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MIDDLE AGES

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MIDDLE AGES ... The 'Dark Ages' ... High Middle Ages were a period of progress and prosperity. Cities grew in size and beauty ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MIDDLE AGES


1
MIDDLE AGES
  • Began with collapse of Western Roman Empire in
    the 6th century AD and came to an end sometime in
    the 14th-15th centuries
  • Once considered to be one long, bleak period of
    violence, ignorance, and superstition
  • The Dark Ages
  • Period did represent regression from achievements
    of the ancient world but it was not completely
    dark
  • Preserved what was best of the ancient heritage
    and mingled it with new Germanic and, later,
    Arabic traditions to create a new civilization
  • One that was capable of further growth and
    progress
  • Major contribution to the creation of the
    foundation for the modern western world

2
MIDDLE AGES
  • Western Europe
  • Hodge-podge of loosely organized kingdoms
  • Became even more fragmented as time went on
  • East
  • Highly centralized Byzantine Empire

3
CHARLEMAGNE
  • Tried to overcome chronic disunity in Western and
    Central Europe
  • Approx. 800 AD
  • Established empire that included France, most of
    Italy, Germany, and part of Eastern Europe
  • Took title of Holy Roman Emperor

4
BREAKUP OF CHARLEMAGNES EMPIRE
  • Incompetence of his descendants
  • Charlemagnes failure to set up an effective
    administrative system
  • Invasions of the Magyars
  • Invasions of the Vikings

5
POST-CAROLINGIAN EUROPE
  • Hopelessly complex jigsaw puzzle of small states
  • Each with its own ruler
  • Sometimes with title of duke or count
  • Nominally owed allegiance to kings but this
    allegiance was more theoretical than real
  • Long-distance trade virtually disappeared
  • Currency fell into disuse
  • People reverted to barter system
  • Cities shrank dramatically and sometimes
    disappeared
  • Educational standards declined
  • Even kings were illiterate
  • Only form of unity was the Christian Church
  • But even its intellectual standards had declined
    due to the prevalent ignorance and isolation of
    the times
  • Europe had become a desolate rural world in which
    petty rulers lorded over tiny pieces of territory
    and ignorance prevailed everywhere

6
FEUDALISM
  • Developed in response to the need of local
    warrior-aristocrats to protect and administer
    their territories in the absence of any sort of
    effective central authority
  • Grant of a piece of land (fief) by a lord to a
    subordinate (vassal) in exchange for the vassals
    promise to provide lord with military service for
    a specified period of time
  • Subinfeudation vassals having vassals of their
    own

7
FEUDAL PLAYERS (VASSALS)
  • Feudalism also provided a decentralized form of
    government
  • Vassals were supreme within their fiefs
  • Made own laws
  • Enforced them as he saw fit
  • Settled disputes between people who lived on the
    fief

8
MEDIEVAL PEASANTS
  • Small scale farmers who devoted their lives to
    growing enough to stay alive
  • Lived and worked on manors
  • Economic subunit of fief

9
MEDIEVAL MANOR and THREE FIELD SYSTEM OF ROTATION
Fields divided into narrow strips with each
peasant family holding a number of them in each
field
System designed to avoid complete soil exhaustion
Arable land divided into three fields, each in a
different state of cultivation
Fields rotated each year
10
PEASANT OBLIGATIONS
  • Paid portion of harvest to lord of the manor as
    rent
  • Also had to work a certain number of days a weeks
    on strips the lord retained for his own use
  • Had to bring their legal disputes to the lords
    court
  • Even had to pay a fee for the lords approval to
    marry
  • Peasants were serfs
  • Bound to the manor and their lord for life
  • Also had to pay the Church the tithe and,
    later, had to also pay royal taxes
  • Lot of peasant was one of backbreaking labor,
    deep poverty, no personal independence, and
    resigned and hopeless desperation

11
HIGH MIDDLE AGES (1000-1300)
  • Cities grew in size and beauty
  • Local and international trade revived
  • Kings began to break down feudal system and
    create nation-states under their direct control

12
REVIVAL OF LOCAL TRADE
  • Growth in European population after centuries of
    decline and/or stagnation
  • Caused by increase in food supply
  • Made possible by draining of swamps and clearing
    of forests by monasteries
  • Created surplus people on manors
  • Manorial economy could not support them
  • Moved to long-dormant towns
  • Created demand for agricultural products from
    countryside
  • Stimulated demand for manufactured products
  • Sparked revival of local trade and commerce

13
CRUSADES
  • In theory, purpose was to take back the Holy Land
    from Moslem Turks
  • Caused tremendous human and material damage
    without permanently achieving purpose
  • Created demand for Middle Eastern luxury products
    among returned Crusadersthus stimulating
    international trade
  • Revival of local and international trade created
    Commercial Revolution
  • Introduced modern capitalism

14
WILLIAM I (THE BASTARD) OF ENGLAND
  • Conquered England in 1066
  • Wanted to bypass feudal system and exert direct
    control over his realm
  • Divided England into shires, each administered by
    a shire-reeve (sheriff)
  • Did end run around feudal system by creating an
    alternative and parallel system
  • Similar system devised by Philip Augustus in
    France

15
THE CHURCH
  • Administration of pope was larger and more
    sophisticated than that of any king
  • Wealth of the Church was greater than any king or
    merchant
  • Also largest landowner in Europe
  • Popes contended with kings on a equal basis
  • Using powerful spiritual weapons
  • Excommunication
  • Interdict

16
SUMMARY
  • High Middle Ages were a period of progress and
    prosperity
  • Cities grew in size and beauty
  • Trade revived
  • Kings reasserted their power over their realms
  • Church was at its peak of power and prestige
  • Then it all came crashing down in the 14th
    century
  • Crisis of the Late Middle Ages

17
CRISIS IN THE CHURCH
  • Babylonian Captivity
  • 1309-1372
  • Popes fell under the control of the French
    monarchy
  • Forced to move to the southern French city of
    Avignon
  • Lost much power and prestige
  • Great Schism
  • Late 1370s
  • Two, and for a while three, men all claimed to be
    pope at the same time
  • Threw the church into confusion
  • Crisis resolved in 1415 but Church prestige had
    been permanently damaged and many Christians were
    left confused and/or cynical

18
100 YEARS WAR
  • Caused by dispute over French throne by France
    and England
  • Lasted actually 116 years
  • France won
  • Introduction of longbow rendered the heavily
    armored horseman obsolete
  • Hundreds of thousands people died, decimating the
    population growth of earlier years
  • Heavy taxation provoked peasant uprisings
    (jacqueries)

19
THE BLACK DEATH (BUBONIC)
  • Started in China in 1331
  • Traveled across Asia to Black Sea region
  • Picked up by Italian merchants and taken to
    Europe
  • Spread from Italy to Germany, France, Spain, and
    England
  • Europeans could not cure it or prevent it from
    spreading
  • Catastrophic results
  • 25 of population killed
  • Some cities lost 75 of their population
  • Plunged Europe into a severe depression

20
ARTISTIC THEMES IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES
Danse Macabre
Four Horsemen Of Apocalypse
21
BYZANTINE EMPIRE
22
JUSTINIAN AND THEODORA
  • Conquest of old Western provinces
  • Justinians Code (compilation of Roman law)
  • Construction of Santa Sophia (Church of the Holy
    Wisdom)

23
BYZANTINE ACHIEVEMENTS
  • Empire renown for its wealth, power, and military
    strength for centuries
  • Army threw back or weakened wave after wave of
    would-be invaders
  • Persians, Arabs, Seljuk Turks, and others
  • Saved Western Europe from conquest
  • Civilized barbarian tribes on fringes of Europe
  • Russians
  • Converted to Christianity by Byzantine
    missionaries
  • Gave them alphabet they still use today
  • Cyrillic alphabet

24
BYZANTINE CHRISTIANITY
  • Church had fallen under the control of the
    emperor
  • Through his puppet, the bishop of Constantinople
  • Created tension with the pope
  • Resulted in split within Christianity in 1054
  • Roman Catholic Church
  • Headquartered in Rome
  • Led by pope
  • Eastern Orthodox Church
  • Headquartered in Constantinople
  • Led by bishop of Constantinople (and Byzantine
    emperor)
  • Shattered unity of Christian Church forever

25
END OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
  • Territory of empire shrunk over centuries
  • Only included Constantinople and parts of Asia
    Minor and southeastern Europe by 1200
  • Constantinople falls to Ottoman Turks in 1453
  • Renamed city Istanbul
  • End of Byzantine Empire
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