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T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST 201 Survey of Western Civilization I


'Dark Ages' 476/565 800 1300 1453/1492. Early MA High MA Late MA. Americas ... Not really the 'Dark Ages' Romanic arch. Gothic architecture. Anglo-Norman ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST 201 Survey of Western Civilization I

T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f
R o m e HST 201 - Survey of Western
Civilization I
Session 12 Diversity in Cultural
Traditions Three Cultural Trends into the core
of the Middle Ages But before, some more of pe
Notes Vuk and Tess, please send me Word docum
ents that I can read Class on Monday will sta
rt at 11.00am (till 12.15)
Peter Brown, 2003, A Life of Learning, Charles
Homer Haskins Lecture for 2003, p.9The study
of religious experience divorced from a precise
social context has always struck me as a
singularly weightless exercise. A history of the
rise of Christianity that is not rooted in a
precise and up to-date history of the social,
economic and cultural circumstances of the later
empire and the early middle ages is, quite
simply, not a history."
Why is p important? Why do we need manageable
chunks if history is a seamless web?How does
it help us in our day-to-day discussions on
politics and international relations?
Bentley (Cross-Cultural Interaction and
Periodization in World History, The American
Historical Review, Vol. 101, No. 3 (Jun., 1996),
pp. 749-770) P schemes based on the experienc
es of Western or any other case hardly explain
the trajectories of other societies
Different peoples are involved in diverse scal
e processes to different degrees, so global p are
approximate Alternatives sensitive to local
experiences as Brown's concept of Late
Antiquity (150-750) and splitting the Roman
empire, has great power to understand
historical development in the M basin and SW
Asia, even if it does not resonate on a
hemispheric scale.
Bentley (cont.) Cross-cultural factors affecti
ng boundaries and regions mass migrations,
imperial expansion, and long-distance trade.
Bentley proposes a post-classical age (500-100
0 C.E.) an age of transregional nomadic empires
(1000-1500 C.E.). The perspective changes Th
ree states, Tang, Abbasid, and Byzantine
maintained order over large territories,
sponsoring powerful economies. Trade imperial
expansion encouraged cross-cultural interaction
stability in a very large region encouraged
merchants to revive the caravan trading network
of the silk roads. Then Seljuk Turks built an
empire extending from Central Asia into SW Asia
and Anatolia the Khitan and the Jurchen people
established an empires in the steppelands north
of China.The most dramatic event the Mongols and
their allies overran most of Eurasia and
established the largest empire in human history,
stretching from China, Manchuria, and Korea in
the east to Russia and the Danube in the west
diplomatic relations with the west.
The Middle Ages the events
476/565 800 1300
1453/1492 Early MA High MA La
te MA

Americas e Reconquista
  • Fall of Rome
  • Justinian
  • Constantines division of Empire
  • Rise of Islam
  • Transition
  • Dark Ages

  • Holy Roman Empire Monasteries
    Plagues Universities
    Anglo-Norman Administration bureaucracy
    Romanic arch. Gothic architectur
    Not really the Dark Ages
    The Middle Ages the events
    476/565 800 1300
    1453/1492 Early MA High MA La
    te MA

    Americas e Reconquista
  • Fall of Rome
  • Justinian
  • Constantines division of the empire
  • Rise of Islam
  • Transition
  • Dark Ages

  • Holy Roman Empire Monasteries
    Plagues Universities
    Between Hellenism and Renaissance, Islam is the
    Intermediate Civilization (Goitein)
    Institutionalized Islam, territorial, mostly non
    -Arab. 1250-1800. Military feudalism state bu
    reaucracy, mono-
    polies, supervised economy.
    Intermediate, in timespace Greek secular scienc
    es, rich flexible creativeness in the field
    of religion.

    Arabism and Arabic Islam, receptiveness for
    values of culture, spread of language Qoran.
    The Middle Ages the events
    476/565 800 1300
    1453/1492 Early MA High MA La
    te MA

    The Renaissance of the 12thCentury
    Americas e Reconquista
  • Fall of Rome
  • Justinian
  • Constantines division of Empire
  • Rise of Islam

  • Holy Roman Empire Monasteries
    Plagues Universities
    The building of Western Law
    Intercontinental commerce
    Romanic architecture Gothi
    c architecture age of cathedrals
    Rennaissance of
    Greco-Roman art?
    Hollister The Nonexistence of the Middle Ages
    (The Phases of European History and the
    Nonexistence of the Middle Ages. C. Warren
    Hollister. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol.
    61, No. 1 (Feb., 1992), pp. 1-22)
    Middle Ages" term1469 Giovanni Andrea.
    17th century, concept medieval describe and
    stigmatize an allegedly stagnant, thousand-year
    middle period between the fall of the western
    Roman Empire in AD 476 and the events of the
    fifteenth and sixteenth centuries that supposedly
    ushered in modernity. A-MA-M paradigm of t
    he 18th century, petrified in school and
    university curricula in the 19th remains an
    indestructible fossil of self-congratulatory
    Renaissance humanism. No to Middle Ages as the
    "Christian Centuries (great Christian events
    before and after)
    Hollister (cont.)
    Divide between the late-antique and modern eras
    should be 11th-12th rather than 15th-16th
    Birth of Western Law Swift urbanization,
    birth of the metropolis (and also the agrari
    an village with Cathedral Church with new
    cultivation technologies) Commercial revolutio
    n, with new routes Economic take-off, money, p
    rofit based Brown cites the abandonment of t
    he Germanic judicial ordeal in the 12th c. is a
    gradual but profoundly significant change in
    attitude, from law based on divine judgment to
    law based on testimony and the verdicts of
    juries. Perhaps the single greatest precondition
    for the growth of rationality.
    Hollister (cont.)
    Also "The Gregorian Reform Movement" or "The
    Investiture Controversy. Gregory VII vs. Holy
    Roman Emperor, that led to the establishment of
    Canon law, accompanied by a parallel process in
    civil law based on the revival of Justinian's
    Corpus Juris Civilis- the "Body of Civil Law"-
    essentially, a compilation of the laws of the
    Roman Empire. Haskins The Renaissance of the
    Twelfth Century. He argued in fact for an
    expanded 12th century, 1050-1250
    Just a bit defensive about his idea "A renais
    sance in the twelfth century!" he wrote. "Do not
    the Middle Ages, that epoch of ignorance,
    stagnation, and gloom, stand in the sharpest
    contrast to the light and progress and freedom of
    the Italian Renaissance which followed?"humbug!
    A thesis very much supported in the academic
    A novel periodification
    • Hollister proposes a different periodization
      schema as follows
    • Classical Antiquity ( 180 AD)
    • Late Antiquity ( 11th century)
    • Traditional/pre-Industrial Europe
    • (11th 1789)
    • Modern Western Civilization (1790-1950)
    • Post-Modern West (with Pacific-Rim Asia).

    The Byzantine empire
    • Its start? Technically, the division of the R
      empire Diocletian? Constantine?
    • The Roman revival of Justinian, with a twist of

    • Latin in B 527-565
    • Germanic Lombards conquer the Italy 568
    • Ascension of emperor Heraclius, fully Greek
    • Defeats the Persians, captures
      Jerusalem 610-641
    • Arabs occupy Byzantine territory and attack C
    • Anatolia under B rule 717-750
    • Iconoclastic movement (in the same vein as
    • Against monasteriespolitical as well, against

    • pretensions of Charlemagne and Leo
      III) 700-850
    • Palace intrigues and complots strong,
      regulated administration based on control over
      trade, new
    • industries strategic position

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    • Stalemate between Arabs and Byzantium 750-950
    • Russia converts to orthodoxy 911-989
    • Successful campaigns against Abbasid rulers
    • B reconquers most of Syria 950-1000
    • Annexation of Greece, Bulgaria and
      Serbia 1015-1025
    • Schism of the Christian Church (and definite
    • E vs W importance of B for the W
      overshadowed) 1054
    • Seljuk Turks (Ottoman) overrun eastern
      Byzantine provinces start of the defensive
      state decline 1071
    • Reign of Alexius Comnenus (against Normans,
    • with Turks, Crusade, takes Anatolia but
      independent crusader states 1081-1118
    • First Crusade, Jerusalem 1095-1099
    • Fourth Crusade, capture of C by Venice
    • the Latin empire 1204-1261
    • Fall of Constantinople 1453
    • Trebizond, last capital of the minuscule
      Byzantine empire

    • Spread of Islam 622-750
    • Expulsion of Muhammad from Mecca (Hijrah) 622
    • Return of Muhammad to Mecca 630
    • Death of Muhammad 632
    • Abu-Bakr becomes caliph 632
    • Umar becomes caliph 634
    • Arabs occupy Antioch, Damascus and
      Jerusalem 636
    • Arabs reach Persian capital 637
    • Arabs invade Egypt 646
    • Arabs conquer Persian empire 651
    • Sunni-Shiite schism 661
    • Arabs conquer North Africa 646-711
    • Umayyad dynasty 661-750
    • Arabs invade Spain 711
    • Abbasid dynasty 750
    • Arabs stopped at Ostia 800
    • Arabs defeated at Poitiers by Charles Martel
    • then stopped near Lyons 739

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    • The Caloringian empire
    • The Rise of the Carolingian Empire
    • Charles Martel becomes mayor of the palace
    • The Carolingians (Charles, Pepin and Carloman)

    • share power with the Merovingian
    • Charlemagne succeeds Pepin 768
    • Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman emperor 800
    • Louis the Pious becomes emperor 813
    • Charlemagne dies 814

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    • Library research for paper
    • We train our students to become "information
      literate," which is defined as "the ability to
      know when there is a need for information, to be
      able to identify, locate, evaluate, and
      effectively use that information for the issue at
    • Where to find the information? Using
      AURs resources
    • 1. AUR database local books
    • http//www.galileo.aur.it/cgi-bin/koha/opac-main.p
    • 2. URBS database local Roman books
    • 3. CSI database list of electronic resources /
    • http//www.library.csi.cuny.edu/eresource/alphalis

    • 4. SIU database journals and periodicals /
    • http//ux7xn7gd4e.search.serialssolutions.com/
    • Journal of Roman Studies
    • 5. Google Books / Open but limited have to be
    • lucky to have the right pages open
    • reconstructionheritage
    • middleagesplague
    • 6. Search with Google on the WWWsearch
    • adding PDF, sometimes you get important papers
    • middleagessocietypdf
    • 7. The use of Wikipedianot really recommended
    • Only in emergencies
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