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Title: Part III' Theres Always Hope Strategies for New and Emerging Online Resources

Part III. Theres Always Hope!Strategies for New
and Emerging Online Resources
  • Curt Bonk, Ph.D.Professor, Indiana University
    President, CourseShare and SurveySharecjbonk_at_indi
  • http//

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What will we be doing online in 100 years?
Framework 2. Matrix of Web Interactions(Cummings
, Bonk, Jacobs, 2002)
  • Instructor to Student Syllabus, notes, feedback.
  • to Instructor Course resources, syllabi,
  • to Practitioner Tutorials, articles, news.
  • Student to Student Comments, sample work, links.
  • to Instructor Votes, tests, papers, evals.
  • to Practitioner Web links, resumes,
  • Practitioner to Student Internships, jobs,
  • to Instructor Opinion surveys, fdbk,
  • to Practitioner Forums, listservs, prof

Framework 3. Models of Technology in Training
and Education(Dennen, 1999, Bonk et al., 2002)
  • Enhancing the Training
  • computers for extra activities drill and
    practice CD
  • Extending the Training
  • transcend the classroom with virtual field trips
    and Online Collaborative Teams.
  • Transforming the Training
  • allowing learners to construct knowledge bases
    and resources from multiple dynamic resources
    regardless of physical location or time.

Framework 4. The Web Integration Continuum (Bonk
et al., 2000)
  • Level 1 Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web
  • Level 2 Web Resource for Student Exploration
  • Level 3 Publish Student-Gen Web Resources
  • Level 4 Course Resources on the Web
  • Level 5 Repurpose Web Resources for Others
  • Level 6 Web Component is Substantive Graded
  • Level 7 Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class
  • Level 8 Entire Web Course for Resident Students
  • Level 9 Entire Web Course for Offsite Students
  • Level 10 Course within Programmatic Initiative

Scientists Internet speed record smashed,
Jeordan Legon, CNN, March 7, 2003
  • Scientists at the Stanford Linear Accelerator
    Center used fiber-optic cables to transfer 6.7
    gigabytes of data -- the equivalent of two DVD
    movies -- across 6,800 miles in less than a
    minuteThat's about 3,500 times faster than a
    typical Internet broadband connection.

Timeline for Internet II
Internet2 at the CrossroadsChronicle of HE, May
16, 2003, Florence Olsen
  • 203 research institutions in consortium
  • 26 state education networks have connected to
    Abilene backbone
  • 526 four year colleges and 551 community colleges
    access it

Web Technology Growing in ImportanceTuesday,
June 17, 2003, Syllabus News
  • McGraw-Hill 4 year study
  • Web-based technology is helping instructors
    achieve teaching objectives and has a positive
    impact on student attitudes and achievement.
  • 1999, only 22 percent of faculty viewed
    technology as very or extremely
  • 2002, 57 percent found it extremely important to
  • 68 percent of respondents rating training and
    professional development as very or extremely
  • 60 percent assigning a high level of importance
    to course Web site use in achieving teaching

Teaching in Your PajamasLessons of Online
ClassesPeggy Minnis, Teachers Journal, Feb.,
12, 2003
  • One of my favorite parts of college teaching is
    dressing up and putting on a good show. I plan my
    outfits, apply makeup, coordinate accessories,
    even rework my lecture cue cardsBut here I sit
    on a Friday night, lecturing 25 students in my
    lavender pajamas. I'm teaching online.

1. Blogs
College professors across the nation join the
latest internet phenomenon Weblogs, Linda
Evarts, The Brown Daily Herald, Jan 30, 2003.
  • Web logs blogs for short are the surprise
    wedding of the informational capacity of
    journalism and the speed of instant messenging.
    According to, two new blogs are
    created every second, and more than a million
    have been made using the Web site's software.
    Composed of short and frequently updated postings
    arranged in chronological order, blogs are Web
    sites similar to online journals, offering
    information on topics ranging from foreign policy
    to poetry.

Scholars who Blog, Chronicle of Higher Ed, June
6, 2003. Blogs range from 3 word bursts of
sarcasm to 5,000-word treatises, range from 200
hits/day to 100,000 hits/day (
Sample Blogs
Uses of Blogs
  • Blogging pioneer Peter Merholz adds, "the power
    of Weblogs is their ability to immediately put
    form to thought. I can get an idea in my
    head--however half baked it might be--and, in
    seconds, share it with the world. Immediately, I
    get feedback, refinement, stories, and so forth
    spurred by my little idea. Never before was this

College professors across the nation join the
latest internet phenomenon Weblogs, Linda
Evarts, The Brown Daily Herald, Jan 30, 2003.
  • Policy studies analyst at the University of
    California at Los Angeles and blogger Mark
    Kleiman said that blogs provide the most
    up-to-date information in the shortest time
  • Kleiman, noting the possibility that blogs might
    be a passing trend, forecasted that "twenty years
    from now (we) all will be getting most
    information from" blogs.

Sample Blog Tools
2. Video Papers
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3. Online Performances(e.g., Teaching Music
4. Complex Virtual Performances Virtuals
Worlds/Virtual Reality
  • Avatars--representations of people
  • Objects--representations of objects
  • Maps--the landscape which can be explored
  • Bots--artificial intelligence

4. Online Performances(e.g., Cyber Fashion Shows)
5. Virtual Labs
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Web Site with Bugs!(Chronicle of HE, May 29,
2003, Brock Read)
  • Interactive timeline that details beetles
    introduction into U.S.
  • Video footage of beetle laying eggs
  • View beetles from all sides (rotating views)
  • Examine and discriminate from photographs
  • Examine fragile specimens without harming them

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The Virtual Lab Experiment Chronicle of Higher
Education, January 31, 2003, Dan Carnevale
  • The labs have limitations, however. Most biology
    professors still say that the experience of
    dissecting a frog while gagging on the stench of
    formaldehyde simply can't be replicated online.
    And it's expensive and time-consuming to develop
    a virtual lab that includes all the possible
    variables that students can encounter in a real

Virtual Physics Lab (free to world)(UC-Greensboro
, Syllabus, June 2003, p. 26)Students test their
models, design experiments, select instruments,
gather and analyze data, distributed over the
Web, is tutored, exposed to a 3-D environment
with physics content.
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The Virtual Lab Experiment Chronicle of Higher
Ed, January 31, 2003, Dan Carnevale
  • Mr. Woodfield says the online lab allows students
    to experiment more than they would be able to in
    a real lab. Because of time and safety
    constraints, students usually cannot freely
    experiment with real chemicalsthe computer
    simulations in the Virtual ChemLab encourage
    students to experiment and have some fun. "We try
    to minimize the technical aspects and try to
    maximize the open-endedness and discovery
    aspects," he says. "We're teaching them that
    creative process, that problem-solving process."

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The Virtual Lab Experiment Chronicle of Higher
Education, January 31, 2003, Dan Carnevale
  • The software presents 2,500 photographs and 220
    video clips of real lab results. Because
    different combinations of chemicals can have
    similar results, he says, the same photographs
    and videos can sometimes be used to represent the
    outcomes of different experiments. "Muck looks
    like muck, so we show them muck," Mr. Woodfield

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Professors Online Museum Explores the Hidden
History of Perpetual-Motion SchemesChronicle of
Higher Ed, Brock Read, June 13, 2003
ePsych An Online Teaching ToolDesigned by Gary
Bradshaw, Mississippi StateChronicle of Higher
Ed Feb 28, 2003, Brock Read.
PsychExperiments from Ole Miss
Visual Attention, Decision Making, and Letter
String Experiment
6. Observe Data and Make Predictions with 3-D
Visualization Collaboration Software(Intro to
Weather and Climate at Wisconsin, May 16, 2003,
Chronicle of Higher Ed)
7. Quantitative Simulations
8. Virtual Tours
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9. Enhanced Lectures
9. Enhanced Lectures
Making Digital Video Recording of Lectures,
Chronicle of Higher Ed, June 4, 2003, Florence
  • Adi Mayan, a sophomore majoring in business at
    City University of New Yorks Bernard M. Baruch
    College, attends lectures in her macroeconomics
    class and later watches a digital-video recording
    of the lecture just to make sure I understand
    the material.
  • Its always good to hear it a second time.

9. Enhanced LecturesOutside Video Mentoring
  • Audiology Professor, Univ of Florida
  • Course instructor invites national known experts
    to lecture in specific content areas.
  • Lectures are videotaped in a recording studio,
    edited, duplicated, and distributed to each
    student. (digitize and put on Web?)
  • Average of ten hours of lectures from 3-5 experts
    are prepared for each class.
  • Visual aids are added to each tape and a
    transcript is prepared for hearing-impaired

10. Repurposing Speeches
10. Repurposing Expert Presentations at
Conferences and Institutes
  • In April, Harvard Business School professor
    Dorothy Leonard brought leading experts on
    education together at the Adult Learning Workshop
    to answer this fundamental question To what
    extent should the traditional face-to-face
    classroom experience serve as the model for
    online programs? Participants included MIT Senior
    Lecturer Peter Senge, a Founding Chair of the
    Society for Organizational Learning John Seely
    Brown, Chief Scientist of Xerox Corporation and
    Chris Dede, Timothy E. Wirth Professor of
    Learning Technologies at Harvard's Graduate
    School of Education.

11. Supplemental Material from Book Publishers
11. Supplemental Material from Book Publishers
13. Exploration Activities and Problem Cases
Supplemental Material from Other Instructors
12. Exploration Activities and Problem Cases
Supplemental Material from Other Instructors
12. Exploration Activities and Problem Cases
Supplemental Material from Other Instructors
(Careo Repository and Portal)
12. Exploration Activities and Problem Cases
Supplemental Material from Other Instructors
(MERLOT Repository and Portal)
12. Exploration Activities and Problem Cases
Supplemental Material from Other Instructors
(Engineering Repository and Portal--NEEDS)
12. Exploration Activities and Problem
Cases3,000 pages of Einsteins notes viewable,
Chronicle(Einstein Digital Manuscript
Repository, May 20, 2003)
13. Free IP Based Videoconferencing Using
Internet II (May 16, 2003, Chron of HE)(Here
linking Singapore and MIT engineering students)
  • Under best conditions, the voice of a student
    speaking on the Singapore side of the virtual
    classroom is heard in less than a second on the
    MIT side.

Add More Bandwidth
One-way Videoconferencing in Saudi Arabia(they
see him, but he cannot see them)Chronicle of
Higher Ed, March 28, 2003
  • He finds these restrictions stifling,
    restrictive, and byzantine.

Online Technologies and SARS Dilemma
Visual, Auditory, or Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners
  • Tactile/kinesthetic senses can be engaged in the
    learning process are role play, dramatization,
    cooperative games, simulations, creative movement
    and dance, multi-sensory activities,
    manipulatives and hands-on projects.

Interactive Videoconferencing
  • 1. Human Graph
  • Have students line up on a scale (e.g., 1 is low
    and 5 is high) on camera according to how they
    feel about something (e.g., topic, the book,
  • Debrief

Interactive Videoconferencing
  • 2. Stand and Share
  • Have students think about a topic or idea and
    stand when they have selected an answer or topic.
  • Call on students across sites and sit when speak.
  • Also, sit when you hear your answer or your ideas
    are all mentioned by someone else.

Interactive Videoconferencing
  • 3. Mock Trials with Occupational Roles
  • Create a scenario (e.g., school reform in the
    community) and hand out to students to read.
  • Ask for volunteers for different roles (everyone
    must have a role).
  • Perhaps consider having one key person on the pro
    and con side of the issue make a statement.
  • Discuss issues from within role (instructor is
    the hired moderator or one to make opening
    statement he/she collects ideas on document
    camera or board).
  • Come to compromise.

Interactive Videoconferencing
  • 4. Think-Pair-Share
  • Assign a topic for reflection or writing.
  • Have share their responses with someone next to
  • Ask to share with class.
  • Alternatively, ask students to volunteer
    something they heard from a peer.

Interactive Videoconferencing
  • 5. Phillips 66/Buzz Groups
  • Assign a topic at the start or end of class.
  • Assign students to groups of 6 students to
    discuss that topic for 6 minutes.
  • Summarize that discussion with videoconferencing

Interactive Videoconferencing
  • 6. Numbered Heads Together
  • Assign a task and divide into groups (perhaps
  • Perhaps assign group names across
    videoconferencing sites or perhaps some
    competition between them.
  • Count off from 1 to 4.
  • Discuss problem or issue assigned.
  • Instructor calls on groups numbers.

Interactive Videoconferencing
  • 7. Swami Questions
  • Have all sites send in questions during break
  • At end of session go thru as many of them as you
    can in last 5-10 minutes.

14. Electronic Portfolios
E-Portfolio Tools
  • iWebfolio from
  • Folio from ePortaro
  • E-Portfolio from Chalk Wire
  • FolioLive from McGraw-Hill
  • Web Folio Builder from TaskStream
  • ePortConstorium from IUPUI and UCLA

E-Portfolios Education (Format CD, Web,
videotape, combination, etc.)
  • Digital pictures of student activities
  • Handouts from coursework
  • Philosophy statements
  • Videotapes of teaching
  • Audio recordings
  • Lesson plans
  • Letters of rec
  • Letters to parents
  • Sample writing
  • Newspaper clippings of their activities
  • Work from students
  • Student evaluations
  • Self-evaluations

15. Visual with Chat
  • Participants a facilitator of online therapy,
    students at all levels, a doctoral candidate in
    DE, administrators, teachers, lecturers,
    researchers, a physicists, a professor of
    Psychology, a professor of Mathematics, a
    consultant in training, an HR trainer, and a
    psychotherapist. We were located in Herzelia, a
    beach town north of Tel Aviv, Stanford
    California, Baltimore, Montreal, and Ismir,

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Feedback on Session
  • The feedback tools were introduced It's great
    that participating and attendance can be tracked
    The chart is meaningful and revealing to me ...
    being an observer myself
  • And some summary comments, This seems much more
    ''connecting'' than other programs I've used
    The recording aspect of this environment is
    Intriguing these statistics could be very
    helpful to participants in understanding their
    interactions within the group... Possibly could
    supplant f to f meetings.

16. Adventure Blogging
  • Instead, Mr. Saunders, 25, sat down at a table,
    pulled out his palm-size iPaq digital assistant,
    his pocket-size Global Positioning System
    locator, his satellite phone and his digital
    camera and began updating his Web site,

  • ICEMAN - A belt-mounted computer with a
    head-mounted display enabled Tom Sjogren to
    transmit pictures wirelessly in Antarctica By
    ANDREW C. REVKIN, June 5, 2003, The New York Times

BE PREPARED - Tina Sjogren carried a palmtop
device, satellite phone and custom battery pack
to Antarctica in 2001.
Taking Technology to Extremes (NY Times, June 5,
2003, Andrew Revkin)
  • Mr. Sanders isusing a custom-designed
    communications kitand relying on their Web sites
    as well as his to post daily logs. He and dozens
    of other adventurers now routinely use the
    Internet to promote their exploits and the
    products of sponsors that provide gear and
    financial backing. It has become something of a
    competition to see who can transmit the most
    information and imagery the most quickly

Mark Fennell, June 5, 2003, North Pole(Pictures,
maps, movies, audio)
17. Interactive Adventure Content(Andrew Revkin,
New York Times, May 25, 2003)
Sequenced Pictures with voice over
18. Learning Communities and Communities of
  • A learning community as defined by Kowch
    Schwier (1997 pp.1) is a group of individuals
    engaged intentionally and collectively in the
    transaction, or transformation of knowledge.
    Communities are not built they grow through
    personalisation, member participation,
    contribution and most importantly ownership (van
    der Kuyl, 2001).
  • (Stuckey, Hedberg, Lockyer, in press)

Factors in Creating any Community (Stuckey,
Hedberg, Lockyer, in press)
  • A community of practice is a refinement of the
    concept of community defined by Amy Jo Kim as a
    group of people with shared interest, purpose, or
    goal, who get to know each other better over
    time. (Kim, 2000 p.28).

How Facilitate Online Community?
  • Safety Establish safe environment
  • Tone Flexible, inviting, positive, respect
  • Personal Self-disclosures, open, stories telling
  • Sharing Share frustrations, celebrations, etc
  • Collaboration Camaraderie/empathy
  • Common language conversational chat space
  • Task completion set milestones grp goals
  • Other Meaningful, choice, simple, purpose...

Factors in Creating any Community
  • (1) membership/identity
  • (2) influence
  • (3) fulfill of indiv needs/rewards
  • (4) shared events emotional connections
  • (McMillan Chavis, 1986).
  • (History, stories, expression, identity,
    participation, respect, autonomy, celebration,
    team building, shape group, Schwier, 1999)

Communities of Practice
  • Awareness of who is in the space
  • Roster of who belongs
  • Roster of who is currently viewing materials
  • Customization of the space for the group
  • a customized identifying banner
  • Ability to interact in multiple synchronous and
    asynchronous ways.
  • Place for a community to identify who they are
  • charter, principles, membership, goals, etc.

Common Principles and Technologies(Bonk
Wisher, in press)
  • Shared goals, mission, norms calendars,
    schedules, archives, announcements, team logos,
  • Trust and respect email, profiles, sharing
    links, social ice breakers, testimonials
  • Shared spaces and idea exchanges annotations,
    brainstorming, videoconferencing, whiteboards,
    site glossaries, work galleries

Common Principles and Technologies(Bonk
Wisher, in press)
  • Member collaboration, team products annotations,
    application sharing, collab writing, drop boxes,
    virtual workspaces, announcements
  • Sense of identity, membership, expertise, growth
    mentoring exchanges, sync group meetings,
    knowledge management

Common Principles and Technologies(Bonk
Wisher, in press)
  • Influence member participation member surveys
    and polls
  • Sense of autonomy course choices, work teams
    meet by interest
  • Shared history, sense of belonging, emotional
    connections buddy lists, chat rooms, discussion
    forums, IM, MUDS, newsgroups, portals, listservs,
    email, memorable events

Common Principles and Technologies(Bonk
Wisher, in press)
  • Fulfill personal needs, rewards, post member
    accomplishments acknowledgements breakout rooms,
    intelligent agents, profiles, surveys, mentoring
  • Embedded in practice, integration in real world
    applic sharing, online cases, simulations, sync
    conferencing, translation tools, job and
    internship reflections, guest chats, PBL

18. Building Learning Communities
18. Building Learning Communities
19. Augmented Reality
20. Multi-User Online Gaming
WARRIOR - Accompanied by three minions,
Thedeacon, with gun, prepares to attack a
monster, left, in the game Anarchy Online.
  • As the mutant Thedeacon (holding staff), Mr.
    Stenlund led a group of Meta-Physicists on a
    virtual protest march on Sunday. June 11, 2003

Anarchy Online
  • The deacon is also a kind mutant, a leader and
    beacon. Among Rubi-Ka's weaker citizens, he is
    revered for his generosity of mind, for sharing
    the information others need to prosper. Among the
    planet's elite, he is respected for his
    generosity of spirit, for comforting the lovesick
    and the lonely.
  • The deacon does not physically exist, of course.
    In the year 2003, at the blue-collar end of
    Madison, Wis., he is a struggling, frustrated
    27-year-old computer repairman called Richard L.

There you are!
Possibilities for Schools
  • Virtual seminars and presentations, with distant
    colleagues interacting within a virtual
    conference hall
  • Demonstration of new building designs that people
    can explore, discuss and modify
  • Demonstrations of processes or models that are
    difficult to understand with static graphs/charts

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Learning Objects
  • Learning Objects are small or large resources
    that can be used to provide a learning
    experience. These assets can be lessons, video
    clips, images, or even people. The Learning
    Objects can represent tiny "chunks" of knowledge,
    or they can be whole courses.
  • Claude Ostyn, Click2Learn

ADL Functional Requirements (Bob Wisher, 2001)
Accessible access instructional components from
one location and deliver them to many other
locations Interoperable use instructional
components developed in one location with a
different platform in another location Reusable
incorporate instructional components into
multiple applications Durable operate
instructional components when base technology
changes, without redesign or recoding Affordable
increase learning effectiveness significantly
while reducing time and costs
Assistive Technologies (includes disability
compliance software codings)
Close your eyes and imagine what is like to be
visually impaired and reliant on the Web!
Peer-to-Peer Collaboration(Global Knowledge
Centers--Peer Shared Document Sites)
  • Possibilities
  • Data Sharing (
  • Resource Sharing (
  • Workgroup Collaboration (

Intelligent Agents
The future of e-learning is learner-centric
(Adler Rae, Jan., 2002, e-learning mag)
  • You could also choose to have an intelligent,
    interactive mentor who pops up anytime you choose
    when you need a little performance support. For
    example, you may be writing a technical brief
    when you realize you need more in-depth
    information on the topic. You could then click on
    a mentor icon on your desktop to bring up the
    intelligent mentor. The mentor would gather the
    learning objects necessary and deliver them to
    the environment, which would assemble them for an
    immediate learning experience.

Handheld Devices
Smart Personal Object Technology???
Computers that Talk to You (595)USA Today, June
18, 2003
What can SoundAdvice do?
  • How is the weather?
  • What is the score of the Yankees game?
  • What time is it in London?
  • Give me a recipe for chicken.
  • How did the market do today?
  • What is 16 degrees in Celsius, in Fahrenheit?
  • Where is Finding Nemo playing?

What might you add?
Any final advice???
Ok, who wants a TICKIT?And, who has a