Walter Lippmann - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Walter Lippmann PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6ab2-MDEwN


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Walter Lippmann


... FBI, under Hoover, collected information on all America's leading politicians. ... The more famous of the Palmer raids was December 21, in which 249 people were ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1066
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 93
Provided by: michae71
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Walter Lippmann

Walter Lippmann Drift and Mastery (1914)
  • Lippmann was born in New York City to
    German-Jewish parents. The family lived a
    comfortable, if not privileged, life. Annual
    family trips to Europe were the rule.
  • At age 17, he entered Harvard University where he
    concentrated on philosophy and languages (he
    spoke both German and French) and graduated after
    only three years of study.
  • Lippmann was a journalist, a media critic and a
    philosopher who argued that true democracy is a
    goal that cannot be reached in a complex,
    industrial world.
  • In 1913, Lippmann became one of the founding
    editors of The New Republic magazine. During
    World War I, Lippmann became an advisor to
    President Woodrow Wilson, and assisted in the
    drafting of Wilsons Fourteen Points.

Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery (1914)
  • Early on, Lippmann was optimistic about American
    democracy. He embraced the Jeffersonian ideal and
    believed that the American people would become
    intellectually engaged in political and world
    issues and fulfill their democratic role as an
    educated electorate. He later rejected this
  • Lippmann coined the word stereotype and he
    criticized journalists for stereotyping people.
    He argued that seeing through stereotypes
    subjected us to partial truths, and that when
    analyzing a problem or event, people are more apt
    to believe "the pictures in their heads" than
    come to judgment by critical thinking.

During the 1920s, Walter Lippmann published two
of the most penetrating indictments of democracy
every written, Public Opinion and The Phantom
Public, valedictories to Progressive hopes for
the application of intelligence to social
problems via mass democracy. Instead of acting
out of careful consideration of the issues or
even individual or collective self-interest, the
American voter, Lippmann claimed, was
ill-informed, myopic, and prone to fits of
enthusiasm. The government, like advertising c
opywriters and journalists, had perfected the art
of creating and manipulating public opiniona
process Lippmann called the manufacture of
consentwhile at the same time consumerism was
sapping Americans concern for public issues.
(Eric Foner, The Story of American Freedom, p.
Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery (1914)
1. There is a consensus that business methods ne
ed to change. The leading thought of our world
has ceased to regard commercialism either as
permanent or desirable, and the only real
question among intelligent people is how business
methods are to be alerted, not whether they are
to be altered. 2. The chaos of too much fr
eedom and the weaknesses of democracy are our
real problem. The battle for us, in short, doe
s not lie against crusted prejudice, but against
the chaos of a new freedom. This chaos is our
real problem. So if the younger critics are to
meet the issues of their generation they must
give their attention, not so much to the evils of
authority, as to the weaknesses of democracy….
Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery (1914)
3. Many are absorbed and overly worried about ev
il conspiracies against society.
The sense of conspiracy and secret scheming whi
ch transpire is almost uncanny. Big Business,
and its ruthless tentacles, have become the
material for the feverish fantasy of illiterate
thousands thrown out of kilter by the rack and
strain of modern life. It is possible to work
yourself into a state where the world seems a
conspiracy and your daily gong is beset with an
alert and tingling sense of labyrinthine evil.
Everything askewall the frictions of life are
readily ascribed to a deliberate evil
intelligence, and men like Morgan and Rockefeller
take on attributes of omnipotence, that ten
minutes of cold sanity would reduce to a
barbarous myth….
Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery (1914)
4. Although there is little legal basis for it,
the standards of the public life are being
applied to certain parts of the business world,
thus making businessmen think more about their
responsibilities, and their stewardship.
As muckraking developed, it began to apply the
standards of public life to certain parts of the
business world…. The cultural basis of property
is radically altered, however much the law may
lag behind in recognizing the change. So if the
stockholders think they are the ultimate owners
of the Pennsylvania railroad, they are colossally
mistaken. Whatever the law may be, the people
have no such notion. And the men who are
connected with these essential properties cannot
escape the fact that they are expected to act
increasingly as public officials
…What puzzles them beyond words is that anyone
should presume to meddle with their business.
What they will learn is that it is no longer
altogether their business. The law may not have
realized this, but the fact is being
accomplished, and its a fact grounded deeper
than statutes. Big business men who are at all
intelligent recognize this. They are talking more
and more about their responsibilities, their
stewardship. It is the swan-song of the old
commercial profiteering and a dim recognition
that the motives in business are undergoing a
Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery (1914)
5. The crime is serious in proportion to the de
gree of loyalty that we expect.
American life is saturated with the very relati
onship which in politics we call corrupt…. But in
the politician it is mercilessly condemned.
…In literal truth the politician is attacked fo
r displaying the morality of his constituents.
I suppose that from the beginning of the republ
ic people had always expected their officials to
work at a level less self-seeking than that of
ordinary life. So that corruption in politics
could never be carried on with an entirely good
conscious. But at the opening of this century,
democratic people had begun to see much greater
possibilities in the government than ever before.
They looked to it as a protector from economic
tyranny and as the dispenser of the prime
institutions of democratic life.
But when they went to the government, what they
found was a petty and partisan, slavish and
blind, clumsy and rusty instrument for their
expectations. …when mens vision of governmen
t enlarged, then the cost of corruption and
inefficiency rose for they meant a blighting of
the whole possibility of the state.
Corruption became a real problem when reform th
rough state action began to take hold of mens
Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery (1914)
6. Americans need to deal with life deliberately
. We should organize our society, and actively
formulate it and educate it. We should substitute
purpose for tradition. America is preeminently
the country where there is practical substance
in Nietzsches advice that we should live not for
our fatherland but for our childrens land.
To do this men have to substitute purpose for
tradition and that is, I believe, the
profoundest change that has ever taken place in
human history. We can no longer treat life as
something that has trickled down to us. We have
to deal with it deliberately, devise its social
organization, alter its tools, formulate its
method, educate and control it. In endless ways
we put intention where custom has reigned. We
break up routines, make decisions, choose our
ends, select means….
Abrams v. United States (1919)
U.S. Supreme Court Background ? Abrams and the
other defendants were all born in Russia. They
were intelligent and had considerable schooling.
? Three of them testified as witnesses in their
own behalf, and called themselves revolutionists
and they did not believe in government of any
form and said they had no interest in the
government of the United States.
? The fourth said he was a socialist and believed
in a proper form of government that was not
capitalistic and in his opinion the U.S.
government was capitalistic. ? The leaflets were
printed in English and Yiddish criticizing
American intervention in the Russian Revolution.
They met in rooms rented by Abrams, who bought a
printing outfit, and installed it in a basement
where the work was done at night. Some of the
leaflets were distributed by throwing them from a
window where one of the defendants was employed.
? WWI was still in progress.
Main Points ? Abrams and his colleagues were cha
rged on 4 counts of conspiring
1) disloyal and abusive language about the form
of Government of the United States
2) the language intended to bring the form of
Government of the United States into

3) the language "intended to i
ncite, provoke, and encourage resistance to the
United States in said war 4) when the United St
ates was at war with the Imperial German
Government…unlawfully and willfully ... to urge,
incite and advocate curtailment of production
of…ordnance and ammunition, necessary and
essential to the prosecution of the war
? Although it was argued that the Espionage Act
was unconstitutional and in conflict with the
First Amendment, it was argued briefly and proven
otherwise On the record thus described it is ar
gued, somewhat faintly, that the acts charged
against the defendants were not unlawful because
within the protection of that freedom of speech
and of the press which is guaranteed by the First
Amendment to the Constitution of the United
States, and that the entire Espionage Act is
unconstitutional because in conflict with that
Amendment. This contention is sufficiently
discussed and is definitely negative in Schenck
v. United States.
Main Points ? According to Holmes there was not
enough evidence to promote danger or hinder the
success of the government Now nobody can suppo
se that the surreptitious publishing of a silly
leaflet by an unknown man, without more, would
present any immediate danger that its opinions
would hinder the success of the government arms
or have any appreciable tendency to do so.
? They were found guilty by the original court
by bringing upon the country the paralysis of a
general strike, thereby arresting the production
of all munitions and other things essential to
the conduct of war...Thus ...the defendants were
guilty as charged...and...the judgment of the
District Court must be Affirmed.
? If in the event the threat poses no clear and
present danger, the best place to dismiss
dangerous or disagreeable ideas is in the market
place of ideas. Persuasion is more persistent
than imprisoning people with dangerous and
disagreeable ideas. But when men have realized
that time has upset many fighting faiths, they
may come to believe even more than they believe
the very foundations of their own conduct that
the ultimate good desired is better reached by
free trade in ideas that the best test of truth
is the power of the thought to get itself
accepted in the competition of the market, and
that truth is the only ground upon, which their
wishes safely can be carried out.
Historical Significance
  • Abrams v. United States was during the time while
    America intervening into the Russian Revolution
  • The case involved the 1918 amendment to the
    Espionage Act of 1917 which made it a criminal
    offense to criticize the U.S. Federal
  • The case was overturned during the Vietnam War
    Era in Brandenburg v. Ohio. The decision was
    based on Holmes argument of clear and present

Herbert Hoover, Financing Relief Efforts (1931)
Main Points 1. The best way to help people du
ring times of national difficulty is through
mutual self-help and voluntary giving.
  My own conviction is strongly that if we break
down this sense of responsibility of individual
generosity to individual and mutual self-help in
the country in time of national difficulty and if
we start appropriations of this character we have
not only impaired something infinitely valuable
in the life of the American people but have
struck at the roots of self-government. (p. 109)
Herbert Hoover, Financing Relief Efforts (1931)
2. Federal aid to the hungry and poor encourages
expectations of future paternal care and weakens
Americans self-reliant character. It also
weakens Americans willingness to help each other
and give to each other, and thus enfeebles the
bonds of common brotherhood.   Quotation of Pre
sident Grover Cleveland by President Herbert
Hoover The friendliness and charity of our
countrymen can always be relied upon to relieve
their fellow citizens in misfortune. This has
been repeatedly and quite lately demonstrated.
Federal aid in such cases encouraged the
expectation of paternal care on the part of the
Government and weakens the sturdiness of our
national character, while it prevents the
indulgence among our people of that kindly
sentiment and conduct which strengthens the bonds
of a common brotherhood. (p. 110)
President Herbert Hoover The help being daily e
xtended by neighbors, by local and national
agencies, by municipalities, by industry and a
great multitude of organizations throughout the
country today is many times any appropriation yet
proposed. The opening of the doors of the Federal
Treasury is likely to stifle this giving and thus
destroy far more resources than the proposed
charity from the Federal Government. (p. 110)
  • Socialist Party Platform (1932)
  • Norman Mattoon Thomas (1884-1968)
  • Took over leadership of the Socialist Party after
    the death of Eugene Debs in 1926.
  • Was the partys presidential candidate six
  • Polled his highest vote in 1932 with 880,000
  • Some members of the socialist party were W.E.B.
    DuBois, Margaret Sanger, and Helen Keller.
  • Democratic Socialism," is defined by the
    Socialist Party as a political and economic
    system with freedom and equality for all, so that
    people may develop to their fullest potential in
    harmony with others. The party further states
    that it is committed to full freedom of speech,
    assembly, press, and religion and to a
    multi-party system and that the ownership and
    control of the production and distribution of
    goods should be democratically controlled public
    agencies, cooperatives, or other collective
  • (source http//

  • Socialist Party Platform (1932)
  • Main Points
  • Socialist feel there are many flaws with the
    capitalist system, which is now in the process of
    breaking down, resulting in human suffering.
  • We are facing a breakdown of the capitalist
    system…Unemployment and poverty are inevitable
    products of the present system.
  • The Socialist Party believes that workers are
    exploited by a capitalist economy.
  • Under capitalism the few own our industries.
    The many do the work. The wage earners and
    farmers are compelled to give a large part of the
    product of their labor to the few. The many in
    the factories, mines, shops, offices and on the
    farms obtain but a scanty income and are able to
    buy back only a part of the goods that can be
    produced in such abundance by our mass
    industries. (http//

  • Socialist Party Platform (1932)
  • By voting for the Socialist Party you can help
    remove the struggles that the capitalist system
    has created.
  • The Socialist Party is to-day the one democratic
    party of the worker whose program would remove
    the causes of class struggles, class antagonisms,
    and social evils inherent in the capitalist
  • It proposes to transfer the principal industries
    of the country from private ownership and
    autocratic, cruelly inefficient management to
    social ownership and democratic control…It
    proposes the following measures…
  • The American people will never knowingly adopt
    Socialism but under the name of liberalism, they
    will adopt every fragment of the Socialist
    program until America will one day be a Socialist
    nation without knowing how it happened.
  • Norman Thomas six-time Socialist Party candidate
    for President

Source http//
Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933)
  The only thing we have to fear is fear itse
lf. This great Nation will endure as it has endu
red, will revive and will prosper. So, first of
all, let me assert my firm belief that the only
thing we have to fear is fear itselfnameless,
unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes
needed effort to convert retreat into advance.
  We need to act immediately to put people back t
o work.   This Nation asks for action, and action
now. Our greatest primary task is to put people
back to work. This is no unsolvable problem if we
face it wisely and courageously. It can be
accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the
Government itself, treating the task as we would
treat the emergency of a war, but at the same
time, through this employment, accomplishing
greatly needed projects to simulate and
reorganize the use of our natural resources.
 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933)
America has plenty of natural resources and hard
-working people. Our troubles are due to
unscrupulous money changers. …Our distress co
mes from no failure of substance…. Nature still
offers her bounty and human efforts have
multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a
generous use of it languishes in the very sight
of the supply. Primarily this is because the
rules of the exchange of mankinds goods have
failed, through their own stubbornness and their
own incompetence, have admitted their failure,
and abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous
money changers stand indicted in the court of
public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds
of men…. They know only the rules of a generation
of self-seekers. They have no vision, and when
there is no vision the people perish. …There
must be an end to a conduct in banking and in
business which too often has given to a sacred
trust the likeness of callous and selfish
  •  Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933)
  • We can fix the American system.
  • The task can be helped by definite efforts to
    raise the values of agricultural products and
    with this the power to purchase the output of our
  • It can be helped by preventing realistically the
    tragedy of the growing loss through foreclosure
    of our small homes and our farms.
  • It can be helped by insistence that the Federal,
    State, and local governments act forthwith on the
    demand that their cost be drastically reduced.
  • It can be helped by the unifying of relief
    activities which today are often scattered,
    uneconomical, and unequal.
  • It can be helped by national planning for and
    supervision of all forms of transportation and of
    communications and other utilities which have
    definitely public character.
  • There must be a strict supervision of all banking
    and credits and investments there must be an end
    to speculation with other peoples money, and
    there must be provision for an adequate but sound

 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933)
I am prepared to invoke emergency powers to so
lve our problems. It is to be hoped that the no
rmal balance of executive and legislative
authority may be wholly adequate to meet the
unprecedented task before us. But if this
fails, I shall ask the Congress for the one
remaining instrument to meet the crisisbroad
Executive power to wage a war against the
emergency, as great as the power that would be
given to me if we were in fact invaded by a
foreign foe.
 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address (1933)
The government needs to create and implement saf
eguards to prevent a future Great Depression.
  Finally, in our progress toward a resumption of
work we require two safeguards against a return
of the evils of the old order there must be a
strict supervision of all banking and credits and
investments there must be an end to speculation
with other peoples money, and there must be
provision for an adequate but sound currency.
  In foreign policy, the United States will, like
a good neighbor, respect the rights of others.
  In the field of world policy I would dedicate t
his Nation to the policy of the good neighborthe
neighbor who resolutely respects himself and,
because he does so, respects the rights of
othersthe neighbor who respects his obligation
and respects the sanctity of his agreements in
and with a world of neighbors.
Roosevelt consciously abandoned the term
progressive and chose instead to employ
liberal to define himself and his
administration. In so doing, he transformed
liberalism from a shorthand for weak government
and laissez-faire economics into belief in an
activist, socially conscious state, an
alternative both to socialism and to unregulated
capitalism. (Foner, The Story of American
Freedom, pp. 201-204.)
Redefining Liberalism
Freedom, Hoover insisted, meant unfettered
economic opportunity for the enterprising
individual. Far from being an element of liberty,
the quest for economic security was turning
Americans into lazy parasites dependent on the
state. For the remainder of his life, Hoover
continued to call himself a liberal, even
though, he charged, the word had been polluted
and raped of all its real meanings. (Foner, The
Story of American Freedom, p. 205.)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt The Four Freedoms
Delivered 6 January, 1941
  • The FIRST is freedom of speech and expression --
    everywhere in the world.
  • The SECOND is freedom of every person to worship
    God in his own way -- everywhere in the world.
  • The THIRD is freedom from want -- which,
    translated into world terms, means economic
    understandings which will secure to every nation
    a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants --
    everywhere in the world.
  • The FORTH is freedom from fear -- which,
    translated into world terms, means a world-wide
    reduction of armaments to such a point and in
    such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in
    a position to commit an act of physical
    aggression against any neighbor-- anywhere in the

The Truman Doctrine
  • By Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman in the Military
  • Harry S. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri on
    May 8, 1884.
  • In 1905, shortly after graduating from high
    school, Truman served in the Missouri National
  • Part of the 129th Field Artillery and sent to
    France, he and his unit saw action in several
    different campaigns.
  • He was promoted to captain, and after the war he
    joined the reserves eventually rising to the rank
    of colonel.

Harry and Bess Truman
  • On June 28, 1919, Truman married Elizabeth
    Virginia Wallace.
  • Their only child, Mary Margaret, was born on
    February 17, 1924.
  • He ran a men's clothing store in Kansas City but
    due to the post-war recession it failed.
  • Truman began politics in 1922 as one of three
    judges of the Jackson County Court.
  • In 1934, Truman was elected to the United States
    Senate where he gained national prominence as
    chairman of the Senate Special Committee to
    Investigate the National Defense Program.

President Harry S. Truman
  • On January 20, 1945, he took the
    vice-presidential oath, and after President
    Roosevelt's unexpected death, he was sworn in as
    the nations' thirty-third President.
  • Truman's presidency focused on foreign policy
    which was centered on the prevention of Soviet
    influence by which he proposed The Truman

  • Main Point 1 At the present moment in world
    history nearly every nation must choose between
    alternative ways of life. The alternatives are
    between a free society and totalitarianism. The
    choice is too often not a free one.
  • The peoples of a number of countries of the
    world have recently had totalitarian regimes
    forced upon them against their will. This
    imposed aggression undermines the foundations of
    international peace and the security of the
    United States.
  • Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this
    fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to
    the West as well as to the East.
  • Sub-Point 1 One way of life is based upon the
    will of the majority, and is distinguished by
    free institutions, representative government,
    free elections, guarantees of individual liberty,
    freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from
    political oppression.
  • We shall not realize our objectives, unless we
    are willing to help free peoples to maintain
    their free institutions and their national
    integrity against aggressive movements that seek
    to impose upon them totalitarian regimes.
  • If we falter in our leadership, we may
    endanger the peace of the world-and we shall
    surely endanger the welfare of this Nation.
  • Sub-Point 2 The second way of life is based
    upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed
    upon the majority. It relies upon terror and
    oppression, a controlled press and radio fixed
    elections, and the suppression of personal
  • The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured
    by misery and want. They spread and grow in the
    evil soil of poverty and strife. They reach
    their full growth when the hope of a people for a
    better life has died.
  • If Greece should fall under the control of an
    armed minority, the effect upon its neighbor,
    Turkey, would be immediate and serious.
    Confusion and disorder might well spread
    throughout the entire Middle East.

  • Main Point 2 I believe that it must be the
    policy of the United States to support free
    peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation
    by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
  • One of the primary objectives of the foreign
    policy of the U.S. is the creation of conditions
    in which we and other nations will be able to
    work out a way of life free from coercion.
  • This was a fundamental issue in the war with
    Germany and Japan. Our victory was won over
    countries which sought to impose their will, and
    their way of life, upon other nations.
  • Main Point 3 I believe that we must assist free
    peoples to work out their own destinies in their
    own way.
  • Great responsibilities have been placed upon us
    by the swift movement of events.
  • The free peoples of the world look to us for
    support in maintaining their freedom.
  • Our help should be primarily through economic
    and financial aid which is essential to economic
    stability and orderly political process.

J. Edgar Hoover 1895-1972
  • Born January 1, 1895 in Washington, D. C.
  • Parents Dickerson and Anna Hoover
  • Hoover did not obtain a birth certificate until
    he was 43, which fueled suspicions, in and out of
    the bureau, that he was of African-American
    descent a family out of Mississippi tried to
    prove these allegations, but failed.
  • He kept detailed records on himself, teachers,
    and family members starting at a young age.
  • At age 11, started his own newspaper, The Weekly
    Review, that he sold to family and friends for 1

Background continued…
  • His school nickname was Speed because he
    thought fast and talked fast.
  • Hoovers father, Dickerson, spent the last eight
    years of his life in an asylum. His cause of
    death was listed as melancholia clinical
  • 1916 graduated with a law degree from George
    Washington University Law School.
  • Hoover became a Freemason in 1920.

Background continued…
  • Hoovers failure to marry and his constant
    companionship with Clyde Tolson, led to many
    rumors about his sexuality.
  • Clyde Tolson was the sole heir to Hoovers estate
    and was also buried next to Hoover.
  • Hoover was also an avid dog lover.

Head of the FBI
  • Hoover joined the Bureau of Investigation, later
    known as the FBI, in 1921.
  • In 1924 at the age of 29, Hoover was appointed
    acting Director of the BOI and by the end of the
    year he was officially named Director.
  • Hoover remained the Director of the FBI until his
    death on May 2, 1972 at the age of 77.
  • The FBI Headquarters in Washington, D.C. is named
    after Hoover. Because of the controversial nature
    of Hoover's legacy, there have been periodic
    proposals to rename it.

Head of the FBI
  • During his reign over the FBI, Hoover built an
    efficient crime-detection agency, established a
    centralized fingerprint file, a crime laboratory
    and a training institution for police.
  • He dictated every aspect of his agents lives
    from who their friends should or should not be,
    who they should or should not marry, what
    organizations they could or could not join
    decided where they would live monitored their
    morals even told them what to wear and what they
    could weigh and bestowed praise and awards,
    blame and punishments, when he decided they were

Head of the FBI
  • The FBI, under Hoover, collected information on
    all America's leading politicians. Known as
    Hoover's secret files, this material was used to
    influence their actions. It was later claimed
    that Hoover used this incriminating material to
    make sure that the eight presidents that he
    served under, would be too frightened to sack him
    as director of the FBI..
  • Presidents Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy and
    Lyndon Johnson each considered firing Hoover but
    concluded that the political cost of doing so
    would be too great. Richard Nixon twice called in
    Hoover with the intent of firing him, but both
    times he changed his mind when meeting with

Head of the FBI
  • Hoover ignored the existence of organized crime
    in the U.S. until famed muckraker Jack Anderson
    exposed the immense scope of the Mafia's
    organized crime network. It has been suggested
    that Hoover did not pursue the Mafia because they
    had incriminating evidence (photos) against him
    in respect to his sexual orientation.
  • Despite all of these allegations, during his long
    career of public service, Director Hoover
    received three presidential awards, sundry
    citations by Congress, and following his death
    was the first civil servant in U.S. history to
    lie in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.

Political Views
  • Conservative
  • Anti-communist
  • Against suffrage for women
  • Opposed the Civil Rights movement

Major Issues of the Time
  • 1st Red Scare (1917-1920)
  • Espionage Act of 1917
  • Sedition Act of 1918
  • The Palmer Raids
  • House Committee on Un-American Activities
  • WW II
  • Iron Curtain in Europe

"Uncle Sam bids good riddance to the
deportees" (from J. Edgar Hoover's memorabilia
and scrapbook in the National Archives).
  • The more famous of the Palmer raids was December
    21, in which 249 people were dragged from their
    homes, forcibly put on board a ship and deported.

Intended Audience
  • Hoover delivered The Communist Menace before
    the House Committee on Un-American Activities on
    March 26, 1947.

The Communist Menace Main Points
  • 1. The Communist Party of the United States
    intends to destroy the American businessman, take
    over our government, and throw the whole world
    into revolution.
  • The Communist movement in the United
    States…stands for the destruction of free
    enterprise, and it stands for the creation of a
    Soviet of the United States and ultimate world

The Communist Menace Main Points continued…
  • 2. The American programs to help society such as,
    social security, veterans benefits, and welfare
    are all communist ideas used to lure the support
    of unsuspecting citizens.
  • The American progress which all good citizens
    seek, such as old-age security, houses for
    veterans, child assistance and a host of others
    is being adopted as window dressing by the
    Communists to conceal their true aims and entrap
    gullible followers.

The Communist Menace Main Points continued…
  • 3. The greatest threat of communism is not how
    many Communists are in this country, but their
    ability to insert themselves into positions of
    power and their ability to persuade through lies
    and deception. Americans should FEAR the
    communist infiltration of their government and
  • What is important is the claim of the Communists
    themselves that for every party member there are
    10 others ready, willing, and able to do the
    partys work. Herein lies the greatest menace of
    communism. For these people who infiltrate and
    corrupt various spheres of American life. So
    rather than the size of the Communist Party the
    way to weigh its true importance is by testing
    its influence, its ability to infiltrate.
  • …When the Communists overthrew the Russian
    government there was one Communist for every
    2,277 persons in Russia. In the United States
    today there is one Communist for every 1,814
    persons in the country…

Historical Significance
  • 2nd Red Scare (1947-1957)
  • 1947 - Ronald Reagan and wife Jane Wyman provide
    to the FBI names of SAG members believed to be
    communist sympathizers.
  • 1947 - Top Hollywood executives decide not to
    employ individuals who refused to answer
    questions about communist infiltration of the
    film industry
  • McCarthyism starts(1950) Sen. Joseph P.
    McCarthy says he has a list of 205 communists in
    the State Department.
  • 1950 - California Legislature passes a bill
    requiring state employees to sign a loyalty oath.

  • 1953 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, convicted of
    conspiring to commit espionage on behalf of the
    Soviet Union, are executed.

Farewell Address (1961)   Dwight D. Eisenhower
    Born 1890 at Dennison, Tex.   Parents mov
ed to Abilene, Kansas when he was a boy
  1911-1915 --Attended West Point Profession 
Soldier 1941-- Participated in the Louisiana Mane
uvers . 1942--Commanded the invasion of North Afr
ica 1944-1945--Supreme Commander of AEF Rank 
5 star General 1945-1948Chief of Staff 1948- 19
50President of Columbia University
                Lamont-Doharty Oceanographic
Laboratory established   Political philosophyth
e least government is the best government.
  1950-1952--  Supreme Commander of NATO Forces
  1953-1961President of the United States
Presidential Achievements   Negotiated end to Ko
rean conflict   Appointed Earl Warren to United
States Supreme Court   1957Sent troops to Littl
e Rock to desegregate Central High school
  Established American oil policy   Got congres
s to finance Interstate Highway system.  44,000
miles built.   Alaska and Hawaii admitted to the
Union.   Settled the Tidelands  dispute with Te
xas and other coastal states.   1960Apologized
to Russia over U-2 incident.   Principle writing
s   1963Mandate for Change   1965Waging Pea
ce   Died 1969   Buried at Abilene, Kansas  
Memorial  United States silver dollar.
Farewell Address   Point 1--  America is the str
ongest, the most influential and the most
productive nation in the world.
a)  Our pre-eminence depends on how we use our
power in the interest of world peace and human
betterment.             b). The basic purpose of
our government is to keep the peace, foster
progress in human achievement and to enhance
liberty, dignity and integrity among people and
among nations.             c). The people expect
their president and congress to find essential
agreement on issues of great moment, the wise
resolution of which will better shape the future
of the Nation.             d). The Congress and
the administration have, on most vital issues,
cooperated well to save the national good rather
than mere partisanship.   Point 2--  We face a
n ideological crisis and crises of some kind will
continue to require our undying attention. 
                    To many we should look for a
miraculous solution to each crisis.  This
solution may be to increase defense or basic and
applied research.  Each program must be weighed
in the light of a broader considerations.  The
need is to balance in and among national programs.
Eisenhowers Farewell Address
Point 3A vital element in keeping peace is our
military establishment.                      Our
arms must be ready for instant action to deter
an aggressor.           We cannot return to isola
tionism.   Point 4The impact of the  military e
stablishment pervades the social, economic and
political polices of the country.
            a).  We annually spend on military se
curity more than net income of all United States
corporations.             b).  The total influen
ce economic, political, even spiritual is felt
around the world.             c). The sweeping c
hange in our industrial-military posture has been
the technological revolution during recent
decades.  Much of our military research has been
conducted at government expense for and by the
Federal government.   5.  Main Point--  The gove
rnment must guard against the acquisition of
unwarranted influence by the military-industrial
complex.             Only an alert and knowledge
able citizenry can mesh the military machinery of
defense with peaceful methods and goals, so that
security and liberty may prosper together. 
Defense spending reaches every congressional
district in the United States.
Eisenhowers Farewell Address
6.  Main Point--The citizenry must beware the
prospect of the Federal government to dominate
the national scholars by government funding of
projects.            a).  Public policy could i
tself become the captive of a
          scientific- technological elite.
  Point 7 --  We must live today with respect for
the future and avoid plundering our resources
and international goodwill.   Point 8 --  The wo
rld must become a proud confederation of mutual
trust and respect in which all must be equal.  
Eisenhowers Farewell Address
Main Point 1 People should work together for t
he interest of the American people.
Our people expect their President and the
Congress to find essential agreement on issues of
great moment, the wise resolution of which will
better shape the future of the Nation.
In this final relationship, the Congress and the
Administration have, on most vital issues,
cooperated well, to serve the national good
rather than mere partisanship, and so have
assured that the business of the Nation should go
forward. So, my official relationship with the
Congress ends in a feeling, on my part, of
gratitude that we have been able to do so much
together. Main Point 2 America-today, is the s
trongest nation in the world, and we must use our
strength to promote world peace and human
betterment. We now stand ten years past the midpo
int of a century that has witnessed four major
wars among great nations. Despite these
holocausts America is today the strongest, the
most influential and most productive nation in
the world. Understandably proud of this pre-emine
nce, we yet realize that America's leadership and
prestige depend, not merely upon our unmatched
material progress, riches and military strength,
but on how we use our power in the interests of
world peace and human betterment.
  • Eisenhowers Farewell Address
  • Main Point 3 We are in a dangerous world
    struggle with the ruthless Soviet block.
  • It commands our whole attention, absorbs our very
    beings. We face a hostile ideology-global in
    scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in
    purpose, and insidious in method. Unhappily the
    danger it poses promises to be of indefinite
    duration. To meet it successfully, there is
    called for, not so much the emotional and
    transitory sacrifices of crisis, but rather those
    which enable us to carry forward steadily,
    surely, and without complaint the burdens of a
    prolonged and complex struggle-with liberty at
    stake. Only thus shall we remain, despite every
    provocation, on our charted course toward
    permanent peace and human betterment.
  • Main Point 4 Balance in Government is Good
  • In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic,
    great or small, there is a recurring temptation
    to feel that some spectacular and costly action
    could become the miraculous solution to all
    current difficulties.
  • But each proposal must be weighed in the light of
    a broader consideration the need to maintain
    balance in and among national programs… Good
    judgment seeks balance and progress lack of it
    eventually finds imbalance and frustration.
  • Sub-point 1 A vital element in keeping the peace
    is our military establishment.
  • Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant
    action, so that no potential aggressor may be
    tempted to risk his own destruction.
  • Our military organization today bears little
    relation to that known by any of my predecessors
    in peace time, or indeed by the fighting men of
    World War II or Korea.

  • Eisenhowers Farewell Address
  • Main Point 5 Dangers of the Military-Industrial
  • This conjunction of an immense military
    establishment and a large arms industry is new in
    the American experience. The total
    influence-economic, political, even spiritual-is
    felt in every city, every state house, every
    office of the Federal government. We recognize
    the imperative need for this development.
  • In the councils of government, we must guard
    against the acquisition of unwarranted influence,
    whether sought or unsought, by the
    military-industrial complex. The potential for
    the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and
    will persist.
  • We must never let the weight of this combination
    endanger our liberties or democratic processes.
    We should take nothing for granted only an alert
    and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper
    meshing of huge industrial and military machinery
    of defense with our peaceful methods and goals,
    so that security and liberty may prosper
  • Main point 6 There is Danger in trading our free
    ideas for Government contracts.
  • In the same fashion, the free university,
    historically the fountainhead of free ideas and
    scientific discovery, has experienced a
    revolution in the conduct of research.) Partly
    because of the huge costs involved, a government
    contract becomes virtually a substitute for
    intellectual curiosity.
  • Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery
    in respect, as we should, we must also be alert
    to the equal and opposite danger that public
    policy could itself become the captive a of
    scientific-technological elite.
  • It is the task of statesmanship to mold, to
    balance, and to integrate these and other forces,
    new and old, within the principles of our
    democratic system-ever aiming toward the supreme
    goals of our free society.

Eisenhowers Farewell Address
Main point 7 We have a responsibility to pres
erve natural resources for the future of our
grandchildren. As we peer into society's future,
we-you and I, and our government-must avoid the
impulse to live only for today, plundering, for
our own ease and convenience, the precious
resources of tomorrow. We cannot mortgage the
material assets of our grandchildren without
risking the loss also of their political and
spiritual heritage. We want democracy to survive
for all generations to come, not to become the
insolvent phantom of tomorrow.
Main Point 8 Disarmament, with mutual honor and
confidence, is a continuing imperative.
Together we must learn how to compose difference,
not with arms, but with intellect and decent
purpose. Because this need is so sharp and appar
ent I confess that I lay down my official
responsibilities in this field with a definite
sense of disappointment. As one who has witnesse
d the horror and the lingering sadness of war-as
one who knows that another war could utterly
destroy this civilization which has been so
slowly and painfully built over thousands of
years-I wish I could say tonight that a lasting
peace is in sight.
Brown v. Board of Education U. S. Supreme Court
Main Points   1. The Supreme Courts decision in
Brown v. Board of Education is unconstitutional
and violates states rights.      We decry the Sup
reme Court's encroachments on rights reserved to
the States and to the people, contrary to
established law and to the Constitution.
  2.  There are outside agitators that are a thre
at to the system of public education in much of
the South.      Without regard to the consent of
the governed, outside agitators are threatening
immediate and revolutionary changes in our
public-school systems.  If done, this is certain
to destroy the system of public education in some
of the States.  
Brown v. Board of Education U. S. Supreme Court
3.  Desegregation will cause problems between the
races.      "... is creating chaos and confusion
in the states principally affected."
     "... is destroying the amicable relations
between the white and the negro races."
  4.  In the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson a long e
stablished principle was developed, and the
Supreme Court has no legal bases to overturn it. 
     The original constitution does not mention
education.  Neither does the 14th amendment nor
any other amendment.  The debates preceding the
submission of the 14th amendment clearly show
that there was no intent that is should affect
the systems of education maintained by the
states.   5.  There was a clear abuse of judicia
l power in the supreme courts decision of Brown
vs. Board of Education.       We regard the deci
sion of the Supreme Court in the schools cases as
a clear abuse of the judicial power.  It climaxes
a trend in the Federal judiciary undertaking to
legislate, in derogation of the authority of
Congress, and to encroach upon the reserved
rights of the States of the people.
The Southern Manifesto (1956)
  • Sam J. Ervin and others

Historical Context
  • Sam J. Ervin
  • Senator of North Carolina
  • Headed two famous committees taking down
  • Senator Joe McCarthy
  • President Richard M. Nixon
  • Condemned Brown Vs. Board of Education
  • Later changed his mind but continued to oppose
    forced desegregation.

Historical Context Cont.
  • Southern Manifest
  • Written in 1956 by legislators in the US Congress
    opposed to racial integration in public places.
  • Signed by 96 politicians
  • Written to counter the ruling of Brown V. Board
    of Education

Intended Audience
  • Their intended audience was their fellow
    colleagues in Congress and the rest of America

Main Point
  • The Supreme Courts decision in the Brown v.
    Board of Education is a clear abuse of judicial
  • We regard the decision of the Supreme Court in
    the school cases as a clear abuse of judicial
    power. It climaxes a trend in the Federal
    judiciary undertaking to legislate, in derogation
    of the authority of Congress, and to encroach
    upon the reserved rights of the States and the

Main Point
  • The 14th Amendment can not be used as an argument
    for segregation in education.
  • The original Constitution does not mention
    education. Neither does the 14th amendment nor
    any other amendment. The debates preceding the
    submission of the 14th amendment clearly show
    that there was no intent that it should affect
    the systems of education maintained by the

Main Point
  • The concept of separate but equal actually
    started in the North, not the South.
  • Brown v. Board of Education…originated in
    Roberts v. City of Boston (1849) in
  • Not only there but also in, Connecticut, New
    York, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New
    Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and other northern

Main Point
  • Time after time, the Supreme Court ruled it was
    legal to have institutions and facilities
    separate but equal.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Lum v. Rice

Main Point
  • This decision actually hurt relations between the
  • It is destroying the amicable relations between
    the white and Negro races that have been created
    through 90 years of patient effort by the good
    people of both races. It has planted hatred and
    suspicion where there has been heretofore
    friendship and understanding.

Main Point
  • Outside agitators threaten the public school
  • Without regard to the consent of the governed,
    outside agitators are threatening immediate and
    revolutionary changes in our public-school
    systems. If done, this is certain to destroy the
    system of public education in some of the States.

  • Southern whites were outraged, and they dubbed
    May 17 as "Black Monday." Ninety Southern
    Congressmen issued the "Southern Manifesto"
    condemning the Court decision as a usurpation of
    state powers. They said that the Court, instead
    of interpreting the law, was trying to legislate.
    Southern states resurrected the old doctrine of
    interposition which they had used against the
    Federal Government preceding the Civil War.
    Several state legislatures passed resolutions
    stating that the Federal Government did not have
    the power to prohibit segregation. Other
    Southerners resorted to a whole battery of
    tactics. The Ku Klux Klan was revived along with
    a host of new groups such as the National
    Association for the Advancement of White People.
    The White Citizens' councils spearheaded the
    resistance movement. Various forms of violence
    and intimidation became common. Bombings,
    beatings, and murders increased sharply all
    across the South. Outspoken proponents of
    desegregation were harassed in other ways as
    well. They lost their jobs, their banks called in
    their mortgages, and creditors of all kinds came
    to collect their debts.

Source The Black Experience in America Ch.11
Main Points
Letter From Birmingham Jail
  • All communities in America are related.
  • Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice
  • Four basic steps to nonviolent campaign
  • Collection of the facts to determine whether
    injustice exist
  • Negotiation
  • Self-purification
  • Direct action

Main Points
Letter From Birmingham Jail
  • Nonviolent protests draw attention to what has
    previously been ignored.
  • Those with power and privilege dont give up
    voluntarily waiting for the right time never
  • We have waited for more than 340 years for our
    constitutional and God-given rights. The nations
    of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed
    toward gaining political independence, but we
    still creep at horse and buggy pace toward
    gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter.

Main Points
Letter From Birmingham Jail
  • Individuals have the moral responsibility to
    disobey unjust laws.
  • Unjust laws are those who the majority compels
    the minority to obey but does not make it binding
    on themselves.
  • Two types of forces in the Negro community
  • The complacent which are the ones who have
    adjusted to segregation.
  • The other are those filled with bitterness and
    hatred who would advocate violence.

Main Points
Letter From Birmingham Jail
  • The Negro has many pent-up resentments and
    latent frustrations, and he must release them.
    So let him march
  • The churches are not standing up to the moral

The Negro Family (the Moynihan Report)
  • Daniel Patrick Moynihan
  • 1927-2003

The deterioration of the Negro family is the
source of weakness of Negro society.
  • The percent of nonwhite families headed by a
    female is more than double the percent for
  • While the percentage of such families among
    whites has been dropping since 1940, it has been
    rising among Negroes.
  • In essence, the Negro community has been forced
    into a matriarchal structure which, because it is
    so out of line with the rest of American society,
    seriously retards the progress of the group as a
    whole, and imposes a crushing burden on the the
    Negro male and, in consequence on a great many
    Negro women as well.

The nature of man is to be a strong family
leader, but society in the U.S. does not allow
this for the Negro male.
  • The very essence of the male animal, from the
    bantam rooster to the four star general, is to
    strut. Indeed, in 19th century America, a
    particular type of exaggerated male boastfulness
    became almost a national style. Not for the Negro
    male. The sassy nigger was lynched.
  • In every known human society, everywhere in the
    world, the young males learn that when he grows
    up one of the things he must do in order to be a
    full member of society is to provide food some
    female and her young. This pattern is not
    immutable, however it can be broken, even though
    it has always eventually reasserted itself…….
  • The majority of Negro children receive public
    assistance under the AFDC program at one point or
    another in their childhood.

Fodder for the mind
  • Was Moynihan right?
  • Does any of what he wrote apply to society at
    large today?
  • Can the government alter familial relations?

  • Jimmy Carter, Energy and National Goals
    (popularly known as the "malaise" speech) (1979)
  • Main Points
  • Americans suffer from a lack of confidence.
  • I want to talk to you right now about a
    fundamental threat to American democracy.... I do
    not refer to the outward strength of America, a
    nation that is at peace tonight everywhere in the
    world, with unmatched economic power and military
  • The threat is nearly invisible in ordinary ways.
    It is a crisis of confidence. It is a crisis that
    strikes at the very heart and soul and spirit of
    our national will. We can see this crisis in the
    growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives
    and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our

2. Americans have lost faith have lost faith in
their government and in their ability to shape
their government.   Our people are losing that f
aith, not only in government itself but in the
ability as citizens to serve as the ultimate
rulers and shapers of our democracy….
  3. Americans have become adicted to consumerism
, which has sapped their confidence and sense of
purpose. In a nation that was proud of hard wor
k, strong families, close-knit communities, and
our faith in God, too many of us now tend to
worship self-indulgence and consumption. Human
identity is no longer defined by what one does,
but by what one owns. But weve discovered that
owning things and consuming things does not
satisfy our longing for meaning. Weve learned
that piling up material goods cannot fill the
emptiness of lives which have no confidence or
4. The sad truth many Americans have lost
respect for onced honored institutions.
  As you know, there is a growing disrespect for
government and for churches anf or schools, the
news media, and other institutions. This is not a
message of happiness or reassurance, but it is
the truth and it is a warning….
  Question Is this statement true. If it were tr
ue, do Americans really want to hear the truth,
or do they prefer messages of reassurance from
their leaders?
  • 5. By coming together to meet the engery
    challenge, we can win for our nation a new sence
    of confidence, contol and destiny. However, we
    must take the following measures
  • Never use more foreign oil than we did in 1977.
  • Set import quotas
  • Commit national funds and resources to develop
    alternative sources of fuel
  • Utility companies cut their use of oil by 50
    and switch ot other fuels, especially coal.
  • Establish an engery mobilization board to cut
    through roadblocks to completing key energy
  • All of us need to embark on a bold conservation
  • I ask Congress to give me authority for mandatory
    conservation and f