Referee Clinic Level II Referee on the Water - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Referee Clinic Level II Referee on the Water PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 6a4ce-YzZiN


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Referee Clinic Level II Referee on the Water


The Referee Commission wishes to acknowledge the contributions of the following ... flotsam and jetsam (geese, sailboards, paddle boats, and the like) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:50
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 92
Provided by: larryd1
Tags: clinic | geese | level | referee | water


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Referee Clinic Level II Referee on the Water

Referee Clinic Level IIReferee on the Water

Referee Commission, 2005
Thank You!
The Referee Commission wishes to acknowledge the
contributions of the following referees who
generously donated their time and expertise to
compile this presentation.
Robert Appleyard, Lombard, Illinois Terry Ryan,
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania Larry Tolle,
Atlanta, Indiana Nikola Vajda, Buffalo Grove,
About This Presentation
  • This presentation is one of a series being
    developed for Referees.
  • These presentations are an effort on the part
    of the Referee Commission to expand the available
    training materials currently available to
  • These presentations are developed for the purpose
    of Referee education they may be duplicated and
    distributed freely for the use of referees and
    any other member of the rowing community.
  • The Referee Commission hopes to continue to
    develop additional presentations.
  • We welcome your input and comments on this, as
    well as all other, presentations. Please
    contact your regional representative or your
    nearest clinician with your comments.

Clinic Presentation Level

  • This Clinic illustrates the proper skills the
    Referee must use at all rowing events

  • Attributes of a Competent Referee
  • Safety Fairness
  • In-Between Races
  • At the Start
  • General Guidelines for the Referee
  • Launch Positioning
  • At the Finish
  • Protest

Referee Mission (rule 2-104)
  • The Referee has general supervision of the race
    and follows the race from start to finish.
  • The Referee ensures that crews and competitors
    comply with the Rules of Rowing and have a safe
    and fair race.

Developing competency as a Referee
  • All sports officiating is more craft than
    science, but none more so than rowing.
  • While characterized by a fairly stable set of
    activities, crew officiating is not readily
  • Crew officiating requires extensive training and

Developing competency as a Refereecontinued
  • Referees are asked to respond to intangible
    factors in developing situations based on wisdom,
    intuition, and experience
  • No where is this more evident than on-the water
  • No where is the old adage experience is the best
    teacher more true
  • On the Water skills are best learned in the
    Referee launch

Developing competency as a Refereecontinued
  • The purpose of this presentation is to provide
    an overview of the principles and guidelines that
    collectively define the duties and
    responsibilities of an On-the-Water Referee

Attributes of a Competent Referee
  • Awareness
  • As the race unfolds, a competent referee is fully
    aware of what is happening from moment to moment
  • Anticipation
  • A competent referee develops the ability to
    anticipate what will be happening a few strokes
    further into the race
  • Knowledge and Understanding
  • All decisions and actions made by the referee
    should be based upon the principles of safety
    and fairness
  • Decisiveness
  • Based upon his or her awareness of the moment,
    coupled with anticipation of what shall unfold, a
    competent referee will
  • Make decisions Take
    appropriate actions

Referee Attributes
  • First foremost
  • Develop a practical and working understanding of
    the principles of safety and fairness
  • Maintain good familiarity with the USRowing Rules
    of Rowing
  • Have at least some technical understanding of
    rowing, and competitive race strategies
  • Become comfortable and confident in your judgment
    and decision making

Referee Attributes continued
  • Possess an appropriate knowledge of the mechanics
    for each of the following tasks
  • Traversing the race course before and after the
  • Duties and responsibilities while following the
  • Communicating with the crews
  • Launch positioning guidelines
  • Stopping a race
  • At the finish

Referees Position(2-403)
  • Take whatever position places you to best
  • 1) Safety
  • 2) Fairness of competition
  • Dont wake crews (fairness) unless higher
    consideration (safety) requires

Safety The Deciding factor (rule 2-101)
  • Referees must be concerned with the safety of all
    crews within the designated boundaries of the
    race course and training areas
  • Concern for safety extends to the individual
  • While safety is a primary concern of all
    officials, responsibility for safety rests with
    the individual crews and athletes
  • Regatta safety extends to posted crew practice
    sessions prior to race day - requires safety
    monitors (Chief Referee consideration)

SafetyThe Deciding factor(rule 2-101)continued
  • The Referee
  • Prevents accidents from occurring, whenever
  • Serves as the first-responder to an athlete or
    crew in distress
  • Serves as the primary observer for unsafe
  • Serves as the primary advocate for safety to
    regatta organizers (LOC)
  • An obligation to safety requires that referees
    remain attentive the entire time they are on the

Safety considerations (rules 2-203, 2-204,
2-205, 2-206, 2-207)
  • The Chief Referee has many safety considerations
  • Equipment
  • Launch design.
  • Reliability maneuverability
  • Capacity for additional passengers
  • Capability to approach a shell
  • Capability to recover someone from the water
  • Water displacement/wakes
  • Safe for the Referee?
  • Supplies for the launch
  • PFDs
  • Paddle
  • Supplies
  • Extra water
  • Blankets -Regatta Heat Bag

Safety considerationscontinued (rules 2-203,
2-204, 2-205, 2-206, 2-207)
  • Race Course
  • Traffic patterns warm-up/warm-down areas
  • Proper course markings buoys
  • Obstacles on or near the racecourse, or in
    training areas
  • Currents and local water conditions

Safety considerationscontinued Logistics and
  • Logistics
  • How many referee launches are there?
  • Are there support personnel or safety marshals?
  • Are there rescue/safety boats (in addition to
    referee launches)?
  • Is the race course open or closed to other boat
  • How good is the communication system?
  • What are the on-shore emergency and medical
    assistance capabilities and procedures?
  • Weather
  • Wind, rough water, and storms
  • Heat or cold
  • Contingency plans

Incident Response
  • Referees have an obligation to provide direct
    assistance to rowers or crews in distress
  • First Evaluator/Second Evaluator system
  • First evaluator takes charge, provides direct
    assistance or coordinates assistance
  • Second evaluator acts as administrative
  • Rower(s) in Water
  • Stay with boat, near seat position
  • Athletes first, Equipment second
  • Weather conditions?
  • Temperature transfer of water is 20 times greater
    than that of air
  • Spring - out of water
  • Fall - keep in water
  • Always use Regatta Heat Bag or body wrap

Incident Response
  • Alert other officials via radio
  • What happened?
  • What is the location?
  • What type of assistance is needed?
  • Follow-upImmediate
  • Medical assistance is implemented, if needed
  • Equipment is accounted for
  • What about the race?
  • Follow-upLong Term
  • Chief Referee and/or Regatta Director is briefed
  • Notes made and reports filed (if needed)
  • Check with coach or team representative
  • Attend to your own needs
  • Note accidents on USRA Safety Form

What Constitutes fairness?
  • The only factors that should determine the
    outcome of any one race, or group of races within
    an elimination class (heats, reps, or semis), are
    the skill and abilities of the athletes and crews
  • At the same time, all crews should have equal
    chances as they progress through an individual
    race, as well as, through any system of
    elimination races to reach a final
  • In general, conditions and circumstances between
    lanes within a given race, as well as between
    races within an elimination class must remain
    equally fair or equally unfair

Each referee must develop an intuitive sense of
what constitutes fairness
Referee determines fairness of race (rule 2-404)
  • Two standards can be applied to judge whether or
    not the fairness of the race has been compromised
    or invalidated
  • Was a crew disadvantaged relative to the others
    in the race, for reasons outside of their own
    skill and ability?
  • Did a crew gain an unfair advantage over others
    in the race?
  • The Referees sense of fairness must apply
    equally to all crews within a race
  • Any form of assistance that is provided to an
    individual athlete or crew should be readily
    available to all athletes and crews within a race
  • A bad break to an individual athlete or crew
    does not necessarily constitute a breach of

Defining fairness while on the water
Interference (rule 2-404)
  • Interference is any outside circumstance acting
    within a crews protected water (i.e. lane) that
    hinders its progress relative to other crews in
    the race
  • Interference by another crew
  • wake or wash
  • clashing or interlocking oars
  • collision between boats
  • Collision with an obstacle
  • flotsam and jetsam (geese, sailboards, paddle
    boats, and the like)
  • Unfair conditions within a lane, relative to the
    other lanes
  • wind or current
  • waterfowl, swimmers
  • seaweed, etc.

Defining fairness while on the waterUnfair
  • An unfair advantage is typically viewed as one
    crew rowing a shorter distance, or taking
    advantage of favorable water or conditions,
    relative to the other crews
  • Pre-established criteria
  • doglegs
  • current
  • lee shore
  • Dynamic conditions
  • wind
  • shifting advantage currents

The Referee is to protect the fairness of the
  • The Referee must think and act proactively
  • The Referees responsibility is to anticipate and
    attempt to prevent interference from negating a
    crews equal chances, as well as one crew from
    gaining an unfair advantage over the others.

The Referee is to protect the fairness of the
  • If interference or outside circumstances impact a
    crew during a race, the referee must render an
    immediate judgement as to whether or not the
    crews equal chances to have been negated
  • If the impact is minimal, take no action
  • If the crews equal chances have been
    compromised or eliminated, the referee must
  • whether actions can be taken to restore equal
    chances to the crew, without having to stop the
  • whether the competitive value of the race has
    been eliminated, in which case the race should be

The Referee is to protect the fairness of the
  • Unlike other sports, the primary focus of the
    rowing referee is not to call fouls and
  • Rather, we are called upon to play an active
    role to ensure that each crew experiences a safe
    and fair race.

Launch Team Driver and Referee
  • Key topics to review with your driver at the
    beginning of your relationship
  • Hand Signals
  • Launch position at Start
  • Race Position
  • Return to Start procedures

Why Hand Signals
  • Minimize Referee presence
  • Maximize race contact
  • Build Team work

Hand Signals
Move in that direction.
O.K. Keep that position.
Straighten out.
Straighten out.
Slow Down.
  • Referee At The Start
  • Preparing for the race
  • Be with the crews in the start area five minutes
  • Monitor the traffic pattern around and on the
  • Help position the crews into the platform or
    stakeboats, if needed and
    requested by starter
  • Be patient!
  • Use proper instructions and tone of voice
  • Identify each crew in the race
  • Double-check the progression of the upcoming race
  • Watch the crews, listen to commands
  • Check your equipment
  • Check with other referees

Referee At The StartTwo minutes to go
  • Stand up in the launch
  • Stopwatch, flags, megaphone, launch, and driver
    all ready
  • Watch crews and hands (bow or cox?)

Referee At The StartAttention, Go! -- The first
100 meters
  • The clock is running
  • Hand up at start/did not start
  • Watching the Judge-at-Start False starts
  • Collisions or major interference
  • Rower in the water or overturned boat

Breakage(rules 2-311 and 2-407(d))
  • If a boat stops rowing within 100 meters of the
    start, STOP THE RACE!
  • First 100 meters (AKA the breakage zone) are
  • Marked with flags at the side of the course or
  • Change in bouy colors or
  • Defined as the first 20 seconds of the race
  • Approach the boat to determine if they have
  • What does not constitute breakage?
  • Failure of the Cox-box or other rowing aids
  • Breakage due to crabs or jumped slides
  • Equipment failure due to poor maintenance

Breakage(rules 2-311, 2-406, 2-405)
  • Check boat for broken equipment.
  • The affected crew may restart with no penalty if
    there was legitimate breakage
  • The crew may be penalized (e.g. warning) if they
    stopped with no breakage
  • Inform the Starter ASAP

Primary Duties of the Refereeonce the race is
underway (rules 2-403, 2-404)
  • Maintain the safety and fairness of the race
  • Safety always
  • Fairness maintain and protect equal chances
    for all crews in the race
  • Warn crews to
  • Prevent interference
  • Prevent a crew from gaining an unfair advantage
  • Prevent an accident
  • Do not steer the crews !!
  • Proper steering is part of the skill of racing
  • Mentally record a factual record of the race

Rights and Responsibilities of crews during the
race (rules 2-401, 2-402, 2-404)
  • Each crew has the right to an unobstructed use of
    its own lane
  • Each crew is responsible for its own steering
  • Each crew may leave its lane if ....
  • It does not interfere with another crew that is
    within its own lane
  • It does not gain an unfair advantage slack
    water, etc
  • It does not violate traffic rules of the course
    e.g. cross into warmup lane
  • It does not create a safety issue

Communicating with crews during the race
  • What does the Referee communicate to a crew?
  • For one crew to move either port or starboard, to
    avoid interference
  • For two crews to keep apart
  • For one crew to stop rowing to avoid interference
    or an accident
  • For all crews to stop rowing
  • The Referee uses both verbal and visual
    indications when communicating with a crew
  • The verbal command is to get the crews
  • The visual command gives the indication for what
    action the crew should take

Megaphone and flag use(rule 2-407)
  • For one crew to move either port or starboard, to
    avoid interference
  • Get the crews attention by calling its name
    while holding the white flag vertical
  • Direct the crew to move to the port or starboard
    by holding the white flag in that direction
  • For two crews to keep apart
  • Get crews attention while holding the white flag
  • While still holding the white flag vertical,
    announce to the crews Keep apart!

Megaphone and flag use(rule 2-407)continued
  • Racing cadence
  • Get the crews attention by calling its name
    while holding the white flag vertical
  • Announce race cadence! to the crew while
    continuing to hold the white flag vertical

Megaphone and flag use(rule 2-407)continued
  • For one crew to stop rowing
  • Get the crews attention by calling its name
    while holding the white flag vertical
  • Announce Stop rowing! to the crew while
    continuing to hold the white flag vertical
  • For all crews to stop rowing (stopping the race)
  • Raise red flag
  • Sound wistle, horn or bell
  • Use verbal commands to Stop rowing !

To Avoid unsafe conditions(2-408)
  • Previously known obstacle Name crew, call
    Obstacle or Stop, no steering
  • Previously unknown Name crew, call Obstacle or
    Stop, indicate direction to alter course,
    restore opportunity
  • Return to lane crews seeking sheltered water or
    otherwise gaining advantage

Effective communication
  • The objective is to give a clear and unambiguous
    indication to just the particular crew that the
    Referee is attempting to warn
  • Proper launch positioning is the key to achieving
    this objective
  • Getting the crews attention means getting the
    stroke to look up at the Referee
  • Crew(s) must be able to clearly see the Referee,
    before any indications are given
  • Always minimize the disturbance to other crews in
    the race.
  • In some situations, non-verbal commands can be
    given to an individual crew
  • Private communication between the Referee and
    one particular crew means that other crews can
    concentrate fully upon their own race
  • This requires good launch positioning, coupled
    with appropriate body language from the Referee

SummaryReferees Instructions (2-407)
  • Alter course white straight up, call crew, move
    flag in direction sought
  • Keep apart white flag straight up, call crews,
    Keep Apart
  • Crew(s) to stop rowing White straight up,
    Stop resume has white straight up, Resume
    rowing, drop flag forward
  • All Crews stop Red straight up, Stop, sound

Strategic Launch Positioning
  • Experience hones sense of anticipation
  • How well will the crews respond?
  • novices and juniors
  • seasoned racers
  • masters
  • Are all boat classes the same?
  • infamous straight pairs
  • everything else
  • What type of a race are you following?
  • Heats versus finals
  • progression system
  • Where in the race are you?
  • straight ahead at the start
  • mid-race power 20s
  • do or (and) die sprint to the finish

Strategic Launch Positioning
  • Anticipation is the name of the game!
  • Get into position before something happens
  • Dont get boxed into one location

The Referee is always in control of the Launch
(rule 2-403)
  • Effective communication with your driver
  • Change lanes
  • Slow down or speed up
  • Everything OK
  • Position relative to specific crews or lanes
  • There is no out-of-bounds for the referee launch

Launch position within the lane
  • Never follow directly behind blind boats (1x, 2x,
  • A good practice is to always stay alongside a
    buoy line

Launch position relative to crews in the race
  • Know the priorities of each race
  • The type of race (heat, rep, semi, final)
    determines the key place
  • Be aware of races within a race between
    trailing crews

Launch position relative to another Referee
  • Look at the other Referee
  • Always work as a Referee team!
  • Take advantage of the extra help to fully cover
    the race

Changing launch position
  • Keepappropriate distance between yourself and
    the crews
  • Dont get so close so as to disturb the rowers
    concentration and focus
  • Dont trail so far back that the race gets away
    from you
  • Make lane changes crisply
  • Dont wander all around behind the field

Launch PositioningAvoid Waking the crews
  • Surfin wakes sometimes solves the problem

Launch Positioning Waking a crew (rule 2-403)
  • Sometimes, it has to be done
  • There is no rule that prohibits the Referee from
    passing a crew within a race
  • However, pass crews only when the priorities of
    the race dictate that this must be done

Launch PositioningThe Right Way to Wake a crew
  • Wake a crew only once !!
  • The wake should pass once through the crew
  • Dont cause a crew to surf in your wake for any
  • Warn the Crew
  • Be considerate, but dont loose control of the
  • As the launch turns call the name the crew and
    call Wake! - no flag

Common Launch Positioning Errors
  • Getting into position too slowly after the start
  • Not watching the entire race
  • Focusing on just a single boat
  • Blocking the view of boats that are racing
  • Not watching or working with the other Referee
  • Loosing contact with the medal or advancing crews
  • Drifting back as the finish approaches

Unfair conditions during the race Interference
(rule 2-404)
  • Prevent by instruction before interference
  • Interference cant happen unless a crew enters
    another crews water
  • Consists of
  • Physical contact
  • Washing
  • Causing course alteration to avoid contact

Unfair conditions during the race Interference
(rule 2-404) continued
  • A crew is outside of its allowed water when any
    part of the boat or oars crosses the lane
  • Interference includes both physical contact, and
    forcing another crew to change course to avoid
  • If both crews are out of their lanes, always act
    to prevent an accident, and a crew cannot be
    blocked from returning to its proper lane

Reacting to Interference
  • Always anticipate before the foul is committed!
  • Instruct the offending crew to alter course to
    prevent interference
  • Instruct the offending crew to stop only when
    absolutely necessary

Resolving the consequences of Interference (rules
2-406, 2-602)
  • Interference has occurred whenever a crew in
    contention has been unfairly deprived of its
    chance to place or advance
  • If the purpose of the race has been irretrievably
    compromised due to interference, the Referee
    should stop that race
  • Penalties are imposed after the race has been
    stopped or has reached the finish
  • The goal of any actions or decisions by the
    Referee is to restore the opportunity of the
    aggrieved crew to place or advance

Penalizing Interference (2-406)
  • The Rules state that the presumed penalty is
  • However, what if
  • Interference slight (no lost opportunity)
  • Interference severe or intentional (DQ)
  • Interference occurred before instruction
  • Interference _at_ start (maybe warn)

Unfair conditions during the race Obstacles
(rules 2-405, 2-407, 2-408)
  • Always protect the safety of the crews
  • In general, crews are not to be steered around
    known obstacles on the racecourse
  • for example a bridge abutment
  • Crews may be given assistance if the obstacle was
    unknown before the race
  • For example a dock breaks loose and floats into
    one of the lanes
  • If the obstacle was not identified before the
    race, the opportunity for a crew to place or
    advance should be protected and restored
  • Crews must not gain an unfair advantage by being
    steered around an obstacle

Unfair conditions during the race Race Cadence
(rule 2-409)
  • Limited Application
  • This rule applies to heats with a repechage and
  • The purpose of this rule is fairness, to ensure
    that all crews face similar conditions as they
    advance towards a final
  • A minimum cadence (stroke rate) should be
    announced to all crews before the race starts
  • This rule applies specifically to crews which do
    not advance or win
  • Advancing or winning automatically indicates that
    the race cadence was acceptable

Unfair conditions during the race Outside
Assistance (rule 2-410)
  • Other than shouting from the shore (with the
    unassisted voice) crews may not receive coaching
    or outside assistance during a race
  • Coaches or other team members may not follow a
    race in a launch
  • Race commentary which is audible to the crews
    shall be stopped during the last 250 meters

Stopping a race(rule 2-405)
  • A race should be stopped for one of two reasons
  • Conditions become unsafe
  • When there is concern over the safety or health
    of an individual rower
  • When unsafe conditions occur for one or more
  • The race becomes unfair
  • Opportunity to win, place, advance affected
  • No further competitive value in continuing
  • Practical considerations
  • Distance into the race 500 m. vs. 1500 m
  • The type of race heat versus final
  • Options for remedying the situation advance crew
    to lane 7 instead of a rerow

Stopping a race(rule 2-405) continued
  • Be Certain! There is no going back (usually) once
    the red flag is waved!
  • Be Decisive! Dont waste the crews energy if the
    race should be stopped

Returning to the start between races
  • Low speed approach
  • Used when there are sufficient referees and/or
    long race centers
  • Staggered return to start, usually with several
    intervening races
  • Allows for safety and backup coverage along the
    entire racecourse
  • Sometimes called the FISA return system

Low speed Return How to
  • Stay in the agreed upon pattern dont all bunch
    up at one spot
  • Monitor progress of starts and races visually and
    via the radio
  • NO wakes (exhaust, noise, etc.) when a race
    passes by
  • Stay awake! Stay alert!

Returning to the start between races continued
  • High speed approach
  • Used when there are short race centers and/or not
    enough Referees
  • Depending upon the rotation
  • May need to return all the way to the start (next
  • Return part-way, then wait for next race to pass
  • Creates potential wake problems
  • Minimized by following proper procedures
  • Watch for crews to side of course

High speed Return How to
  • Dont plow through the water, try to plane your
  • Always move up a center lane in a direction that
    is parallel to the lanes
  • Monitor start zone activity (visual and radio)
  • There is only one correct way to stop and leave
    the course
  • Be sure to take the weight off the launch before
    the turn !

Returning to the start between races continued
  • Is the Referee off duty in-between races?
  • No! Duty of the Referee in-between the races
    is to
  • Inspect the course
  • Monitor traffic patterns off the course
  • Monitor race in progress
  • Always be prepared to become backup referee or
    safety/rescue boat

Always stay engaged while on the water!
Referee at the finish (rules 2-501, 2-502, 2-503)
  • At the finish of the race
  • Time the first place crew
  • Wait for all crews to cross the finish line
  • Check condition of all crews
  • Check for coxswain or boat weights
  • Secondary Referee signals to Primary if it is a
    fair race

Referee at the finish (rules 2-501, 2-502,
  • Anticipate protests! Check once more
  • Signal the race status to Chief Judge as
  • white flag
  • red flag
  • red flag followed by white flag
  • Report time to Chief Judge
  • Wait for acknowledgement from Chief Judge (white

Finishing the Race(rule 2-504)
  • Crews that do not finish are not placed
  • Unless excused from finishing by the Referee
  • Crews must finish with their coxswain
  • Monitor traffic around the finish area
  • Stop your launch before crossing the finish line,
    and wait for all crews to go past
  • Distribute water if no finish line Marshal

Finishing the Race(rule 2-504)continued
  • Record a factual account of the race and the
    finish on your heat sheet
  • Always record the winning time
  • And the boat ID, if you know it
  • Note any crews that did not finish
  • Note any accompanying Referees
  • Note any incidents which occurred during the race

Handling a Protest at the Finish of a Race
  • The first step is to listen to the complaint
  • Approach the crew with a neutral posture and
  • Position your launch so that you and the crew
    member you are speaking to can comfortably look
    at one another
  • Avoid unnecessary yelling - it is much better to
    speak in a natural tone and volume
  • If possible, turn off the engine on the launch,
    especially if it is belching out fumes and
  • Momentarily turn down the volume on your radio

Handling a Protest at the Finish of a
  • Allow only one spokesperson - normally the
    Coxswain or Captain
  • Your objective is to listen to the specifics of
    the crews complaint
  • What happened?
  • Where or when did the incident occur?
  • How did the incident affect the crew?
  • Ascertain specifically what is the protest
  • Do not coach the crew!

Initial Response (rules 2-603, 2-604)
  • First and foremost, dont enter into an
  • Ask questions to clarify your understanding of
    what the crew has just told you
  • It may be helpful to summarize to the crew what
    you heard them say
  • Now (and not before) is the time to weigh in with
    your own observations
  • If you disagree with any portion of the crews
    factual account, clearly state the discrepancy
  • If you agree with their factual account, say so
  • If you cannot render a definitive assessment
    because you require additional information from
    other officials, say so
  • Perhaps confer, but dont convene a jury meeting
    on the water
  • Think fast, but with clarity and wisdom!

Judging the validity of protest(rule 2-604)
  • Race awareness is critical!
  • Do you agree with the facts reported by the crew?
  • The Referees findings of fact are final and are
    not subject to protest or review (rule 2-604c)
  • Was the crew unfairly disadvantaged by the
    claimed incident?
  • This is typically a judgement call that must be
    made by the Referee

Judging the validity protest(rule
  • Did the incident have any consequence or bearing
    upon the final outcome of the race?
  • This is also a judgement call
  • The nature of the race is a critical factor e.g.
    a heat versus a final
  • Is the complaint valid within the context of the
    Rules of Rowing (rule 2-604a)?
  • The fairness of the race must have been
  • There must have been a violation of one or more
    specific rules

Matters Subject to Protest
  • The race was not fair or was not properly
  • The Rules of Rowing or the Regatta Rules were
    not followed
  • The opportunity for winning was unfairly denied

Matters Subject to Protest continued
  • The protest must affect the substantial rights
    of the crew i.e., arguably affected their final
    placement in the race
  • Harmless errors that did not impact the outcome
    of the race are to be ignored

Matters Not Subject to Protest (rules 2-603,
  • Findings of fact by the Referees
  • Whether or not a crew was in its correct lane
  • Whether or not the start of the race was fair
  • The final order of finish as determined by the
    Chief Judge

Rendering assessment concerning protest(rule
  • If you concur with the crew
  • Say so (I agree with what you have just said )
  • Inform the crew what recommendation you will
    offer to remedy the situation
  • Report your finding and assessment to the Chief
  • If you do not concur with the crew
  • Say so (I do not believe this warrants any
    actions )
  • Explain (succinctly!) the basis for your
  • Ask the crew if they nevertheless intend to file
    a protest on shore
  • Advise the crew on procedures for filing a

Rendering assessment concerning protest(rule
  • You agree with the crew, but do not believe that
    any actions should be taken to alter the order of
    finish, to penalize another crew, or to declare
    the race invalid
  • Inform the crew that you agree with their factual
    account of the race
  • Explain the reasons why you think that no actions
    should be taken

Considerations for respondingto a Protest
  • First listen -- what is the nature of the
  • Does the crews account agree with your own
    observations from the race?
  • Was the crew disadvantaged?
  • Did the incident have any consequence upon the
    final outcome of the race?
  • Is the protest valid?

Considerations for respondingto a
  • How could fairness be restored?
  • Change the order of finish?
  • Exclusion of the offending crew?
  • Recommend advancement to lane 7?
  • Re-row the race?
  • What instructions should be given to the crew?
  • When necessary, consult with the Chief Referee
  • Always inform the Chief Judge and Chief Referee

Considerations for respondingto a
  • The objective is to state clearly and without
    ambiguity your assessment concerning the validity
    of the complaint just lodged by the crew
  • Referees MAY NOT discourage a crew from
    exercising their rights within the Rules to make
    and file a protest
  • However, the Referee should strive to ensure that
    only valid complaints and protests are brought to
    the shore for jury consideration

Penalties(rules 2-601, 2-602)
  • The focus of any penalty is restoring a crews
    opportunity to win or advance
  • Reprimand is an informal caution, but if the
    action is repeated it may be treated as flagrant
    or intentional
  • Warning is a formal penalty, two warnings in a
    race result in exclusion of the crew, regardless
    of the reason for the warning. Warnings carry
    over to rerows

Penalties(rules 2-601, 2-602)continued
  • Exclusion removes the crew from the event, but
    the crew may compete in other events
  • Disqualification removes the crew or competitor
    from the regatta
  • Assumed where crews act flagrantly or
    intentionally in violation of rules related to
    safety or fairness
  • Does not extend beyond the duration of the
  • Chief Referee must report to the Referee

Penalties(rule 2-603)
  • Restoring the opportunity to win by altering
    results, consult with the Chief Referee
  • Order a rerow of a race with some or all of its
    original participants
  • Advance the aggrieved crew into an extra lane in
    a semifinal or final
  • Place a crew guilty of interference behind the
    crew they interfered with in the order of finish
  • Declare (Chief Judge) a dead heat between the
    crew interfered with and the crew immediately in
    front of them in the order of finish

Developing competency as a Referee
  • The purpose of this presentation is to provide an
    overview of the principles and guidelines that
    collectively define the duties and
    responsibilities of an On-the-Water Referee
  • It is only a starting point
  • The Referee launch is the best classroom
  • On-the water experience is the best teacher