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Music in the Middle Ages

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The Dark Ages. All Power flowed from the KING with the approval of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Middle Ages witnessed the rise of Monasticism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Music in the Middle Ages


1
Music in the Middle Ages
  • 400-1450 AD


2
Medieval Culture
  • The Middle Ages began after the fall of the
    Western Roman Empire. (476 AD)
  • It witnessed the first sustained urbanization of
    Northern and Western Europe.
  • Present European Political boundaries are the
    result of military and dynastic achievements
    during this period.

3
Medieval Culture
A Map of Europe in the early Middle Ages
4
Medieval Culture
  • We divide the Medieval Period into 3 sub periods
  • Early Middle Ages (Dark Ages), 476-1000
  • High Middle Ages, 1000-1200
  • Later Middle Ages, 1200-1450

5
Medieval Culture
  • The Dark Ages
  • All Power flowed from the KING with the approval
    of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • During this time Europe saw low levels of
    economic activity .
  • Incursions by Non-Christians.
  • (Arabs and Muslims)
  • Rise of Monasteries and Convents

6
Medieval Culture
  • High Middle Ages
  • Institutions of Lord-ship
  • Castle building
  • Mounted War Fare
  • Revived urban and commercial life.
  • Crusades Popes attempt to cleanse the World of
    Paganism and convert others to Christianity.

7
Medieval Culture
  • The Later Middle Ages
  • Power shift from the Pope to the Monarch.
  • Rise of commercial interests.
  • Weakening customary ties of dependence.
  • THE BLACK DEATH

8
Medieval Culture
  • THE BLACK DEATH
  • A viral hemorrhagic disease that spread among the
    people of Europe like wild fire.
  • Thought to be started by Rats and filthy living
    conditions.
  • Responsible for killing 1/3 of the World
    population in mid-14th Century.

9
Medieval Culture
10
Medieval Culture
  • The Church
  • The major unifying Cultural Influence
  • Played a significant role in governance.
  • Large churches called Cathedrals were built

11
Medieval Culture
  • The Church Chain of Command
  • GOD
  • Pope
  • Arch Bishops
  • Bishops
  • Priests

12
Medieval Culture
  • The Middle Ages witnessed the rise of Monasticism
  • Religious practice where one gives up worldly
    pursuits in order to devote ones life to
    spiritual work.
  • A MONESTARY was a community that housed these
    people who were called MONKS
  • Monasteries are led by Abbots.
  • Monasteries were the main outposts for Education
    and Literacy including Music Composition

13
Medieval Culture
14
Medieval Culture
  • Some Other Things…
  • 800 Charlemagne crowned first Holy Roman
  • Emperor
  • 1214 Kublai Khan is emperor of China
  • 1270 Last crusade to the Holy Land
  • 1307 Divine Comedy was written by Dante
    Aligheri
  • 1347 Black Death begins in Europe
  • 1386 Chaucer writes Canterbury Tales
  • 1386 Donatello Italian Sculptor
  • 1431 Joan of Arc was executed
  • 1453 Fall of Constantinople

15
  • 5 Minute Break…

16
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • Early Music of the Church…
  • Shaped in part by Greek, Hebrew, and Syrian
    influences.
  • Gregorian Chant Consists of a single line
    melody that is non-metric and is free from
    regular accent.
  • Gregorian Chant is also referred to as Plainchant
    or Plainsong.
  • Gregorian chant is set to Latin Sacred Texts.
  • It avoids wide leaps and dynamic contrast
    allowing for a kind of musical speech.

17
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • The Melodies of Gregorian Chant fall into 3 main
    categories…
  • Syllabic
  • Neumatic
  • Melismatic

18
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • A Syllabic Gregorian Chant melody is when one
    note is sung to each syllable of the text.
  • Example Mary Had a Little Lamb

19
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • A Neumatic Gregorian Chant melody refers to a
    small group of notes set to one syllable.
  • Example Mary Had A Little Lamb, Variation 2

20
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • A Melismatic Gregorian Chant melody is where many
    notes are set to one syllable.
  • Example Mary Had A Little Lamb, Variation 3

21
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • Notating Gregorian Chant…
  • At first, Gregorian Chants were passed down
    orally from generation to generation.
  • As the number of chants increased, singers needed
    help remembering the outlines of the melodies.
  • Thus, Neumes were developed.
  • Neumes ascending and descending signs that were
    written above the words to suggest the contours
    of the melody.
  • Nuemes are the basis for music notation as we
    know it today.

22
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
23
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • The Mass
  • The services of the Roman Catholic Church can be
    divided into two categories…
  • The Daily Offices
  • The Mass

24
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • The Offices are a series of services celebrated a
    various hours of the day in monasteries and
    convents.
  • Examples Morning Prayer
  • Evening Prayer
  • Scripture Lectionary

25
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • The Mass is a reenactment of the sacrifice of
    Jesus Christ.
  • This is the most solemn ritual of the Church.
  • The collection of prayers that make up the mass
    falls into two categories…
  • The Proper
  • The Ordinary

26
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • The Proper are texts that vary from day tot day
    throughout the church year.
  • This is dependant upon which feast is being
    celebrated.
  • Example Christmas
  • Easter
  • Lent
  • Advent

27
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • The Ordinary are texts that are fixed, or remain
    the same in every Mass.
  • There are 5 items of the Ordinary…
  • Kyrie
  • Gloria
  • Credo
  • Sanctus
  • Agnus Dei

28
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • The Names of the Ordinary portions of the Mass
    are in Greek
  • The Text of the Ordinary portions are in Latin.
  • Latin is the language of learning throughout the
    Middle Ages and Renaissance.
  • The Catholic Church continued the use of Latin
    for the Mass until the middle of the 20th
    Century.
  • Chant has been central to the celebration of the
    mass which was and remains the primary service of
    the Catholic Church.

29
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • To Be Continued…
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