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Title, Abstract, Background and Significance

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Title: Title, Abstract, Background and Significance


1
Title, Abstract, Background and Significance
  • Bruce Pitt
  • Department Environmental and
  • Occupational Health
  • University Pittsburgh Graduate
  • School Public Health
  • brucep_at_pitt.edu

2
  • Survival Skills
  • Ethics Program
  • Beth Fisher and Mike Zigmund

www.survival.pitt.edu
3
Outline, Write, and Edit
4
Remember tothink like a reviewer
5
(No Transcript)
6
TITLE
  • CONFORM
  • 81 characters
  • new - different title
  • competing or revised - same title
  • ACCURATE statement of longterm goals
  • INCLUDE keywords

Application PHS Grant 09/04
7
TITLE (FAQs)
  • What if I dont conform?
  • How does my title affect my assignment?
  • What makes a good title?

8
TITLE (example)
  • Physiology of the pulmonary circulation
  • Nitric oxide and pulmonary hypertension
  • Pharmacology of sodium nitrite for pulmonary
    hypertension in sickle cell disease

9
TITLE (example)
  • Host defense and lung biology
  • Macrophages and fungal infection of lung
  • Dectin-1, alveolar macrophages and Immunity
    Against Pneumocystis Carinii in Mice

10
ABSTRACT
  • Purpose succinctly describe entire proposal
  • Implications
  • a) grant referral process (initial study
    section and institute assignments)
  • b) significant source of information for
    study section members not assigned
  • c) source reviewer assignment

11
ABSTRACT
  • Half-page (confined to designated space)
  • Condensed modified version specific aims
  • Essence of specific aims (exactly same wording
    from section A for aims)
  • Few sentences on health relatedness
  • Significance in terms of long term goals.
  • www.whitaker.org/sanders/html

12
ABSTRACT - SUGGESTIONS
  • Modify specific aims (Section A) and write
    abstract last
  • Use entire space allotted and be complete
  • Consider impact of dispersal of abstract
  • annual reports and website
  • readily accessed by colleagues,
    administrators and lay public

13
Magnesium (Mg) deficiency may play an important
role in pathogenesis of enhanced vascular
reactivity in hypertension. The overall
hypothesis to be evaluated is that Mg deficiency
caused by glucose intolerance, insulin resistance
or other factors in hypertensives leads to
increased vasomotor tone via altered release of
vasoactive cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase
products of arachidonic acid and enhanced
angiotensin II (AII) action. To evaluate the
effects of Mg deficiency in normal subjects, we
will induce the condition by administration of a
low Mg diet. Vascular and adrenal sensitivity to
AII, platelet aggregation and eicosanoid levels
will be studied prior to and after Mg deficiency
is established. Since evidence suggests Mg
deficiency can modulate insulin action, the
effect of this deficiency on glucose tolerance
will also be studied. In another project the
effect of insulin on intracellular Mg levels will
be studied using a new fura 2 Mg dye technique.
These studies will be performed in groups of
subjects with varied blood pressure and insulin
levels. Also the effects of acute intravenous
and chronic oral Mg loading on the above
parameters will be studied in similar subject
groups. We will directly study the effect of Mg
on AII, insulin and insulin like growth factor
action in isolated and cultured adrenal
glomerulosa cells. Concentration of Mg will be
varied and signal transduction and steroidogenic
effects will be evaluate. These studies will
provide insight into mechamisms important to the
pathogenesis of altered vascular reactivity of
subjects with hypertension or hyperinsulinemia.
14
Magnesium (Mg) deficiency may play an important
role in pathogenesis of enhanced vascular
reactivity in hypertension. The overall
HYPOTHESIS to be evaluated is that Mg deficiency
caused by glucose intolerance, insulin resistance
or other factors in hypertensives leads to
increased vasomotor tone via altered release of
vasoactive cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase
products of arachidonic acid and enhanced
angiotensin II (AII) action. Specific Aims
(1) Determine the effects of low Mg on vascular
and adrenal sensitivity to AII ( platelet
aggregation and eicosanoid levels, glucose
tolerance) (2) determine the effect of insulin
on intraceullar Mg levels (fura 2 Mg dye
technique). These studies will be performed in
groups of subjects with varied blood pressure and
insulin levels (3) determine the effect of
acute i.v. and chronic oral Mg loading on the
above parameters (4) determine the signal
transduction and steroidogenic effects of Mg and
AII, insulin and insulin-like growth factor
action in isolated and cultured adrenal
glomerulosa cells. Significance These
studies will provide insight into mechamisms
important to the pathogenesis of altered vascular
reactivity of subjects with hypertension or
hyperinsulinemia.
15
ABSTRACT CHECKLIST
  • Stay within space with understandable language
  • State hypothesis, specific aims, significance
  • Importance, innovativeness
  • Exclude confidential, proprietary info
  • www.niaid.nih.gov/ncn/grants/charts/checklists.htm

16
B. Background Significance
  • literature review
  • rationale for project
  • state of the field
  • be selective
  • deal w/ contradictions
  • include own work
  • include reviewers work
  • cite sources

in text was effective (Jones Smith, 1996) in
biblio Jones R, Smith M (1996) Effect of
stress on ethical behavior,
Ethics, 3 23-47.
17
B. Background Significance
  • literature review
  • rationale for project
  • state of the field
  • your proposal
  • innovation
  • contribution to field
  • build enthusiasm

18
BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE - PURPOSE
  • 3 page opportunity to demonstrate scholarship by
    concisely
  • a) stating problem to be investigated and
    rationale for proposal
  • b) placing proposal within current state
    of knowledge not literature review
  • c) summarizing potential new
    information to be gleaned

19
BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE -CONTENT
  • Combination of literature citations, referral to
    own work and thoughtful schema cover
  • rationale for proposal
  • state of existing knowledge
  • gaps that project will fill

20
BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE - SUGGESTIONS
  • Make compelling case (importance of topic and
    research questions, qualifications of
    investigators)
  • Establish familiarity and authority in field
  • Citations (contemporary, correct)
  • Stress innovations, new technologies and impact
    on related fields of research

21
BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE - SUGGESTIONS
  • Critical analysis of work of others not
    negative but rather scholarly recognition of
    contributions of other scientists whose work
    yours builds on
  • Gaps in our understanding explicitly state what
    information is missing and how your work will
    address these issues
  • Emphasize significance of proposal assume all
    reviewers agree on importance of general problem
    and thus focus on impact of your research on
    issue in question.

22
General organization
  • use headings frequently

23
General organization
  • write in paragraphs
  • 1 major idea per paragraph
  • topic sentences
  • initial paragraphs of section most important

24
General organization
  • make it easy to find key points
  • bold face
  • cross reference
  • some redundancy

25
Appearance
26
Appearance
  • select good type face

27
Appearance
  • select good type face
  • good
  • Times Roman
  • Century Schoolbook

28
Appearance
  • select good type face
  • good avoid!
  • Times Roman courier
  • Century Schoolbook

29
Appearance
  • select good type face
  • good avoid!
  • Times Roman courier
  • Century Schoolbook
  • size gt 11 pt (recommend 11.5)

30
Appearance
  • let your text
  • indent paragraphs
  • skip line between paragraphs

breathe
31
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32
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33
Background Significance - Checklist
  • Written clearly and nontechnically?
  • Show how research innovative
  • Why worth funding
  • How increase knowledge
  • Include background information
  • Literature reveal understanding
  • Gaps, discrepancies or roadblocks in field

34
Acknowledgements
  • Ogden Goldberg
  • Research Proposals A Guide to Success
  • Miner Griffith
  • Proposal Planning Writing
  • many Program Officers

35
  • Survival Skills
  • Ethics Program
  • staff
  • Beth Fischer
  • Michael Zigmond
  • Mary DiBernardo
  • Maureen Geary
  • support
  • University of Pittsburgh
  • NSF
  • NIH

www.survival.pitt.edu
36
Sample review criteria
37
REFERENCES
  • Bauer DG. The How To Grants Manual Successful
    Grantseeking Techniques for Obtaining Public and
    Private Grants. 3rd edition. Phoenix Oryx Press.
    1995.
  • Bowman JP Branchaw BP. How to Write Proposals
    That Produce. Phoenix, AZ Oryx Press, 1992.
  • Brown LG. Demystifying Grantseeking What you
    Really Need to Do To Get Grants. San Francisco
    Jossey-Bass, 2001.
  • Browning B. Grant Writing for Dummies. IDG Books
    Worldwide, Inc., 2001.
  • Burke J. Ill Grant You That A Step-by-Step
    Guide to Finding Funds, Designing Winning
    Projects, and Writing Powerful Grant Proposals.
    Portsmouth, NH Heinman, 2000
  • Carlson M. Winning Grants Step By Step Support
    Centers of Americas Complete Workbook for
    Planning, Developing, and Writing Successful
    Proposals. San Francisco Jossey-Bass, 1995.
  • Carter New C Quick JA. Grantseekers Toolkit A
    Comprehensive Guide to Finding Funding. NY
    Wiley, 1998.
  • Coley SM Scheinberg CA. Proposal Writing.
    Newbury Park, CA Sage Publications, 1990.

38
REFERENCES (CONT)
  • Davitz JR Davitz LL. Evaluating Research
    Proposals A Guide for the Behavioral Sciences.
    Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall, 1996.
  • Ferguson J Drake-Major L Gershowitz MV. The
    Grantseekers Answerbook Fundraising Experts
    Respond to the Most Commonly Asked Questions, 2nd
    edition. Gaithersburg, MD Aspen Pubs, 1999.
  • Golden SL. Secrets of Successful Grantsmanship A
    Guerrilla Guide to Raising Money. San Francisco,
    CA Jossey-Bass, 1997.
  • Illes J. The Strategic Grant-Seeker
    Conceptualizing Fundable Research in the Brain
    and Behavioral Sciences. NJ Lawrence Erlbaum,
    1999.
  • Locke LF, Spirduso W, Silverman SJ. Proposals
    that Work. Newbury Park Sage Publications, 1993.
  • Miner LE Griffith J. Proposal Planning
    Writing. Phoenix Oryx Press, 1993.
  • Ogden TE Goldberg IA. Research Proposals A
    Guide to Success, 3rd ed. NY Academic Press,
    2002.

39
REFERENCES (CONT)
  • Quick JA. Grant Seekers Budget Toolkit. New
    York John Wiley, 2001.
  • Reif-Lehrer L. Grant Application Writers
    Handbook. Boston Jones Bartlett Publishers,
    1995.
  • Ries JB and Leukefeld CG. The Research Funding
    Guidebook Getting It, Managing It Renewing It.
    Thousand Oaks Sage Publications, 1998.
  • _at_ Websites on grants
  • Community of Science www.cos.com
  • Foundation Center http//fdncenter.org/grantmaker
  • GrantsNet www.hhs.gov/grantsnet
  • The Grantsmanship Center www.tgci.com
  • Internet Resources for Nonprofits
    www.ai.mit.edu/people/ellens/Non/online
  • National Institutes of Health www.nih.gov
  • National Science Foundation www.nsf.gov
  • NIAID All About Grants Tutorial
    www.niaid.nih.gov/ncn/grants
  • U.S. Nonprofit Gateway www.nonprofit.gov
  • ScienceWise.com www.sciencewise.com
  • Society of Research Administrators
    www.srainternational.org
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