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Classical Greece 5

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Famous Artists. Kleitias, chief painter of the second quarter of the sixth century. ... Famous Artists. Meidias Painter. Circa 410, his style was adopted by many. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classical Greece 5


1
Classical Greece 5
  • CNE/ART 354
  • 3/29/06

2
Porch Metopes
  • 12 sculpted metopes decorated the front and back
    porches
  • Subject 12 labors of Herakles, founder of the
    Olympic Games.

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5
Olympic Oracle
  • There was an oracle, but we dont hear much about
    it.
  • Famous families of seers lived in Elis and
    interpreted the gods will by looking at flames
    and smoke.

6
Stadium
  • What you see today is the 3rd of the stadia built
    at Olympia. Kept getting bigger/grander with
    increasing popularity of the Games.
  • Foot races were held here.
  • Races for men were panhellenic but the womens
    footrace was for the unmarried women of Elis
    only. The womens footrace was in honor of Hera,
    founded by Hippodameia (mythical founding).

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Other Agones
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Nike of Paionios (420 BCE)
  • Inscription on statue base in the sanctuary says
    that Paionios made it and that he was also
    commissioned to make the acroteria (roof
    sculpture) for the Temple of Zeus.
  • 6 feet 5 inches tall, set on top of a triangular
    pillar, 33 feet in the air.
  • Dedicated to celebrate a military victory.
  • Drapery is carved so as to illustrate the rush of
    her flight through the air, accentuates her body.

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Nike of Paionios, Continued
  • The action shown the moment of her landing.
  • Her wings would have been outspread.
  • Important piece of sculpture
  • High quality carving
  • Stylistically midway between the Parthenon
    sculptures and the wet look drapery of the
    Athena Nike parapet sculptures.

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Changes in Votive Patterns
  • Archaic Period large numbers of small metal
    objects, often personal possessions of
    individuals (raw offerings, primary function
    unrelated to their place in a sanctuary).
  • Classical Period Large drop in number of metal
    statuettes dedicated. Shift to terracotta
    votives? Personal possessions no longer seemed
    appropriate to give to the gods. Shift to
    converted offerings (objects specially made to
    be votives).

23
Vase-painting, 5th-4th Centuries
  • J.D. Beazely spent his life analyzing Greek
    fine-ware pottery and assigning styles to
    painters.
  • Published Athenian Black-Figure Pottery, Athenian
    Red-Figure Pottery.
  • His system is based on 3 categories of naming.

24
Beazleys Categories
  • We actually know who the painter was because he
    signed the pot (so and so painted this ???afe?).
    Rare.
  • The potter says, so and so made this ?p???se?).
    Also rare.
  • Descriptive name
  • Name of museum holding the pot (Berlin Painter)
  • Description of subject matter or characteristic
    style/pose (The Achilles painter, the Elbows Out
    painter)

25
Brief Review
  • By the 6th c. Athens had begun to export her
    pottery far and wide.
  • By mid 6th c. Athens established as the chief
    ceramic center of the Mediterranean. Corinth had
    been eliminated from the market.
  • Tombs and sanctuaries all over the Med. World
    (especially Etruria) contained Attic vases.
  • Athens ceramic dominance lasted c. 150 years.

26
Changes in Greek Drawing
  • Until mid 6th c figures were purely two
    dimensional, drawn either in full profile or with
    full front trunk attached to profile arms and
    legs.
  • Draperies stiff and lifeless.
  • Depth suggested by overlapping forms.

27
Changes in Greek Drawing
  • Circa 530 a change begins.
  • Attempts made to show figures in three quarter
    views.
  • Drapery folds became more natural.
  • By 450 three quarter views are mastered.
  • Depth suggested by receding views.

28
Changes in Greek Drawing
  • By the 4th century the attainment of depth is
    fully realized.
  • Vase-painting now reflects the achievements of
    wall painting.

29
Plain Wares
  • Athenian potters also made lots of plain wares
    for daily use.
  • High Classical Period (5th c.) vases of all kinds
    were decorated in a plain, shiny black gloss.
  • These were very popular.

30
Attic Plain Black Glaze Ware
31
Pottery Uses
  • 8th-7th c
  • huge Attic vases were used for elite burial
    markers.
  • Other painted wares were used for utilitarian
    purposes
  • Amphorae/hydria for storage
  • Kraters for mixing wine, oinochoe for holding
    wine, kylikes kantharoi for drinking wine
  • Lekythoi for olive oil (cleansing), aryballoi for
    gym olive oil, alabastra for perfume.
  • White-Ground Lekythoi grave offerings

32
Famous Artists
  • Nessos Painter (620-530)
  • Beginning of ABF
  • Figures are large-scale, with big features.
  • Monsters and animal friezes still appear.

33
Famous Artists
  • Kleitias, chief painter of the second quarter of
    the sixth century.
  • He and potter Ergotimos signed the Francois
    krater.
  • Master storyteller.

34
Kleitias, Continued
  • With his juxtaposition of the killing of Troilos
    by Achilles with a scene of daily life (women at
    the fountain house), he conveys something of the
    same kind of pathos Homer achieved in his account
    of the death of Hektor.

35
Famous Artists
  • Exekias (550-540)
  • Potter painter
  • Considered the finest BF artist.
  • Mythological scenes
  • Elegant style
  • Ex. Ajax Achilles playing game. Outline of the
    backs of the figures echoes the curve of the vase.

36
Famous Artists
  • Amasis Painter, c. 540.
  • Painted both large and small pots
  • Some of his most famous are scenes of daily life
    (women working wool, wedding procession).

37
Red-Figure Technique
  • 530-400.
  • Within a decade or two of its invention, RF was
    dominant.
  • In the early part of this period, masterful
    painters produced decorated vases as the
    Peisistratid tyrants ruled, the reforms of
    Kleisthenes, and the early days of Athenian
    radical democracy.

38
Famous Artists
  • Euphronios (510-500)
  • Outstanding drawing ability
  • Improvements in the rendering of figures
  • Ex. Herakles and Antaios wrestling, Death of
    Sarpedon

39
Famous Artists
  • Kleophrades Painter
  • 500-475
  • Painted over 100 extant vases, mostly
    amphorae/hydriai
  • Highly individual style firm flowing line,
    spaciousness of composition, monumental quality.

40
Kleophrades Painter, Continued
  • Used mythological illustrations to convey new
    ideas and depth of feeling.
  • Ex. Fall of Troy scenes emphasize brutal,
    pointless destruction, suffering of
    non-combatants.
  • Heartfelt indictment of war, during the Persian
    Wars.

41
Famous Artists
  • Berlin Painter
  • 500-480
  • More than 200 vases have been attributed to him,
    none are signed.
  • Graceful/flowing figures with much anatomical
    detail, love of pattern.
  • Single groups spotlighted against black
    background.

42
Continued Use of BF
  • Until the mid 5th c BF was used as a secondary
    technique, mostly for small lekythoi,
    neck-amphorae, and oinochoae.
  • From the mid 6th c., the Athenians had awarded
    amphorae of olive oil as prizes in the
    Panathenaic Games. Religious conservatism
    required that these were always BF, with Athena
    on one side, and a scene from the Games on the
    other.
  • These continued in use, looking very archaic,
    until late in the 4th c. We know exact dates of
    pots when painters began inscribing the names of
    archons on pots.

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475-450 BCE
  • A new spirit enters RF vase-painting.
  • Some artists, evidently inspired by the wall
    paintings of Polygnotos and his associates,
    produced ambitious compositions on large vases
    with figures placed on different levels in hilly
    landscapes.
  • Combats of Lapiths/Centaurs and Greeks/Amazons
    are favorite themes.

45
Famous Artists
  • The Brygos Painter (499-475)
  • Superb at rendering everyday scenes
  • Style catches both the emotion and movement of
    his figures.

46
Famous Artists
  • Niobid Painter
  • 460-450
  • Incorporates depth representation from wall
    painters.
  • Sets figures on different ground lines up and
    down the field of the picture.

47
Free Style Period
  • 450-420 BCE
  • Coincides with Perikles political power and the
    Parthenon sculptures.
  • While the greatest artists were used in this
    period to work on sculpture, architecture, and
    wall-painting, some excellent vase-painters were
    still at work.

48
Famous Artists
  • Achilles Painter
  • 450-440
  • quiet grandeur
  • Over 200 vase-ptgs are attributed to him.
  • Master of WG style.
  • Mood close to the ideal calm of Parthenon
    sculptures.
  • Ancient writers dont mention WG vases (minor
    works at time).

49
Achilles Painter WGL
50
Famous Artists
  • Meidias Painter
  • Circa 410, his style was adopted by many.
  • Decorated a hydria in London with 2 mythological
    scenes rape of the Leukippidae and Herakles in
    the Garden of the Hesperides.

51
Meidias Painter, Continued
  • Graceful figures with clinging draperies are
    counterparts to the reliefs on the Athena Nike
    parapet (agonizing end stage of Pelop. War).
  • Herakles is depicted as the late 5th c. liked to
    see him, not fighting monsters or his fate, but
    peacefully at rest, rewarded for his labors.

52
Final Flowering of ARF
  • RF continued to be produced, but demand declined.
  • Fewer and fewer signatures of painters by end of
    4th c., signatures of potters had disappeared as
    well.
  • Circa 350 - final flowering of Athenian RF.
  • By 325, other markets such as North Africa began
    to import Southern Italian pottery instead of
    Athenian.
  • Circa 320 RF stopped being made in Athens.

53
South Italian Vases
  • A serious rival to Attic pottery was the RF ware
    produced in Southern Italy from about 440 BCE.
    Earliest examples closely reflect contemporary
    Attic style, especially that of the Achilles
    Painter. By the turn of the century, local
    schools developed their own styles.
  • It continued through the 4th century to supply
    local needs.
  • South Italian glaze is not such an intense black,
    nor as lustrous, as Attic. Decoration is more
    florid.

54
Leda, Zeus, Aphrodite, South Italian Ware
(Apulian), 4th c.
55
Developments in Sculpture
  • Circa 520 development of hollow bronze
    sculpture, using the lost wax method.
  • Huge technological leap forward.
  • Bronze is lighter than marble this technique
    enabled a different type of sculpture to arise.
    Poses could be made with different centers of
    gravity.

56
Lost Wax Technique
  • If necessary, make an armature for the clay model.

57
Lost Wax Method 2
  • Apply clay to the armature, if there is an
    armature.

58
Lost Wax Method 3
  • Apply wax to the clay model.

59
Lost Wax Method 4
  • Put a mold over the wax-covered model secure it.

60
Lost Wax Method 5
  • Apply heat, melting the wax.
  • Gap made between clay model and mold.

61
Lost Wax Method 6
  • Pour molten bronze in, filling the gap.

62
Lost Wax Method 7
  • Remove mold, reveal bronze statue.
  • Break the clay model on the inside, remove in
    pieces.

63
Lost Wax Method 8
  • Add details.
  • Because both the material and the process of
    casting were so expensive (much more so than
    marble), the figures were usually not cast in one
    piece, but in several. If the casting went wrong
    for one piece, all would not be lost.

64
Piraeus Apollo
  • Greeks developed monumental bronze statues, like
    this over-life-sized one of Apollo, found in the
    Piraeus in 1959.
  • Kouros-like stance, but arms are separated from
    the body and held out, unsupported. Held bow in
    left hand, another attribute in right.

65
A Look Back Kritios Boy
  • Statues start coming to life after the kouroi.
  • Kritios Boy c. 480
  • Anatomy still fairly stylized, but changed pose.
    Weight shifts onto back leg, head turned
    slightly.
  • Kenneth Clark The first beautiful nude in art.
  • Theseus? Athletic victor?

66
Kritios Boy
  • Gone archaic smile, rigid stance, formal
    symmetry.
  • New, relaxed, asymetrical pose of a person at
    rest.
  • Influence of bronze statues hair is inscribed in
    shallow lines inserted eyes.
  • Pollitt seems as if he might turn and ask you a
    question, uncertainty.

67
Blond Boy
  • Head shows a tilt which accompanied a pose much
    like that of Kritios Boy.
  • Broken remains of the Kritios Boy and the Blond
    Boy were found on the Acropolis.

68
Roman Copies
  • Most bronze statues were melted down and the
    material reused, but we do have Roman marble
    copies of the most famous Greek bronze statues.
  • Marble lacks the strength of bronze, so sculptors
    had to add supports to hold up the top-heavy
    stone and prevent the statues from breaking at
    the ankles.
  • Most were made using plaster casts from molds
    taken from the originals.

69
Tyrannicides
  • Roman marble copy of original bronze group.
  • Depiction of action.
  • Original technological innovations of the
    preceding generations used to convey inner life
    and character in a way not seen before in
    sculpture.

70
Tyrannicides
  • The two men are carefully differentiated (all
    kouroi were ideals of youth and vigor).
  • Tyrannicides are representations of specific ages
    and personalities.
  • Sought to reveal the minds inside the bodies,
    thoughts that determine actions.
  • Depictions of the polarities of movement and rest.

71
Riace Bronze Warrior A (460-450)
  • Statues found off the coast of Riace in So.
    Italy. Show the new formula of the relaxed pose
    further developed and refined.
  • Weight on right leg. Left leg bent, in front.
    Held shield on left arm. Right hip higher than
    left.
  • Upper body unresponsive to the different degrees
    of tension in the 2 arms.

72
Riace Bronze Warrior A
  • Head is turned alertly figure seems alive with
    potential energy.
  • Statue looks different from every side a slight
    S curve runs through it.
  • 6 feet 9 inches tall.

73
Riace Bronze Warrior A
  • Face is intense
  • Inlaid eyes
  • Bronze eyelashes
  • Red copper lips parted to show silver teeth
  • Ringlets and curls cast separately, attached to
    head.
  • Now in Reggio Museum.

74
Riace Bronze Warrior A Face
75
From the Marathon Monument at Delphi (c. 450)?
  • Pausanias tells of a monument honoring those who
    fought at Marathon.
  • Miltiades (heroized) strategos of Marathon, stood
    by Apollo Athena.
  • 10 other figures, 7 Eponymous Heroes reflecting
    the tribal order of battle.

76
Riace Bronze Warrior B
77
Riace Bronze Warrior B As Found
78
Riace Bronze Warrior B
  • Helmeted
  • Younger than A
  • Copper lips and nipples
  • Inlaid eyes
  • 6 feet 6 inches.

79
Tipped Back Helmet
  • style adopted by posthumous portraits of Athenian
    Generals
  • Example portrait of Perikles

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Riace Bronzes Back View
  • Other theories
  • Group of 10 Greek heroes waiting to see who would
    fight Hektor (by Temple of Zeus at Olympia)
    works for A, Athenian helmet odd for B)
  • Eponymous Heroes in Agora (too warlike)
  • Marathon Monument at Delphi (B fits with this)

82
Artemision Zeus (460-450)
  • Found off Cape Artemision, now in National Museum
    in Athens. 610.
  • God shown hurling thunderbolt (now missing) at
    unseen enemy.
  • Artist contrasts the straight arm with the bent,
    weight-bearing leg with the free leg.

83
Zeus
  • 2 problems
  • The torso is not affected by the action of the
    limbs (could be a quietly standing figure like
    the Kritios Boy, or Riace Warrior)
  • Statue only really works from the front or back
    the sides dont do much for the viewer.

84
Diskoboulos, c. 450
  • Made at the same time as the Artemision Zeus,
    became v. famous.
  • Highly praised by ancient writers, much copied
    for Roman admirers.
  • Myron chose to depict an instant of stillness in
    the midst of action the split second pause
    between back swing and forward thrust.

85
Diskoboulos
  • Archaic period beauty symmetry and formal
    repetition
  • Discus thrower systematically negates both
    principles, now out of fashion.
  • Right side dominated by the sweep of a continuous
    curve left is a zigzag of straight lines.

86
Diskoboulos
  • Myron has brought to his new aesthetic ideal the
    refinement of a mathematical proposition
  • Curved vs. straight
  • Smooth vs. angular
  • Closed vs. open
  • Chest is seen from the front, legs from the side.
  • But torso still a study of static anatomy, no
    response to limb actions.
  • Side views dont work so well.

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88
Doryphoros by Polykleitos
  • Polykleitos developed a theory of proportions in
    a book called The Canon, illustrated it with his
    Young Man Carrying a Spear.
  • Circa 440.

89
Doryphoros
  • Spear-bearer is shown pausing for a second as he
    steps forward.
  • Action is slight compared to Myrons Diskobolos,
    but the torso is fully responsive to it.

90
Doryphoros
  • Left shoulder tensed and slightly raised.
  • Left leg bears no weight, the hip drops, the
    torso extends.
  • Right arm hangs relaxed at side, shoulder
    lowered. Right hip raised to support weight
    torso contracted.
  • Contraposto or balance of opposites side views
    work well.

91
Diadoumenos, c. 430
  • Polykleitos was famous for his statues of men.
  • Bronze youth tying a ribbon around his head.
    Roman copy.
  • Same contraposto pose as Doryphoros (dynamic
    equilibrium).

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