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The First People

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Stone tools are found in hominid sites starting a million years ago. The Paleolithic period, or Old Stone Age ... Europe in the Stone Age: Hunters and Artists ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The First People


1
The First People
  • Early Hominids lived in bands of about 30 adults
    and their young
  • The members of these bands lived cooperatively,
    sharing food
  • The First Families
  • Only humans developed communities based on the
    nuclear family
  • Families were characterized by permanent
    male-female bonds
  • Men hunted larger animals
  • Women gathered other forms of food and cared for
    the children
  • These early societies practiced exogamy
  • Marriage outside the immediate group
  • This practice formed bonds between different
    family groups

2
Living Conditions and Technology
  • The Control of Fire
  • Enabled the defending caves and other locales for
    use as base camps
  • Meat could be cooked, increasing nutrition
  • Stone tools are found in hominid sites starting a
    million years ago
  • The Paleolithic period, or Old Stone Age
  • Australopithicus and Homo erectus made simple
    pebble tools
  • Homo erectus gradually developed hand axes
  • The spread of hand axe technology demonstrates
    human ability to disseminate ideas

3
Living Conditions and Technology (cont.)
  • Neanderthal people developed very sophisticated
    tools made by flaking flint
  • These tools could be used to scrape hides and
    create clothing
  • Homo sapiens produced varied and sophisticated
    tool kits containing
  • Scrapers
  • Chisels
  • Knives
  • Burins
  • They used these tools to work hides, ivory, bone
    and wood
  • They created spear tips, needles and fishing hooks

4
Europe in the Stone Age Hunters and Artists
  • Human beings are characterized by the symbolic
    and artistic
  • Neanderthals are known to have buried their dead
  • Early Homo Sapiens produced compelling forms of
    art
  • Cave Painting
  • Works at Chauvet and Lascaux date to around
    20,000 years ago
  • Startling lifelike images of the animals in the
    artists world
  • Scholars do not know the purpose of this artwork
  • Paleolithic people also carved statuettes from
    wood and bone
  • Some of the carvings represent animals
  • Other works are stylized representations of
    humans
  • The Venus of Willendorf

5
The Hall of the Bulls
6
The Venus of Willendorf
7
The Neolithic Revolution
  • At the end of the last Ice Age around 11,000
    years ago, climate changed.
  • Paleolithic humans began to change their way of
    life
  • The Neolithic Revolution
  • The shift from hunting and gathering to farming
  • Changes took place gradually between 7000-4000
    B.C.
  • Permanent communities and social changes happened
    only slowly

8
The Neolithic Revolution, (cont.)
  • These changes occurred in many places around the
    globe
  • Northeastern China along the Yellow River
  • Domestication of pigs and millet
  • Western Africa
  • Domestication of yams and sorghum
  • Central and South America
  • Domestication of corn, squash, and beans
  • The Near East
  • People domesticated many crops
  • The First Cities developed

9
Early Near Eastern Permanent Communities
  • Jericho founded between 8 and 7000 B.C. in
    Palestine
  • Population of around 3000 people
  • Round houses of stone and mud
  • Large Temple-like structure and defensive walls
  • Catal Hüyük, in Anatolia, founded between 6400
    and 5600 B.C.
  • The residents domesticated sheep
  • They cultivated lentils, peas, barley, and wheat
  • In Europe, civilization developed more slowly
  • The Iceman, or Homo tyrolensis

10
Neolithic Society was characterized by a number
of things including
  • An increase in the efficiency of food production
  • This allowed an increase in population size and
    density
  • It also enable Neolithic communities to support
    skilled craftsmen like potters and smiths
  • With cultivation of permanent farms and the
    production of surpluses came the concept of
    property ownership

11
Neolithic Society was characterized by a number
of things including (cont.)
  • Differential accumulation of property and goods
    created varying economic status within the
    communities
  • Surpluses also enabled the beginnings of regular
    trade in such items as obsidian, salt, amber, and
    more
  • As society became more complex, it developed more
    of the characteristics we used to define
    civilization. Including, eventually, systems of
    written communication
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