Ecological Footprints - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Ecological Footprints PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6d3fb-YjA0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Ecological Footprints

Description:

Ecological Footprints – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1128
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 44
Provided by: clark4
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Ecological Footprints


1
Ecological Footprints
http//www.newsociety.com/titleimages/086571312Xcf
3.jpg
2
We Depend on Nature
  • We exchange energy and matter with our
    environment
  • Eating
  • Drinking
  • Breathing
  • We use
  • Energy for heat and mobility
  • Wood for housing and paper
  • Food and water for living

http//www.finfacts.com/irelandbusinessnews/upload
s/rfsept142007.jpg
3
We Depend on Nature
  • Nature
  • Absorbs our wastes
  • Provides climate stability
  • Protects us from ultraviolet radiation
  • the very source of our lives and well being

http//www.travelblog.org/Photos/594340.html
4
Ecological Footprints
  • The amount of ecologically productive land
  • used by individuals, cities, countries, etc.
  • Production and use of goods and services involve
    land use
  • Therefore have ecological footprints

http//www.nrc.com/images/residential.tract.close.
png
5
Ecological Footprints
World at night from orbit
  • An ecological camera
  • takes a snapshot of our current demands on nature

http//geology.com/articles/night-satellite/satell
ite-view-of-earth-at-night-750.jpg
6
Ecological Footprints
  • Energy Land
  • Fossil energy consumption requires Co2 sink

http//www.mongabay.com/images/rainforests/world-r
ainforest-map-sm.jpg
7
Ecological Footprints
  • Consumed Land
  • Built environment

http//www.tonysfleet.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/
09/chicago_skyline.jpg
http//www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/images/content
/94826main_reg_eastt.jpg
8
Ecological Footprints
  • Farm Land
  • Food production

http//www.iptv.org/iowapathways/images/a_000089_l
arge.jpg
http//earthtrends.wri.org/images/maps/2-5-8_m_AgU
sea_lg.gif
9
Ecological Footprints
  • Forest Land
  • forest products

http//serc.carleton.edu/images/research_education
/nativelands/nezperce/logging.jpg
http//www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/images/Fo
restCover.jpg
10
Transportation Footprints
  • If one person travels 5 kilometers twice each
    workday
  • Bicycle 122 sq meters
  • Buses 301 sq meters
  • Cars 1,442 sq meters

http//www.abc.net.au/reslib/200706/r153015_548364
.jpg
11
Agricultural Footprints
  • Open Field production of tomatoes
  • takes up more land than greenhouse production
  • But Greenhouse production has a much larger
    ecological footprint (10-20x)
  • Energy
  • Fertilizer
  • Other inputs

http//holland-greenhouses.com/images/070330-GREEN
HOUSE-TOMATOES.jpg
12
Urban Footprints
  • Imagine New York City
  • covered by a bubble like Biosphere II in Arizona
  • Most people would die
  • within a few days
  • Cities depend on huge amount of land and
    environment
  • For food
  • For water
  • For energy
  • For oxygen

http//antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap970408.html
13
Urban Footprints
  • Now imagine how big that bubble would have to be
  • for the city to be self-sustaining
  • This is the ecological footprint of the city
  • Actually 347,000 square miles
  • to support 20 million in U.S. lifestyle
  • size of Texas and Oklahoma combined.

New York City
http//geology.com/satellite/cities/new-york-city-
satellite-image.jpg
14
National Footprints
  • Holland population 15 million
  • Density 4.4 People per Hectare
  • Consumption is less than in U.S.
  • Still, Dutch people require 15x more land than is
    within their country for
  • Food
  • Forest Products
  • Energy Use
  • The ecosystems that support Holland
  • lie far beyond their national borders

Edam, Holland
http//www.adacartianu.com/passionofart/images/145
0_11_8---Canal--Edam--Holland_web.jpg
15
National Footprints
  • In U.S. each person uses about 4.5
    hectares/person
  • Worldwide average 1.5 hectares/person
  • If everybody were to adopt the U.S. consumptive
    style
  • we would need 3 planets

http//spiritualoasis.files.wordpress.com/2006/10/
earth-from-space-western.jpg
16
Moral Issue
  • Is it fair that the U.S. ecological footprint is
    3X that of the world average?

http//earthtrends.wri.org/images/commodity_consum
ption.jpg
17
Iowa Footprint
  • Iowa Population is 2,776,000
  • U.S. average footprint is 4.5 hectares/person
  • Iowans need 12.5 million hectares of average land
  • to support themselves
  • Iowa area is 14.5 million hectares
  • Iowans can support at least another 444,000
    Americans

http//www.fbinaa.org/images/State20Capitol.jpg
18
Inequity
  • We all compete for ecologically overloaded world
  • Excess consumption by affluent countries
  • takes up ecological footprint that would be used
    by poorer nations

http//www.thesavvytraveller.com/agraphics/insight
s/geography/1general/photoessays/dalusio_menzel/ma
terial_world.jpg
19
Resource Distribution
  • Wealthiest 25 of the world
  • uses 75 of the worlds resources
  • If four people landed on an island
  • could divide the land up into 4 equal sections,
  • trade goods.
  • Is it fair if one of those people claims ¾ of the
    land
  • forcing the other 3 to live off of ¼ of the land?

http//www.dvdtown.com/images/displayimage.php?id
8073
20
Inequity
First World
Wealth
Food, Resources
Third World
21
Can everyone live like we do?
  • No. There is not enough earth to support it
  • Thus all poor countries cannot follow the miracle
    of developed countries
  • Someone must bear the ecological burden
  • of consumption by the affluent
  • Our continued over-consumption
  • hits the poor hardest

http//www.mtv.com/shared/promoimages/games/tanzan
ia/children.jpg
22
Material Inequity
  • Footprints show material inequity
  • Footprints show us how much we must
  • reduce our consumption
  • improve technology
  • change behavior to be sustainable

Hybrid car
http//www.worldproutassembly.org/images/hybrid-ca
r-hyper.jpg
23
Sustainability
  • Footprint assumption
  • we must live within global carrying capacity
  • Number of people the earth can sustain
  • If we choose wisely
  • may increase quality of life
  • Concerned
  • our life now is destructive
  • Sooner we start moving toward sustainability
  • easier it will be for humanity

http//space.alglobus.net/Basics/whyImages/earthFr
omSpace.gif
24
Science Objection
  • Footprint Analysis is a crude simplification
  • Interactions with nature are complex
  • Cant reduce such complexity to a mater of
    hectares

Amazon deforestation
http//www.blog.thesietch.org/wp-content/uploads/2
007/10/amazon_deforestation.thumbnail.jpg
25
Answer to Science Objection
  • Footprint analysis may not tell whole story
  • Is good enough to show us what must be done
  • Footprints may underestimate impact of humans on
    environment

http//members.cox.net/mkpl/interchange/4lvl_mg.jp
g
26
Marketplace Objection
  • Global income is rising faster
  • than human population
  • Agricultural production is responding
  • to growing demand
  • Environmental problems
  • Are due to poorly defined property rights or
    prices
  • If prices right
  • market will solve problems

27
Answer to Marketplace Objection
  • Yes, when nature is undervalued
  • it gets used and abused
  • Pollution and depletion charges
  • can be useful to reduce environmental damage
  • Require Government Intervention
  • Footprint analysis may help determine true costs

http//kassandraproject.files.wordpress.com/2007/1
2/air-pollution-systems.jpg
28
Answer to Marketplace Objection
  • Not everything in nature should be privatized or
    priced
  • Stable Climate?
  • Safe Ozone Level?
  • Liquidation of our natural capital
  • Produces much of our current income
  • Unsustainable

2006 ozone hole caused by pollution of
chlorinated compounds
http//ipy.nasa.gov/multimedia/m000000/m000000/m00
0001/160657main_OZONE_large_web.png
29
Natural Capital Forests
http//www.iisd.org/wcfsd/worldmap.jpg
30
Natural Capital Soils
http//www.povertymap.net/mapsgraphics/index.cfm?d
ata_id23360theme
31
Free Trade Objection
  • Trade is beneficial
  • has improved standard of living
  • Comparative advantage
  • people in different parts of the world should do
    what they do best
  • Coffee and bananas from developing countries
  • Computers from developed countries
  • More economically efficient to do what is more
    ecologically efficient
  • Grow tomatoes in Mexico rather than in
    greenhouses in Canada

http//www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/yourbusiness/stor
ies/banana/banna.pics/banana.worker.jpg
32
Answer to Free Trade Objection
  • Footprint analysis looks at Ecological flow
  • Not financial flow
  • Hong Kong, Switzerland, Japan
  • provide little ecological productivity to the
    world
  • draw a lot.
  • Not everybody can be a net importer

Hong Kong
http//www.freewebs.com/vm4hk/victoria-peak-hong-k
ong-big.jpg
33
Answer to Free Trade Objection
  • Expanding economy
  • stimulates depletion of planets natural
    resources
  • People using Footprint resources far from home
  • have no incentive to conserve them

Indonesian Oil Palm Plantation
34
Answer to Free Trade Objection
  • Intensive production methods
  • accelerate depletion and pollution
  • Economic benefits of intensive production
  • are not equitably distributed
  • Those who need income
  • displaced from land
  • Profits from intensive Ag
  • go to those already well off.

http//www.ethicurean.com/wp-content/uploads/image
/cornfield_iStock.jpg
35
Answer to Free Trade Objection
  • Global economy is pressing ecological limits
  • Poverty still affects 1 billion people
  • Need world trade that
  • Encourages rehabilitation of natural capital
  • Directs benefits of export activities to those
    who need them

Tea Plantation, India
http//en.epochtimes.com/news_images/2007-3-28-ind
ian-tea-plantation-worker.jpg
36
Technology Fix Objection
  • For hundreds of years people have worried
  • that we would run out of resources
  • Technological revolution has increased abundance
  • and lowered prices of goods and services
  • Thus one farmer produces more than 200 farmers
    did 200 years ago

37
Technology Fix Objection
  • Millions in N. America better off than kings and
    queens in past due to technology
  • Live more comfortably
  • Are healthier
  • Feel more secure
  • Eat better

http//www.thesavvytraveller.com/agraphics/insight
s/geography/1general/photoessays/dalusio_menzel/ma
terial_world.jpg
38
Technology Fix Objection
  • Computer revolution could not be predicted
  • We cant anticipate future benefits of genetic
    engineering
  • When people faced with a problem they come up
    with a solution
  • Medicine
  • Transportation
  • Communication
  • We can fix any problem in the future

http//wwwdata.forestry.oregonstate.edu/orb/images
/Marketing/TIME.jpg
39
Answer to Technology Fix Objection
  • Technology will play a role
  • in making society more sustainable
  • If global economy to be 10x the size of today
  • we need technology that makes us 10x more
    resource efficient
  • Solar water heaters and insulation
  • reduce our footprints and maintain standard of
    living

40
Answer to Technology Fix Objection
  • Some technologies substitute natural capital for
    labor
  • Intensive Agriculture
  • Gains in technology can encourage consumption
  • Efficient cars just used more frequently!
  • Despite efficiency gains, energy consumption has
    increased

http//newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/44224000/gif
/_44224025_global_energy_gr416.gif
41
Energy Production Objection
  • Energy is driving force of human enterprise
  • With enough energy we can do anything
  • Clean up environment
  • Irrigate Deserts
  • Build fast transportation networks
  • Power highly productive greenhouses
  • Soon we will have unlimited energy sources
  • Fusion, Fission
  • Tidal, Solar

http//www.atomicarchive.com/History/coldwar/image
s/tmi.jpg
42
Answer to Energy Production Objection
  • Sun
  • 175,000 terawatts shine on earth
  • Fossil fuels use
  • 10 terawatts
  • Imagine impact
  • of unlimited energy supply
  • Weve run down planet
  • with just 10 terawatts
  • Extended human activities
  • may produce new limiting factor Waste
    Assimilation
  • Moving toward solar energy good
  • would reduce our footprint

http//stardate.org/images/gallery/sun5.jpg
43
What Should We Do?
  • I asked the author of this book
  • what kind of technology research he thought the
    universities should be doing
  • Answer
  • Research to help us reduce our ecological
    footprint without reducing our standard of
    living
  • sustainability
About PowerShow.com