Terrorism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Terrorism PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6cc85-NGM0Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Terrorism

Description:

An exploration into Terrorism -- its defining ... CASE STUDY Ram rez S nchez 'Carlos the Jackal' Cell Strategy. State Sponsorship. Counter Tactics ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:161
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 107
Provided by: lohLoswe
Learn more at: http://loh.loswego.k12.or.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Terrorism


1
Terrorism
An exploration into Terrorism -- its defining
characteristics, contrasting features when
measured against Just War and the
implications of varying perceptions.
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
2
  • Activity Distinguishing Differences
  • Read scenarios aloud within your teamtaking
    turns with each scenario.
  • Answer each set of questions on a separate sheet.
  • Conclude with two newly crafted definitions of
  • A. Just War B. Terrorism
  • 4. Share your views/results with class.

3
What is a Just War? Historically, the just-war
traditiona set of mutually agreed rules of
combatcommonly evolves between two similar
enemies. When enemies differ greatly because of
different religious beliefs, race, or language
war conventions have rarely been applied. The
just-war tradition is as old as warfare itself.
Early records of collective fighting indicate
that some moral considerations were used by
warriors. They may have involved consideration of
women and children or the treatment of
prisoners. Many philosophers, scholars and
military theorists have generally agreed that
the following six (6) conditions must be
satisfied for a war to be considered just
4
  • Just War Conditions
  • The war must be for a just cause.
  • The war must be lawfully declared by a lawful
    authority.
  • The intention behind the war must be good.
  • All other ways of resolving the problem should
    have been tried first.
  • There must be a reasonable chance of success.
  • The means used must be in proportion to the end
    that the war seeks to achieve.

NOTES
5
  • How should a Just War be fought?
  •   A war that starts as a Just War may stop
    being a Just War if the means used to wage it
    are inappropriate.
  • Shelf Life Window Law of Diminishing
    Returns
  • Innocent people and non-combatants should not be
    harmed.
  • Only appropriate force should be used This
    applies to both the sort of force, and how much
    force is used.
  • Internationally agreed conventions regulating war
    must be obeyed.
  • Question Complicated?difficult to apply?

6
  • Terrorismsome definitions
  • Terrorism is the use or threatened use of force
    designed to bring about political change.
  • Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of
    force to achieve a political objective when
    innocent people are targeted.
  • Terrorism is premeditated, politically motivated
    violence perpetrated against noncombatant
    targets.
  • Terrorism is the premeditated, deliberate,
    systematic murder, mayhem, and threatening of the
    innocent to create fear and intimidation in order
    to gain a political or tactical advantage,
    usually to influence an audience.

7
  • Terrorismsome definitions
  • Terrorism is the unlawful use or threat of
    violence against persons or property to further
    political or social objectives. It is usually
    intended to intimidate or coerce a government,
    individuals or groups, or to modify their
    behavior or politics.
  • Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or
    violence against persons or property to
    intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian
    population, or any segment thereof, in
    furtherance of political or social objectives.

8
  • Terrorismand, lastly
  • What sets terrorism apart from other violence is
    this terrorism consists of acts carried out in a
    dramatic way to attract publicity and create an
    atmosphere of alarm that goes far beyond the
    actual victims. Indeed, the identity of the
    victims is often secondary or irrelevant to the
    terrorists who aim their violence at the people
    watching. This distinction between actual victims
    and a target audience is the hallmark of
    terrorism and separates it from other modes of
    armed conflict. Terrorism is theater.

Question Which definition do you think the
United States should use in its War on
Terrorism? Why?
9
The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations defines
terrorism as "..the unlawful use of force and
violence against persons or property to
intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian
population, or any segment thereof, in
furtherance of political or social objectives (28
C.F.R. Section 0.85). The FBI describes
terrorism as either domestic or international,
depending on the origin, base, and objectives of
the terrorists
10
Classifications of Terrorism
NOTES
  • Revolutionary

2. Subrevolutionary/Anarchist
3. Repressive/Establishment
CASE STUDY
Ramírez Sánchez Carlos
the Jackal
Cell Strategy
Internationalization
State Sponsorship
Counter Tactics
11
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
12
Venezuela Wealthy Educated Communist Multi-lingual
PFLP Attacks OPEC Mobility Sudan 1994
capture Isabelle Coutant-Peyre
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
13
SUICIDE BOMBING
ORIGINS TACTICS MINDSET COUNTER TACTICS
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
14
INTERNATIONAL NETWORK
  • MECHANICS
  • STATE/ORGANIZATIONAL SPONSORSHIP
  • DIAGRAM
  • COUNTER TACTICS

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
15
"Israel is a rotten, dried tree that will be
annihilated in one storm." "Anybody
who recognizes Israel will burn in the fire of
the Islamic nation's fury."
Iranian President
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
16
C
C
I
T
C
C
N
N
TERRORIST NETWORK
N
17
WEAPONS
  • CATEGORIES
  • CONVENTIONAL
  • UNCONVENTIONAL
  • NUCLEAR
  • CHEMICAL
  • BIOLOGICAL
  • CYBER
  • TARGETS
  • MARKETPLACE
  • COUNTER TACTICS

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
18
IEDs
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
19
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
20
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
21
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
22
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
23
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
24
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
25
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
26
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
27
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
28
  • Iraq is one of the most heavily mined nations in
    the world.
  • As of early 2003, it was estimated that there
    were over 10 million mines already in the
    ground8 million antipersonnel (AP) and 2 million
    antitank (AT), with Iraq both a producer and
    exporter of AP mines.
  • Iraq is considered one of the most mine-infested
    nations in the world.
  • Iraq emplaced minefields for three main purposes
  • To protect its borders during the lengthy war
    with Iran (1980 through 1988).
  • To ward off invasion during the Gulf War
    (1990 through 1991).
  • To subdue the Kurdish population in northern
    Iraq.

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
29
Types of Chemical Weapons
Sarin A nerve gas the Aum Shinrikyo cult used on
a Tokyo subway in March 1995. VX Like all
nerve agents, it is a colorless liquid. The
United States began producing VX in April 1961.
VX agents are among the most toxic substances
known mere droplets can kill. Sarin and VX are
the most common chemical weapon agents today.
30
Types of Chemical Weapons
Tabun Invented by a German chemist, Gerhard
Schrader, in the mid-1930s. Like Zyklon-B--used
by the Nazis to gas victims--Tabun was developed
as a pesticide. Mustard agents Cause severe eye
and lung damage. Saddam Hussein authorized their
use (along with cyanide) against Iranian soldiers
and Kurdish civilians in the Iran-Iraq war.
31
Types of Biological Weapons
Anthrax Spores that may lead to lesions,
seizures and respiratory arrest. Ebola
Hemorrhagic Fever Transmitted by direct contact
with the blood, secretions, organs or semen of
infected person. No specific treatment or vaccine
exists. One of the most virulent viral diseases
known to humankind, causing death in 50-90 of
all cases.
32
Types of Biological Weapons
Smallpox
Serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal
infectious disease. No specific treatment --
only prevention vaccination. The pox part of
smallpox is derived from the Latin word for
spotted refers to raised bumps appearing on
face/body of an infected person. First symptoms
fever, malaise, head/body aches vomiting.

Rash
emerges first as small red spots on tongue and in
mouth.

Usually the rash spreads to all parts of the
body within 24 hours. Bumps become pustules

Fever, dehydration are serious
risks.
Enclosed spaces will accelerate
contagion
33
Types of Biological Weapons
Ricin Potent toxin. Can be delivered via
inhalation, injection or ingestion. Produced
relatively easily and inexpensively in large
quantities in a fairly low-technology setting.
During the 1980's Iran-Iraq war, Ricin may have
been used. Results in seizures, central nervous
system depression, severe lung damage, bloody
diarrhea and vomiting. No treatment currently
available. If exposure does not prove fatal
within 3-5 days, the victim will usually recover.
34
Terrorist Organizations
  • Focus groups
  • al-QAEDA
  • HAMAS
  • HEZBOLLAH
  • FATAH Not recognized as terrorist
    organization, yet maintains strong stance against
    Israeli occupation of Gaza, West Bank, Jerusalem.

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
35
al-Qaeda
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
36
AL-QAEDA
the Base
  • Bin Laden was born in Saudi Arabia in 1957 to a
    Syrian mother and Yemeni father.
  • He is one of 50 children of the multiple wives
    of Mohammed bin Laden, a construction magnate who
    made his fortune building palaces for the Saudi
    royal family.
  • Inherited 30 million to 300 million

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
37
  • As a student in Jeddah in the late 1970s, bin
    Laden fell in with the Muslim Brotherhood, a
    radical group devoted to establishing a
    pan-Islamic state.
  • 1979-89 war against the Soviets. Bin Laden raised
    money and supplied heavy machinery for the
    anticommunist mujahadeen, or holy warriors,
    fighting the Soviet invasion.

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
38
  • Bin Laden forged an alliance with radical
    Islamist groups in Egypt and elsewhere,
    organizing al-Qaeda in 1988
  • In the 1980s, bin Laden disdained America for its
    alliances with Israel and moderate Muslim states,
    but it was the Gulf crisis that crystallized his
    hatred.
  • When Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, bin Laden
    wanted Arab veterans of the Afghan war to help
    the Saudi army defend Saudi Arabia.

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
39
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
40
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
41
(No Transcript)
42
(No Transcript)
43
(No Transcript)
44
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
45
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
46
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
47
(No Transcript)
48
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
49
The destroyer was the target of a suspected
terrorist attack in the port of Aden, Yemen, on
October 12, 2000, during a scheduled refueling.
The attack killed 17 crew members and injured 39
others.
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
50
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
51
Hamas
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
52
HAMAS Arabic, acronym for "Harakat
Al-Muqawama Al-Islamia"
Islamic Resistance Movement
  • Sheikh Ahmad Yasin
  • Khalid Misha'al
  • Dr. Mousa Abu Marzook
  • Abraham Ghousheh
  • Dr. Abdel Aziz Rantisi
  • Mohammed Nazzal

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
53
  • Organization/History
  • Largest most influential Palestinian militant
    movement.
  • 2006, won Palestinian Authority's (PA) general
    elections
  • Defeated Fatah, party of PA's president,
    Mahmoud Abbas
  • Refusal to recognize Israel
  • Sponsors extensive social service network.

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
54
  • Organization/History
  • Hamas has also operated a terrorist wing
  • Suicide bombings/attacks w) mortars short-range
    rockets
  • In Arabic, the word "hamas" means zeal
  • But it's also an Arabic acronym for "Harakat
    al-Muqawama al-Islamiya," or Islamic Resistance
    Movement
  • Hamas grew out of the Muslim Brotherhood,
  • Religious/political organization founded in Egypt
  • Branches throughout the Arab world

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
55
  • Organization/History
  • Hamas founder/spiritual leader Sheikh
    Ahmed Yassin
  • Hamas published official charter 1988
  • 1st Hamas suicide bombing April 1993
  • Operates as an opposition group in Gaza, the
    West Bank, and inside Israel.

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
56
  • Organization/History
  • Hamas combines Palestinian nationalism with
    Islamic fundamentalism
  • founding charter commits to destruction of Israel
  • Raising the banner of Allah over every inch of
    Palestine."
  • Leaders have called suicide attacks the "F-16" of
    the Palestinian people.
  • Hamas believes "peace talks will do no good"
    "We do not believe we can live with the enemy."

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
57
  • Is Hamas only a terrorist group?
  • No
  • In addition to military wing, the Izz al-Din
    al-Qassam Brigade, Hamas devotes much of its
    estimated 70M annual budget to extensive social
    services network
  • Funds schools, orphanages, mosques, healthcare
    clinics, soup kitchens, and sports leagues
  • Approximately 90 percent of its work is in
    social, welfare, cultural, and educational
    activities," writes the Israeli scholar Reuven
    Paz

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
58
  • Is Hamas only a terrorist group?
  • Military wing gt1,000 active
  • 1,000s of supporters sympathizers.
  • 2004, gt 200,000 Palestinians marched in Yassins
    funeral.
  • Money from Palestinian expatriates, private
    Saudi donors, Iran, charities in the United
    States, Canada, and Western Europe

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
59
  • Hamas is believed to have killed more than five
    hundred people in more than 350 separate
    terrorist attacks since 1993
  • Not all Hamas attacks suicide bombings
  • Also accepted responsibility for assaults using
    mortars, short-range rockets, and small arms
    fire.
  • How does Hamas recruit suicide bombers?
  • The organization generally targets deeply
    religious young men although some bombers
    have been older.

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
60
  • How does Hamas recruit suicide bombers?
  • Recruits do not fit usual psychological profile
    of suicidal people, who are often desperate or
    clinically depressed
  • Hamas bombers often hold paying jobs
  • What they have in common, studies say, is an
    intense hatred of Israel
  • After a bombing, Hamas gives the family of the
    suicide bomber between 3,000-5,000 and assures
    them their son died a martyr in holy jihad

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
61
  • How does Hamas train the bombers?
  • Recruits undergo intense religious
    indoctrination, attend lectures, and undertake
    long fasts
  • The week before the bombing, the volunteers are
    watched closely by two Hamas activists for any
    signs of wavering, according to Nasra Hassan,
    writing in the New Yorker.
  • Shortly before the sacred explosion, as Hamas
    calls it, the bomber records a video testament.

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
62
  • How does Hamas train the bombers?
  • To draw inspiration, he repeatedly watches his
    video and those made by his predecessors and then
    sets off for his would-be martyrdom after
    performing a ritual ablution and donning clean
    clothes.
  • Hamas clerics assure the bombers their deaths
    will be painless and that dozens of virgins await
    them in paradise.
  • The average bombing costs about 150

ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
63
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
64
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
65
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
66
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
67
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
68
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
69
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
70
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
71
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
72
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
73
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
74
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
75
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
76
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
77
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
78
HEZBOLLAH
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
79
Hizballah, Hezbollah

Radical Shia group formed in 1982 in Lebanon.
Strongly
anti-Western and anti-Israeli.
Closely allied with,
and often directed by, Iran.
Known/suspected in
numerous anti-U.S. terrorist attacks, including
suicide truck bombing of the U.S. Embassy
U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut in October 1983
U.S. Embassy annex in Beirut in September
1984. Also attacked Israeli Embassy in
Argentina in 1992 Operates in the Bekaa Valley,
southern suburbs of Beirut, S. Leb. Cells in
Europe, Africa, South America, North America,
Asia. Receives substantial amounts of financial,
training, weapons, explosives, political,
diplomatic, organizational aid from Iran,
Syria.

80
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
81
The flag of Hezbollah Green logo Shi'a
political/military organization
Yellow background Logo ??? ???? "Party
of God" First letter of "Allah" reaches up to
grasp a Kalashnikov rifle Other objects globe,
book, sword, seven-leafed branch. Much of design
from Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps. Text
above the logo ??? ??? ???? ?? ????????
"Then surely the party of God are they that
shall be triumphant" Underneath the logo
???????? ????????? ?? ????? "The Islamic
Resistance in Lebanon"
82
(No Transcript)
83
(No Transcript)
84
(No Transcript)
85
(No Transcript)
86
(No Transcript)
87
Hezbollah's deputy leader Sheik Naim Qassem
speaks in Tyre, Lebanon, during Martyrs' Day
celebrations in 2005.
88
(No Transcript)
89
(No Transcript)
90
(No Transcript)
91
(No Transcript)
92
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
93
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
94
Propaganda Poster
95
(No Transcript)
96
Fatah ltNot recognized as terrorist organization,
yet maintains strong stance against Israeli
occupation of Gaza, West Bank, Jerusalemgt
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
97
FATAH
The Movement for the National Liberation of
Palestine (Fatah) was founded in the early 1960s
Backed by Syria, Fatah began carrying out
terrorist raids against Israeli targets in
1965 "Fatah" is a reverse acronym of the Arabic,
Harekat at-Tahrir al-Wataniyyeh al-Falastiniyyeh.
The word "Fatah" means "conquest by means of
jihad. Note the grenade and crossed rifles,
superimposed on the map of Israel in the emblem.
This emphasizes the dedication of Fatah, along
with the other "liberation" groups, to the "armed
struggle" against Israel, a euphemism for
terrorism against civilians.
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
98
FATAH
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
99
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
100
(No Transcript)
101
(No Transcript)
102
(No Transcript)
103
(No Transcript)
104
(No Transcript)
105
Key Political Players
ACW The Middle East Terrorism
2006-07
106
President Bashar al-Assad
Yasser Arafat
Hassan Nasrallah
King Abdullah II
Mahmoud Abbas
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin ?
About PowerShow.com