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The%20High%20Middle%20Ages

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The High Middle Ages. From Beowulf's World to Dante and Chaucer's Universe ... Dark Ages,' they typically mean the Low Middle Ages. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%20High%20Middle%20Ages


1
The High Middle Ages
  • From Beowulfs World to Dante and Chaucers
    Universe

2
When people discuss theDark Ages, they
typically mean the Low Middle Ages.
  • (That means the crazy centuries just after the
    fall of Rome in 455.)

3
However, the late medieval world is quite
strikingly different from the earlier one.
  • 800 CE the time of the Charlemagnes Empire,
    which unifies France and Germany under his
    kingdom
  • 1066 CE the time of William the Conquerors
    conquest of England

4
On the continent, this later period is called The
High Middle Ages to contrast it with the earlier
Low Middle Ages.
  • In England, scholars may use the term
    Anglo-Saxon period to refer to the Low Middle
    Ages and the term Middle English period to
    refer to the High Middle Ages.

5
The Low Middle Ages is a time of Germanic tribes
sweeping across Europe, of Viking invasions, of
small tribal kingdoms fighting in war bands. Its
a chaotic, lawless time.
  • Here, we have the mast of a Viking longboat. Note
    the dragon imagery, O ye readers of Beowulf!

6
Roman architectural technology is lost. Many
early churches are simply crammed into ruins of
old Roman temples.
  • Temple of Clitumnus,a Christian church
    established
  • about the year 650 in northern Italy.

7
The architecture was in a style called
Romanesque. It had some superficial Roman
features, but short and squat.
  • The Tomb of King Theodoric, barbarian ruler over
    Italy, built before 526 C.E. Ravenna, Italy.

8
So how do we get from this . . . .
  • The Tomb of King Theodoric, barbarian ruler,
    built before 526 C.E. Located in Ravenna, Italy.

9
to this?
  • Lincolnshire
  • Cathedral, England,
  • c. 1200

10
or Canterbury Cathedral?
11
Or this?
  • Choir at Canterbury Cathedral. Note the Roman
    arches combined with gabled ceilings. Note how
    tall it is!

12
From Anglo-Saxon manuscripts like this. . . .
  • First page of the Nowell Codex (the Beowulf
    manuscript) Cotton Vitellius A.xv, produced circa
    800 CE,

13
To gold-encrustedbooks like this?
  • Gold-illuminated lettering for Psalm 11 Beatus
    Vir,from Dagulfs Psalter.
  • Created in the court school of Emperor
    Charlemagne. Östreichische National Bibliothek,
    Vienna, Codex 1861, fol. 25 r, 9th century.

14
Or rubricated books like this one?
  • Illuminated initial E depicting the prophet
    Ezekiel, eating the bitter scroll from the angel
    before his vision.

15
Or artistic talent like this monks?
  • Illumination for Psalm 23. From ninth-century
    Psalter, from Saint-Germain-des-Prés.
    Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart,
    Bibl. Fol. 23.

16
To texts that combine allthese
lovelytechniques in a riot of detail?
  • Unicorn Psalter, circa 1200 from France. Note the
    detail in the historiated initial and the babuins
    or grotesques in the margins.

17
We move from an age of Anglo-Saxon war chiefs and
Viking pirates . . .
  • The Sutton Hoo helmet of an Anglo-Saxon cyning
    or thegn, dating to early 600, found near
    Suffolk, England.

18
To the romanticizedglory of late
feudalmonarchy.
  • Statuary over Sarcophagus of King Henry IV and
    his wife, Joan of Navarre, from Canterbury
    Cathedrals crypt.

19
That is the question for today.
  • Display armor from Belvoir Castle in England.

20
We start with these contrasts--
  • Religion? (Paganism fades)
  • Tripartite Social Structure?
  • Technology? (moldboard plow, better timber
    production)
  • Population Growth?
  • Carolingian Development?
  • Politics? (Tribal--gtFeudal)

21
  • Rise of The Knight
  • Vassalage
  • Cavalry and stirrups
  • Lance Charge
  • Crossbow leads to Platemail armor
  • Courtly Love--code of polite behavior amidst the
    court
  • Chivalry--code of behavior on the battlefield

22
Monastic Knowledge
  • cathedral schools
  • literate clergy
  • scriptoria
  • summae
  • bestiaries, botanical guides, astrology charts,
    lapidaries, numerological treatises, scriptural
    glossation
  • Fourfold Interpretation

23
Fourfold Interpretation
  • Literal level
  • Allegorical level (especially types and
    antitypes)
  • Tropological level (moral lesson)
  • Anagogical Level (eschatological mystery)
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