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20072008 Semester 1 SD5943 Multimedia Literacy Week04 Multimedia Tools and Techniques Part I


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Title: 20072008 Semester 1 SD5943 Multimedia Literacy Week04 Multimedia Tools and Techniques Part I

2007/2008 Semester 1 SD5943 Multimedia Literacy
Week04 Multimedia Tools and Techniques Part
  • Prepared by Wilson YUEN
  • sdwilson_at_polyu.edu.hk

  • Introduction
  • History of the Internet
  • History of the Web
  • History of Hypertext
  • What is Hypertext?
  • What is Hyperlink?
  • What is Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)?
  • What is W3C?
  • The W3C Technology Stack
  • Architecture of the World Wide Web
  • What is MIME?
  • Conclusion

  • In this lecture, we start the discussion on the
    current research direction regarding to the
    Multimedia Tools and Techniques.
  • Among all the developments of Multimedia Tools
    and Techniques, the fastest growing area should
    be in the platform of Web-based multimedia
  • During last two decades, over a hundred or even a
    thousand of new tools/techniques/technologies/term
    inologies were invented/coined. The development
    speed is dramatic and it is not possible for us
    to master all those tools and techniques.
    Instead, it is good for us to understand the
  • Before we go into the details of the current
    development of Web-based multimedia technology,
    we should understand the brief history of
    Internet and WWW.

History of the Internet (1)
  • The technology underlying the Web - Internet.
  • 1858, Atlantic cable was planned to be install
    across US and Europe but fail.
  • 1866, the implementation was success and remained
    operational for almost 100 years.
  • 1957, Soviet Union launched the first satellite
  • As response to the Soviets action, Eisenhower
    instructed Department of Defense (DoD) to
    established Advanced Research Project Agency

History of the Internet (2)
History of the Internet (3)
  • ARPA launched the first American satellite within
    18 months.
  • Several years later, ARPA was given the task of
    developing a reliable communications network,
    specifically for use by computers.
  • The primary motivation for this was to have a
    network of decentralized military computers
    connected in such a way that in the case of
    destruction of one or several nodes in a war, the
    network would still survive with communication
    lines between remaining nodes.

History of the Internet (4)
  • 1962, Dr. J. C. R Licklider (Grandfather of
    Internet) proposed that ARPAs primary research
    should be moved from private sector to
    universities around US. His work paved the way
    for the creation of ARPANET.

History of the Internet (5)
  • 1962, Paul Baran of RAND Co. published the
    paper On Distributed Communications Networks,
    which introduced Packet-Switching (PS) networks.
    PS networks have no single outage point.
  • What is the differences between PS and CS?
  • What is the differences between Connectionless
    and Connection oriented?

History of the Internet (6)
  • 1965, ARPA sponsored a study that proposed a
    cooperative network of time sharing computers.
    The TX-2 at MIT Lincoln Lab (Cambridge) and Q-32
    at System Development Co. (Santa Monica) are
    directly linked (without PS).
  • 1967, at the ACM Symposium on Operating
    Principles, a plan was presented for a
    packet-switching network. Also the first design
    paper on ARPANET was published by Lawrence G.
  • 1968, PS-network was presented to ARPA.

History of the Internet (7)
  • 1968, some people argued that the first
    PS-network was operational and in place at the
    National Physical Laboratories in UK. Parallel
    efforts in France also resulted in an early
  • 1969, first ARPANET node was established at
    UCLAs Network Measurements Center.
  • 1969, subsequent nodes were established at
    Stanford Research Institute, University of Utah
    in Salt Lake City and UCSB.

History of the Internet (7)
Internet Node in US
History of the Internet (8)
  • 1969, Information Message Processor (IMP) was
    developed by Bolt Beranek on a Honeywell DDP 516
    in BBN. The system delivered messages within
    this 4-node network.
  • First Request For Comment (RFC) - Host
    Software was submitted by Steve Crocker.
  • What is IMP nowadays?
  • What is RFC?

History of the Internet (9)
Whole IMP team
History of the Internet (10)
  • 1970, ARPANET hosts started using Network
    Control Protocol (NCP). This protocol was used
    until 1982 at which time it was replaced with
  • 1971, ARPANET had grown to 15 nodes connected 26
  • 1972, RFC 318, TELNET specification was
  • 1972, Ray Tomlinson wrote an e-mail program to
    operate across networks.
  • There is no any multimedia contents have been
    developed in 1972, emails are all in text-based.
    Over this 30 years, there is no great change of
    the email protocols. So, how this implies on the
    design of the email protocols?

History of the Internet (11)
  • 1972, Inter-Networking Working Group (INWG)
    established and given the task of investigating
    common protocols.
  • 1972, public demonstration of the ARPANET, public
    could use the Terminal Interface Processor (TIP)
    to run distributed applications across US.
  • 1973, ARPANET went international, University
    College of London and Royal Radar Establishment
  • 1973, RFC 454 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was

History of the Internet (12)
  • 1974, The design of Transmission Control
    Protocol (TCP) was given in A Protocol for
    Packet Network Internetworking by Vinton Cerf
    (Father of Internet Protocol) and Bob Kahn.
  • Vinton Cerf is now the Vice President Chief
    Internet Evangelist of Google.

History of the Internet (13)
  • 1976, Unix to Unix Copy Program (UUCP) was
    developed at ATT Bell Labs and distributed with
    UNIX the following year.
  • 1977, RFC 733 Mail specification was published.
  • 1977, a UUCP based e-mail system - THEORYNET with
    over 100 users was established at the University
    of Wisconsin.
  • 1979, UW, NSF, DARPA and other universities meet
    to establish Computer Science network.
  • 1979, USENET (for newsgroup service) was

History of the Internet (14)
  • 1979, Internet Configuration Board was created by
  • 1979, PRNET (Packet Radio Network) was
  • 1981, BITNET (Because Its Time NETwork)
  • 1981, CSNET (Computer Science NETwork)
  • 1982, TCP and IP was selected by Department of
    Defense (DoD) as the standard protocol suite for
  • 1983, Name Server developed at UW.

History of the Internet (15)
  • 1983, UNIX machines with built-in TCP/IP gained
    in popularity.
  • 1984, Domain Name Server (DNS) introduced.
  • 1984, over 1,000 hosts were presented.
  • 1986, NSFNET created, many universities joined
  • 1986, Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
  • 1987, over 10,000 hosts were present.
  • 1988, Robert Morris created Internet worm
    affected 10 (6,000) of Internet hosts.
  • 1988, NSFNET added many other outside US
  • 1989, over 100,000 hosts were present.

History of the Internet (16)
  • 1989, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
    was created.
  • 1989, CSNET merged into BITNET to form
    Corporation for Research and Education Networking
  • 1990, NSFNET replaced ARPANET.
  • 1991, Wide Area Information Services (WAIS) was
    invented by Brewster Kahle.
  • 1991, Gopher was released by Paul Linder and
    Mark P. McCahill from U. Minnesota.
  • 1991, Tim Berners-Lee at CERN released WWW.
  • 1991, NSFNET added many other countries include
    HKSAR (First node was established in CUHK).

History of the Internet (17)
  • 1992, Internet Society (ISOC) was formed.
  • 1992, over 1,000,000 hosts were now present.
  • 1993, InterNIC was created by the NSF.
  • 1994, most people use NSFNET for the services of
    FTP, WWW and TELNET.
  • 1995, Technologies of the year WWW, search
  • 2004, Vinton and Bob won the A. M. Turing award
    (equivalent to Nobel Prize of Computer Science)
  • What is InterNIC?
  • Why the no. of hosts suddenly increase 10
    times from 100,000 to 1,000,000 in 1992?

History of the Web (1)
  • (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire)
    CERN WWW research
  • Tim Berners-Lee at CERN created WWW at 1991.
  • At first, he wished to develop a system that
    would allow him to quickly and transparently
    retrieve a mailing address from a remote database
    for a letter he might be composing on his local
    word processor.
  • His first program was Enquire-Within-Upon-Everyth
  • In 1989, he wrote a proposal Information
    Management A Proposal.

History of the Web (2)
  • Objectives of Information Management A
  • To provide a simple protocol for requesting
    human-readable information stored in remote
    systems accessible using networks.
  • To provide a protocol by which information could
    automatically be exchanged in a format common to
    the information supplier and the information
  • To allow documents or collections of documents
    managed by individuals to be linked by hyperlinks
    to other documents.
  • To provide a search option, to allow information
    to be automatically searched for by keywords, in
    addition to being navigated to by the following
    of hyperlinks.
  • To use public-domain software wherever possible
    and to interface to existing proprietary systems.
  • To provide the necessary software free of charge.

History of the Web (3)
  • In 1990, his project proposal was reformulated
    with help from Robert Cailliau and the name World
    Wide Web was selected.
  • The initial Web program was developed in November
    of 1990 using NeXTs Object-Oriented technology.
    The program was a browser which allowed WYSIWYG
    editing of Web documents. The first Web server
    was also developed and implemented on NEXT-STEP.
    The software was released to public in 1991.
  • CERN paved the way for the future development of
    the Web by introducing Hyper Text Transfer
    Protocol (HTTP), the protocol used for
    communication between the clients and the server.
    Also, the language used in composing Web
    documents - Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML),
    and the Universal Resource Locator (URL).

History of the Web (4)
  • Mosaic and Netscape
  • Marc Andreessen, a graduate student at the U. of
    Illinois NCSA (National Center for
    Supercomputing Applications), led a team of
    graduate students which in February of 1993
    released the first point-and-click graphical
    browser Mosaic for X for the Web implemented
    for UNIX.
  • In 1994, Andreessen and Jim Clark, the founder of
    SGI started Mosaic Communication Corp., aka.
  • W3C was formed in December 1994 to promote
    standards for the evolution of the Web.

History of the Web (5)
History of Hypertext (1)
  • Memex
  • The history of hypertext began in July of 1945.
  • Proposed by president Roosevelts advisor, Dr.
    Vannevar Bush during World War II.
  • He outlined ideas for a machine that would have
    the capacity to store textual and graphical
    information in such a way that any piece of
    information could be arbitrarily linked to any
    other piece.

History of Hypertext (2)
  • Hypertext
  • In 1965, Ted Nelson coined the terms Hypertext
    and Hypermedia in a paper to the ACM 20th
    national conference.
  • In this paper, Hypertext means non-sequential
    writing - text that branches and allows choice to
    the reader, best read at an interactive screen.
  • The first hypertext-based system was developed in
    1967 by a team of researchers led by Dr. Andries
    van Dam at Brown University.

History of Hypertext (3)
  • Xanadu
  • Theodor Holm Nelson conceived the idea of Xanadu
  • Xanadu is a system for the network sale of
    documents with automatic royalty on every byte.
  • The transclusion feature allows quotation of
    fragments of any size with royalty to the
    original publisher.
  • This is an implementation of a connected
  • It is a system for a point-and-click universe.
  • It is a completely interactive docuverse.

What is Hypertext?
  • Hypertext is the organization of information
    units into connected associations that a user can
    choose to make. An instance of such an
    association is called a link, hypertext link or
  • Hypertext was the main concept that led to the
    invention of the World Wide Web, which is, after
    all, nothing more (or less) than an enormous
    amount of information content connected by an
    enormous number of hypertext links.
  • The term was first used by Ted Nelson in
    describing his Xanadu system.

What is Hypermedia?
  • Hypermedia, a term derived from hypertext,
    extends the notion of the hypertext link to
    include links among any set of multimedia
    objects, including sound, motion video, virtual
    reality, interactivity and etc.
  • It can also connote a higher level of
    user/network interactivity than the interactivity
    already implicit in hypertext.

What is Hyperlink?
  • On the Web or other hypertext systems, hyperlink
    is a synonym for both link and hypertext link.
  • Possibly, the term originated because "link" was
    not felt to be specific enough. And it's shorter
    than "hypertext link."

What is Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)? (1)
  • HTML is the set of "markup" symbols or codes
    inserted in a file intended for display on a
    World Wide Web browser. The markup tells the Web
    browser how to display a Web page's words and
    images for the user.
  • HTML is defined in practice both by Netscape and
    Microsoft as they add changes to their Web
    browsers and more officially for the industry by
    the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

What is Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)? (2)
  • A new version of HTML called XHTML has been
    officially recommended by W3C, making this level
    an effective standard.
  • However, both Firefox and Microsoft browsers
    currently implement some features differently and
    provide non-standard extensions.
  • Web developers using the more advanced features
    of XHTML may have to design pages for both
    browsers and send out the appropriate version to
    a user.

What is W3C? (1)
  • The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) develops
    interoperable technologies (specifications,
    guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web
    to its full potential.
  • W3C is a forum for information, commerce,
    communication, and collective understanding.
  • To achieve the goal of one Web, specifications
    for the Web's formats and protocols must be
    compatible with one another and allow (any)
    hardware and software used to access the Web to
    work together.
  • W3C designs and promotes interoperable open
    (non-proprietary) formats and protocols to avoid
    the market fragmentation of the past.

What is W3C? (2)
  • Since 1994, W3C has produced more than ninety Web
    standards, called "W3C Recommendations."
  • A W3C Recommendation is the equivalent of a Web
    standard, indicating that this W3C-developed
    specification is stable, contributes to Web
    interoperability, and has been reviewed by the
    W3C Membership, who favor its adoption by the
  • The W3C translations page lists the technical
    reports that have been translated into languages
    other than English and explains how to contribute
    a translation to W3C.

The W3C Technology Stack (1)
  • The following illustration shows one view of Web
    infrastructure, the focus of most work at W3C.
    The foundation of URIs, HTTP, XML, and RDF
    supports pursuits in five areas.
  • Themes of accessibility,
  • internationalization,
  • device independence,
  • mobile access and
  • quality assurance pervade W3C technologies.
  • W3C is transforming the architecture of the
    initial Web (essentially HTML, URIs, and HTTP)
    into the architecture of tomorrow's Web.
  • W3C's technologies will help make the future Web
    a robust, scalable, and adaptive infrastructure
    for a world of information.

The W3C Technology Stack (2)
Architecture of the World Wide Web (1)
  • To understand how W3C pursues this mission, it is
    useful to understand the driving design
    principles of the Web.
  • The World Wide Web uses relatively simple
    technologies with sufficient scalability,
    efficiency and utility that they have resulted in
    a remarkable information space of interrelated
    resources, growing across languages, cultures,
    and media.
  • In an effort to preserve these properties of the
    information space as the technologies evolve, the
    architecture document discusses the core design
    components of the Web.
  • They are identification of resources,
    representation of resource state, and the
    protocols that support the interaction between
    agents and resources in the space.
  • In the architecture document, it relates core
    design components, constraints, and good
    practices to the principles and properties they

Architecture of the World Wide Web (2)
  • The World Wide Web (WWW, or simply Web) is an
    information space in which the items of interest,
    referred to as resources, are identified by
    global identifiers called Uniform Resource
    Identifiers (URI).
  • Examples such as the following travel scenario
    are used throughout this document to illustrate
    typical behavior of Web agentspeople or software
    acting on this information space.
  • A user agent acts on behalf of a user. Software
    agents include servers, proxies, spiders,
    browsers, and multimedia players.

Architecture of the World Wide Web (3)
  • While planning a trip to Mexico, Nadia reads
    Oaxaca weather information 'http//weather.examp
    le.com/oaxaca' in a glossy travel magazine.
    Nadia has enough experience with the Web to
    recognize that "http//weather.example.com/oaxaca"
    is a URI and that she is likely to be able to
    retrieve associated information with her Web
    browser. When Nadia enters the URI into her
  • The browser recognizes that what Nadia typed is a
  • The browser performs an information retrieval
    action in accordance with its configured behavior
    for resources identified via the "http" URI
  • The authority responsible for "weather.example.com
    " provides information in a response to the
    retrieval request.
  • The browser interprets the response, identified
    as XHTML by the server, and performs additional
    retrieval actions for inline graphics and other
    content as necessary.
  • The browser displays the retrieved information,
    which includes hypertext links to other
    information. Nadia can follow these hypertext
    links to retrieve additional information.

Architecture of the World Wide Web (4)
  • This scenario illustrates the three architectural
    bases of the Web that are discussed in this
  • Identification
  • URIs are used to identify resources. In this
    travel scenario, the resource is a periodically
    updated report on the weather in Oaxaca, and the
    URI is http//weather.example.com/oaxaca.
  • Interaction
  • Web agents communicate using standardized
    protocols that enable interaction through the
    exchange of messages which adhere to a defined
    syntax and semantics. By entering a URI into a
    retrieval dialog or selecting a hypertext link,
    Nadia tells her browser to perform a retrieval
    action for the resource identified by the URI. In
    this example, the browser sends an HTTP GET
    request (part of the HTTP protocol) to the server
    at "weather.example.com", via TCP/IP port 80, and
    the server sends back a message containing what
    it determines to be a representation of the
    resource as of the time that representation was
    generated. Note that this example is specific to
    hypertext browsing of informationother kinds of
    interaction are possible, both within browsers
    and through the use of other types of Web agent
    our example is intended to illustrate one common
    interaction, not define the range of possible
    interactions or limit the ways in which agents
    might use the Web.

Architecture of the World Wide Web (5)
  • Formats
  • Most protocols used for representation retrieval
    and/or submission make use of a sequence of one
    or more messages, which taken together contain a
    payload of representation data and metadata, to
    transfer the representation between agents. The
    choice of interaction protocol places limits on
    the formats of representation data and metadata
    that can be transmitted. HTTP, for example,
    typically transmits a single octet stream plus
    metadata, and uses the "Content-Type" and
    "Content-Encoding" header fields to further
    identify the format of the representation. In
    this scenario, the representation transferred is
    in XHTML, as identified by the "Content-type"
    HTTP header field containing the registered
    Internet media type name, "application/xhtmlxml".
    That Internet media type name indicates that the
    representation data can be processed according to
    the XHTML specification.

Architecture of the World Wide Web (6)
  • Nadia's browser is configured and programmed to
    interpret the receipt of an "application/xhtmlxml
    " typed representation as an instruction to
    render the content of that representation
    according to the XHTML rendering model, including
    any subsidiary interactions (such as requests for
    external style sheets or in-line images) called
    for by the representation. In the scenario, the
    XHTML representation data received from the
    initial request instructs Nadia's browser to also
    retrieve and render in-line the weather maps,
    each identified by a URI and thus causing an
    additional retrieval action, resulting in
    additional representations that are processed by
    the browser according to their own data formats
    (e.g., "application/svgxml" indicates the SVG
    data format), and this process continues until
    all of the data formats have been rendered. The
    result of all of this processing, once the
    browser has reached an application steady-state
    that completes Nadia's initial requested action,
    is commonly referred to as a "Web page".

Architecture of the World Wide Web (7)
Data Formats
What is MIME?
  • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is
    an Internet Standard that extends the format of
    e-mail to support
  • text in character sets other than US-ASCII
  • non-text attachments
  • multi-part message bodies and
  • header information in non-ASCII character sets.
  • Virtually all human-written Internet e-mail and a
    fairly large proportion of automated e-mail is
    transmitted via SMTP in MIME format. Internet
    e-mail is so closely associated with the SMTP and
    MIME standards that it is sometimes called
    SMTP/MIME e-mail.
  • The content types defined by MIME standards are
    also of importance outside of e-mail, such as in
    communication protocols like HTTP for the World
    Wide Web. HTTP requires that data be transmitted
    in the context of e-mail-like messages, even
    though the data may not actually be e-mail.
  • MIME is specified in six RFCs RFC 2045, RFC
    2046, RFC 2047, RFC 4288, RFC 4289 and RFC 2077.

  • History of the Internet
  • ARPANET (1969) ? NSFNET (1990) ? Internet (Now)
  • History of the Web
  • CERN WWW Research (1989) ? Mosaic (1993) ?
    Netscape (1994) ? FireFox/IE/Opera/Safari (Now)
  • History of Hypertext
  • Memex (1945) ? Hypertext (1965) ? Xanadu (1981) ?
    Semantic Web (Now)
  • The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) develops
    interoperable technologies (specifications,
    guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web
    to its full potential.
  • W3C Technology Stack
  • Architecture of the World Wide Web
  • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)

Useful Online Reference
  • http//www.darpa.mil/
  • Internet Timeline
  • http//www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/
  • History of Internet and WWW View from Internet
  • http//www.internetvalley.com/intval.html
  • A Little History of the World Wide Web
  • http//www.w3.org/pub/WWW/History.html
  • Architecture of the World Wide Web
  • http//www.w3.org/TR/webarch/
  • A brief history of the Internet
  • http//www.isoc.org/internet-history
  • The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
  • http//www.ietf.org/
  • Internet Assigned Number Authority
  • http//www.iana.org/
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