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Struggles for Safe Mining and Sustainable Development

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GOA,DAMAN & DIU MINING CONCESSIONS ACT, 1987 ... Goa. Iron Ore Mines. Karnataka. Iron Ore. Gold. Granite Quarry. Orissa. Bauxite. Iron Ore ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Struggles for Safe Mining and Sustainable Development


1
Struggles for Safe Mining and Sustainable
Development
ANROAV 2007, AMRC, Hongkong
  • R.Sreedhar
  • Trustee, Environics Trust
  • Convenor, mines minerals PEOPLE, Delhi

2
Mining in India
  • The problem of people in mining is manifold. The
    destruction of the preexisting habitat for the
    mining industry undermines the possibility to
    look for alternatives
  • The Mining Industry is wide spread and severe
    adverse impacts are visible from small scale rat
    hole mining and stone quarrying to large open
    cast and deep underground mines.

3
Mining in India
  • The social and political implication of mining
    assumes far reaching implication when this
    principal mineral wealth lies in the most
    forested regions and those homelands
    traditionally inhabited by dalit and adivasi.

4
THE SITUATION
  • THE GOVERNMENTS ARE UNWILLING TO LOOK AT OTHER
    OPTIONS AND ALTERNATIVES
  • ARE PROGRESSIVELY BINDING THEMSELVES TO SYSTEMS
    THAT HAVE FAILED
  • FOR ANY SOVERIEGN GOVERNMENT THE SECTORS OF THE
    ECONOMY HAVE NO MEANING, ITS FOCUS MUST BE
    WELFARE OF PEOPLE

5
THE OVERALL SITUATION
  • COMMUNITIES ARE POOR AND WEAK
  • GOVERNMENTS ARE OPRESSIVE, YET THEY ARE
    LEGITIMATE
  • THE MARKET OR INDUSTRY IS OVERPOWERING

6
THE SITUATION
  • LOCAL COMMUNITIES ARE CONSTRAINED AND BOUND AT
    MULTIPLE LEVELS THROUGH VARIOUS INSTRUMENTS
  • ECONOMIC
  • SOCIAL
  • CULTURAL

7
CONFRONTING THE REALITY
  • PEOPLE ALL OVER HAVE BEEN MISLED BY FALSE
    INFORMATION FROM THE INDUSTRY AND PROMOTING
    GOVERNMENTS
  • INDUSTRY WANTS TO TALK ON GENERAL ISSUES AND
    DESISTS FROM ANY COMMITMENTS ON MINING SPECIFIC
    ISSUES
  • GOVERNMENTS AND CIVIL SOCIETY SHOULD ATLEAST
    REACH RIGHT INFORMATION TO THE COMMUNITIES

8
The beneficiaries
  • Investors and Investment Bankers
  • Owners and Managers
  • Politicians and Contractors
  • Consultants
  • Reclaimers!

9
Whos paying the costs?
  • Local Communities
  • Workers
  • Local Environment
  • Ecosystem
  • Small Investors

10
Minerals for What?
  • FROM DIAMOND-STUDS TO CRUISE MISSILES
  • METALS AND FUELS FROM NATURE FOR NOW AND IN
    FUTURE

11
KEY SEGMENTS
  • GOVERNMENTS
  • MARKETS
  • COMMUNITIES

12
STATE
  • Multi Level
  • Element of Global Processes
  • National Policy Federal Government
  • State Governments
  • Local Self-Governing Institutions
  • Deepening Sectoralism
  • Political Uncertainty

13
SECTORAL GOVERNANCE BINDS
  • SECTORALISATION
  • ECONOMIC
  • ADMINISTRATIVE
  • DISCIPLINARY
  • MINERAL NEEDS
  • DOMESTIC
  • INDUSTRIAL
  • MILITARY

14
GOVERNMENTS FOCUS
  • MINERAL AVAILABILITY
  • BALANCE OF LIFE
  • EQUITY OIL, now COAL also
  • ATTEMPT AT FORECASTING?
  • EXTENDING OUR HEGEMONY
  • MINERAL ECONOMICS
  • VALUE
  • INCOMES

15
MINING INDUSTRY
  • COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF TRANSACTIONS
  • MINERAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS
  • DOWNSTREAM ACTIVITIES
  • EMPLOYMENT

16
Market is Oligopolistic
  • Ten Large Mining MNCs control nearly 90
  • Progressively Greater Consolidation
  • Push Policies to suit commercial interests
  • Alienated with Larger Community

17
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
  • COMPLEX OWNERSHIP STRUCTURES
  • MAJORS
  • SUBSIDAIRIES
  • JVS
  • STRATEGIC STAKES
  • OPAQUE FINANCIAL TRANSACTION
  • Primary Markets
  • Secondary Markets
  • Derivatives

18
COMMUNITIES
  • Economic Differences
  • Social Grouping
  • Political Systems
  • Traditional Communities
  • Community and State Norms

19
ECOSYSTEMS
  • MAJOR EFFECTS
  • DEGRADATION
  • DEPLETION
  • EXTINCTION
  • KEY CONCERNS
  • DISLODGING STABLE NATURAL SYSTEMS HARMFUL
  • RESOURCES ABOVE ECOSYSTEMS AND COMMUNITIES
  • SELECTIVE EXTRACTION AND GENERAL DEPLETION

20
VALUES AND VALUATION
  • VALUING METHODS
  • VALUATION
  • VALUES

21
CURRENT HURDLES
  • BUREAUCRATIC GIANTISM
  • POLITICAL DESPOTISM
  • FINANCIAL OPACITY

22
CURRENT INFLUENCES
  • LARGE CORPORATES
  • LEGAL AND JUDICIAL SYSTEMS
  • PATRIARCHY
  • INTERNATIONAL INTERFERENCE

23
MINING LAWS
  • MINES AND MINERALS (DEVELOPMENT AND REGULATION)
    ACT, 1957
  • CESS OTHER TAXES ON MINERALS(VALIDATION) ACT,
    1992
  • GOA,DAMAN DIU MINING CONCESSIONS ACT, 1987
  • Offshore Areas Mineral (Development and
    Regulation) Act, 2002

24
RULES
  • THE MINERAL CONCESSION RULES, 1960 AND ITS
    AMENDMENTS
  • MINERAL CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT RULES, 1988
  • GRANITE CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT RULES, 1999
  • MINING LEASES (MODIFICATION OF TERMS) RULES, 1956

25
RULES
  • Marble Development and Conservation Rules, 2002
  • Mineral Concession (Amendment) Rules, 2003 dated
    10-04-2003
  • Mineral Conservation Development (Amendment)
    Rules, 2003 dated 10-04-2003
  • Mineral Conservation Development (2nd
    Amendment) Rules, 2003 dated 17-04-2003

26
Corollary but Critical Laws
  • AIR (Prevention of Pollution) ACT
  • WATER ACT (Prevention of Pollution) ACT
  • FOREST (CONSERVATION ) ACT RULES,1980
  • ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT, 1986
  • LABOUR AND SAFETY IN MINES

27
THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT NOTIFICATION,
1994
  • Key element of Public Hearing was Introduced
  • Currently under threat with revised notifications
    diluting the procedures

28
Simplifying for the Corporates
  • A major initiative has been in simplifying
    procedures to introduce transparency and avoid
    delay in granting different types of leases.
  • During 2001-02 to 2005-06 a total of 1172 PLs
    were granted over an area of 133743 hectares in
    twelve states viz. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh,
    Karnataka,Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh,
    Maharashtra, Uttaranchal, Bihar,Chhattisgarh,
    Gujarat Jharkhand.

29
IMPORTS Just Oil Diamonds
30
Andhra Pradesh
  • Bauxite
  • Coal
  • Uranium
  • Stone Quarry - Kuppam

31
Maharashtra
  •  
  • Stone Quarry
  • Bauxite

32
(No Transcript)
33
Rajasthan
  •  
  • Stone Quarry
  • Marble
  • Oil Refinery
  •  
  • Mining Cooperative
  • Floods

34
Delhi
  •  
  • Stone Crushers
  • Mining Policy
  •  

35
Goa
  •  
  • Iron Ore Mines

36
Karnataka
  •  
  • Iron Ore
  • Gold
  • Granite Quarry

37
Orissa
  •  
  • Bauxite
  • Iron Ore

38
Uttarakhand
  • Askot
  • Kataldi
  • Dunagiri
  • Aseena

39
West Bengal
  •  
  • Sahasratoli

40
Jharkhand
  •  
  • Jadugoda
  • Roro
  • East Parej

41
Meghalaya
  •  
  • Domiasat
  • Coal
  • Limestone

42
Summary of Actions
  • Local Mobilisation
  • Parallel Research and Analysis
  • Campaigns at State Central Level
  • Legal Interventions Appellates Courts
  • International Campaign Shareholder Action UN
    and other Agency Petitions
  • And yet it is like fire-fighting, hence

43
Thematic Action Areas
  • Women and Mining
  • Community Environmental Assessment
  • Legal Interventions
  • Media and Communications
  • Stone Quarry and Occupational Health
  • Mine Closures and Community Futures
  • Green Field Areas
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