation
  • IPM Revisited
  • IPM Program Development
  • IPM Program Implementation
  • Examples of programs will be presented over the
    four subsequent lectures.

136
Point of IPM Programs Adoption
  • Factors affecting IPM Adoption
  • Expected profitability
  • Risk
  • Required skill level or education
  • Scale or size of farm
  • Alternative or competing technologies
  • Enterprise specialization
  • Information sources
  • Credit availability (if substantial expenses
    involved)
  • Tenure or farmers experience
  • Environmental/regulatory policies

137
Example Size or Scale of farm
Source http//www.aftresearch.org/ipm/symposium/2
6
138
Size of Farm Continued Insecticide Use by MA
Apple Growers, 1995
139
Adoption factors vary by crop and rationale
Sourece http//www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/ipm_projec
ts/education/assessing_grower_adoption.html
140
IPM is Implemented by the IPM Program
  • IPM Program defined (1) An organization
    dedicated to implementing IPM in a specific crop
    or set of crops (2) The collective activities of
    such an organization.
  • Collective Activities include
  • Developing strategies
  • Education of various individuals
  • Assisting in implementing specific aspects of IPM
    (e.g. monitoring efforts)
  • Providing specific IPM-related services (e.g.
    forecasting)
  • Conducting any IPM-related research or
    demonstration
  • Other activities (e.g. certification testing)

141
IPM Program Components
  • Pest Identification
  • Management strategy couched in the crop context
  • Pest monitoring
  • Decision criteria for selecting tactics
  • Record keeping
  • Evaluation of tactics (post treatment),
    strategies, and overall program

142
Programs themselves are highly specific
  • See Program examples on pp. 484 493
  • Lessons learned from the term paper
  • Review the KY IPM program website
  • For class on Monday
  • Review blue books
  • Come prepared to participate in discussion of the
    KY IPM Program
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