Global media: imports, exports, migrants, and identities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Global media: imports, exports, migrants, and identities


1
Global media imports, exports, migrants, and
identities
  • October 23, 2006

2
Different ways media texts can be global (or
transnational)
  • Program exported to other countries (dubbed or
    subtitled)
  • Friends, ER, Baywatch, Desperate Housewives
  • (usually US ? rest of world)
  • Country-specific versions created locally after
    becoming big hit in original country
  • Desperate Housewives, Survivor, Who Wants to Be a
    Millionaire?, The Weakest Link, Trading Spaces

3
Media texts as global/transnational
  • Worldwide coverage of same events
  • Academy Awards, Olympics, World Cup
  • Migrant media (a/k/a ethnic media)
  • Ethnic-specific programming available throughout
    regions of diaspora
  • Greek Cypriot radio in England, Turkish TV in
    England, Eastern European TV in US

4
Lets get Desperate
  • www.abc.com

5
To export or to localize?
  • The case of Desperate Housewives
  • Currently exported to South America (with
    subtitles)
  • A logical destination telenovelas dominate
    prime-time TV
  • Has anyone seen a telenovela?
  • But ALSO being re-shot with local starsusing the
    original US scripts
  • Separate versions for Argentina, Brazil,
    Colombia/Ecuador

6
Why bother to re-shoot?
  • Some US cultural details dont make sense
  • Plumbers in Latin America arent wealthy
  • Funeral rites differ
  • No Thanksgiving holiday
  • No WASP ethnic group (Bree)
  • No spitfire Latina stereotype! (Gabrielle)
  • More physical affection displayed

7
An interesting quote from an Argentine star
  • As with a book or a film, the success of a
    series, no matter how localized you make it or
    how much you adapt it to another setting, is that
    its story be universal. And that is what they
    have achieved here with Desperate Housewives.
  • What do you think?

8
Another form of exporting
  • Chinese technology experts creating Chinese
    subtitles for US sitcoms and dramas
  • On their own 40 TV shows/week!
  • Without permission of the US TV producers
  • And without permission of government (censors!)
  • But only for free downloading from Internetnot
    for us on Chinese TV

9
Why this effort?
  • Love for American popular culture
  • Viewers (and translators) learn English by
    watching US movies and TV
  • New York Times The adapters say they pick up
    useful knowledge about everything from changing
    fashion and mores to medical science

10
Why not just watch Chinese TV?
  • Chinese fan of US TV says
  • Our own actors are not bad. Those responsible
    for making Chinese TV shows pathetic are the
    directors, screenwriters, editors, and the people
    doing the lighting, music, special effects, and
    makeup. There are bits of poor quality in every
    aspect, and it adds up to total trash.

11
Why else?
  • Strict Chinese government censorship
  • Political issues, sexuality, violence
  • China only imported 20 movies last year (16 from
    US)
  • Very few US TV shows are imported by government
  • Those that are imported (Desperate Housewives)
    are poorly dubbed and translated

12
Friends as US history text?
  • An interesting quote from a Chinese translator
  • It provides cultural background relating to
    every aspect of our lives politics, history, and
    human culture. These are the things that make
    American TV special.

13
Quote (ctd.)
  • When I first started watching Friends, I found
    the show was full of information about American
    history and showed how America had rapidly
    developed. Its more interesting than textbooks
    or other ways of learning.

14
Do we simplify?
  • A Chinese fan says about US TV
  • After watching these shows for some time, I felt
    the attitudes of some of the characters were
    beginning to influence me. Its hard to describe,
    but I think I learned a way of life from them.
  • They are good at simplifying complex problems,
    which I think has something to do with American
    culture.

15
Migrant media
  • Myria Georgiou says ethnic media (e.g., Greek
    Cypriot TV and radio in London)
  • Help people connect with their ethnic identity
    sustain identity and culture
  • Become dynamic participants in construction of
    transnational community
  • Link people experiencing diaspora
  • community of people dispersed across borders who
    share common homeland

16
Georgiou on migrant media (ctd.)
  • Still, audiences are actively involved
  • Construct meaning, dont just absorb it
  • Approach (ethnic) media from multiple subject
    positions
  • Still, watching the same news, hearing same
    music, as others in the diaspora (or in the
    homeland) helps develop sense of belonging/bonding

17
Not everyone agrees
  • Kevin Robins Asu Aksoy its only partially
    true!
  • Rather than long-distance bonding to the
    homeland
  • Ethnic media simply bring the homelands consumer
    culture to the new place (e.g., Turkeys products
    come to London)

18
What else?
  • Robins Aksoy argue that ethnic media available
    in new country might actually liberate migrants
    from old country ways of thinking
  • Now away from homeland, they can step back and
    see how its values do or dont relate to them in
    their new lives

19
Dont elevate what people want!
  • Rather than (necessarily) grand ethnocultural or
    diasporic desires
  • People simply want a social connectionwhich TV
    provides
  • But watching TV while away from the homeland
    may actually point out how disconnected migrants
    are from everyday life there
  • Thus, might actually subvert the diasporic
    imagination

20
Going glocal Millionaire
  • Created in UK in 1998
  • Came to US in 1999
  • As of December 2003, Who Wants to Be a
    Millionaire?
  • Licensed or optioned in 107 countries
  • Colombia, China, Russia, Singapore, Philippines,
    Kazakhstan, Greece, Poland

21
Why the huge success?
  • Uses-and-gratifications theory explanation
  • Meets all of an individuals mass-media needs

22
Mass-media needs (UG theory)
  • Cognitive we acquire information
  • Affective pleasure/fun of interactive play
  • Personal-integrative strengthens confidence
  • Social-integrative contact with family friends
    when watching together or when discussing later
  • Tension-release while watching, relax (forget
    problems of the day)

23
But what about cultural differences around the
world?
  • Hofstede nations can diverge on 5 key dimensions
    of cultural variability
  • Power distance
  • Individualism
  • Masculinity
  • Uncertainty avoidance
  • Long-term orientation

24
But there are patterns by region
  • Cooper-Chen studied game shows in 50 nations
  • identified what she calls 4 Cultural Continents
  • Groups of countries who share traits on the 5
    cultural dimensions
  • Western (Europe, N. America, Turkey, Australia,
    Israel)
  • East Asian
  • Latin
  • Equatorial

25
Traits shared by Cultural Continents
  • Game shows in Western continent
  • Interactivity, civilian players, 1 male host
  • Emphasis on expensive prizes, low production
    values
  • East Asian game shows
  • Celebrity players, male female co-hosts, no
    emphasis on expensive prizes, high production
    values
  • Both continents players like to mentally play
    along

26
But on the other continents
  • Latin game shows players perform physical feats,
    viewers watch (rather than mentally
    participate), male and female co-hosts
  • Equatorial game shows talented students or
    exceptionally intelligent contestants
  • Audience cant play along

27
Few shows have moved across continents
  • But Millionaire is the rare exception
  • Its been a hit on all four cultural continents
  • By contrast, Wheel of Fortune has been
    multinational for decades
  • But mostly in the Western continent (Europe and
    US)
  • Slight variations Scandinavian Vanna
    counterpart is not mute Turkish Wheel has belly
    dancers

28
Glocalization
  • Making small changes to reflect cultural demands
  • Somewhere between pure localization (major
    adaptations) and globalization (one size fits
    allwhich rarely works!)
  • While sticking with core elements for contractual
    reasons
  • Set, format, is that your final answer?

29
How is Millionaire glocalized?
  • Content of questions
  • Difficulty of questions
  • Name of show (Saudi Arabia Who Will Earn a
    Million? Russia Oh, LuckyYou Are a
    Millionaire)
  • Players mix of celebrities and civilians

30
Reactions
  • Game shows are not usually well received
    critically
  • Millionaire has done OKbut certain countries
    raise unexpected issues
  • Singapore poor player performance cast light on
    education system
  • Russia players wanted to see cash before they
    began!

31
Reactions (ctd.)
  • India popular because school system emphasizes
    memorization
  • UK seen as undemocraticonly the wealthy
    contestants could afford to risk
  • Canada seen as democratic and participatoryanyon
    e could get on the show and do well

32
The Olympics the ultimate global media text?
  • Modern Olympics
  • 1896 Pierre de Coubertin
  • International sport ? international peace

33
Coubertins vision
  • Keep away the opportunities that are advanced
    by profit-motivated people whose only dream is
    to use someone elses muscles either to build
    upon his own political fortune or to make his own
    business prosper
  • How did that work out for you, Pierre?

34
Morettis argument
  • Mediaespecially TVhave completely transformed
    the Olympics
  • In ways incompatible with the Olympic movement
  • Clashes of ideologies
  • Profit (media businesses)
  • Culture (individual nations and their fans)
  • Planning vs. spontaneity TV forces a script onto
    unscripted events

35
Internationalism vs. nationalism
  • Olympic ideals universality, internationalism
  • TVs presentation nationalistic
  • TV networks serve as cheerleaders for countrys
    own athletes

36
Individual countries nationalism
  • Sports preferred by countrys citizens get more
    air time
  • US figure skating, skiing, track and field,
    gymnastics, swimming
  • UK badminton Japan judo Iran weightlifting
  • Canada synchronized swimming Mexico basketball

37
Lets watch a bit
38
How do Olympics display/exploit culture?
  • Opening and closing ceremonies
  • music, traditional costumes, dancing
  • 1936 Berlin Olympics stage for Nazi propaganda
  • Anyone seen Leni Riefenstahls movie Olympia?
  • During Cold War, Olympics were East vs. West
    battlefield

39
Driving force today not culture, but business
  • Multi-billion dollar business
  • CBS paid IOC 50,000 for 1960 TV rights
  • NBC paid IOC 893,000,000 for 2008 rights
  • TV networks, international corporations,
    politicians, private citizensand yes,
    athletes!compete for visibility, influence
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Global media: imports, exports, migrants, and identities

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Different ways media texts can be global (or transnational) ... Academy Awards, Olympics, World Cup 'Migrant media' (a/k/a 'ethnic media' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global media: imports, exports, migrants, and identities


1
Global media imports, exports, migrants, and
identities
  • October 23, 2006

2
Different ways media texts can be global (or
transnational)
  • Program exported to other countries (dubbed or
    subtitled)
  • Friends, ER, Baywatch, Desperate Housewives
  • (usually US ? rest of world)
  • Country-specific versions created locally after
    becoming big hit in original country
  • Desperate Housewives, Survivor, Who Wants to Be a
    Millionaire?, The Weakest Link, Trading Spaces

3
Media texts as global/transnational
  • Worldwide coverage of same events
  • Academy Awards, Olympics, World Cup
  • Migrant media (a/k/a ethnic media)
  • Ethnic-specific programming available throughout
    regions of diaspora
  • Greek Cypriot radio in England, Turkish TV in
    England, Eastern European TV in US

4
Lets get Desperate
  • www.abc.com

5
To export or to localize?
  • The case of Desperate Housewives
  • Currently exported to South America (with
    subtitles)
  • A logical destination telenovelas dominate
    prime-time TV
  • Has anyone seen a telenovela?
  • But ALSO being re-shot with local starsusing the
    original US scripts
  • Separate versions for Argentina, Brazil,
    Colombia/Ecuador

6
Why bother to re-shoot?
  • Some US cultural details dont make sense
  • Plumbers in Latin America arent wealthy
  • Funeral rites differ
  • No Thanksgiving holiday
  • No WASP ethnic group (Bree)
  • No spitfire Latina stereotype! (Gabrielle)
  • More physical affection displayed

7
An interesting quote from an Argentine star
  • As with a book or a film, the success of a
    series, no matter how localized you make it or
    how much you adapt it to another setting, is that
    its story be universal. And that is what they
    have achieved here with Desperate Housewives.
  • What do you think?

8
Another form of exporting
  • Chinese technology experts creating Chinese
    subtitles for US sitcoms and dramas
  • On their own 40 TV shows/week!
  • Without permission of the US TV producers
  • And without permission of government (censors!)
  • But only for free downloading from Internetnot
    for us on Chinese TV

9
Why this effort?
  • Love for American popular culture
  • Viewers (and translators) learn English by
    watching US movies and TV
  • New York Times The adapters say they pick up
    useful knowledge about everything from changing
    fashion and mores to medical science

10
Why not just watch Chinese TV?
  • Chinese fan of US TV says
  • Our own actors are not bad. Those responsible
    for making Chinese TV shows pathetic are the
    directors, screenwriters, editors, and the people
    doing the lighting, music, special effects, and
    makeup. There are bits of poor quality in every
    aspect, and it adds up to total trash.

11
Why else?
  • Strict Chinese government censorship
  • Political issues, sexuality, violence
  • China only imported 20 movies last year (16 from
    US)
  • Very few US TV shows are imported by government
  • Those that are imported (Desperate Housewives)
    are poorly dubbed and translated

12
Friends as US history text?
  • An interesting quote from a Chinese translator
  • It provides cultural background relating to
    every aspect of our lives politics, history, and
    human culture. These are the things that make
    American TV special.

13
Quote (ctd.)
  • When I first started watching Friends, I found
    the show was full of information about American
    history and showed how America had rapidly
    developed. Its more interesting than textbooks
    or other ways of learning.

14
Do we simplify?
  • A Chinese fan says about US TV
  • After watching these shows for some time, I felt
    the attitudes of some of the characters were
    beginning to influence me. Its hard to describe,
    but I think I learned a way of life from them.
  • They are good at simplifying complex problems,
    which I think has something to do with American
    culture.

15
Migrant media
  • Myria Georgiou says ethnic media (e.g., Greek
    Cypriot TV and radio in London)
  • Help people connect with their ethnic identity
    sustain identity and culture
  • Become dynamic participants in construction of
    transnational community
  • Link people experiencing diaspora
  • community of people dispersed across borders who
    share common homeland

16
Georgiou on migrant media (ctd.)
  • Still, audiences are actively involved
  • Construct meaning, dont just absorb it
  • Approach (ethnic) media from multiple subject
    positions
  • Still, watching the same news, hearing same
    music, as others in the diaspora (or in the
    homeland) helps develop sense of belonging/bonding

17
Not everyone agrees
  • Kevin Robins Asu Aksoy its only partially
    true!
  • Rather than long-distance bonding to the
    homeland
  • Ethnic media simply bring the homelands consumer
    culture to the new place (e.g., Turkeys products
    come to London)

18
What else?
  • Robins Aksoy argue that ethnic media available
    in new country might actually liberate migrants
    from old country ways of thinking
  • Now away from homeland, they can step back and
    see how its values do or dont relate to them in
    their new lives

19
Dont elevate what people want!
  • Rather than (necessarily) grand ethnocultural or
    diasporic desires
  • People simply want a social connectionwhich TV
    provides
  • But watching TV while away from the homeland
    may actually point out how disconnected migrants
    are from everyday life there
  • Thus, might actually subvert the diasporic
    imagination

20
Going glocal Millionaire
  • Created in UK in 1998
  • Came to US in 1999
  • As of December 2003, Who Wants to Be a
    Millionaire?
  • Licensed or optioned in 107 countries
  • Colombia, China, Russia, Singapore, Philippines,
    Kazakhstan, Greece, Poland

21
Why the huge success?
  • Uses-and-gratifications theory explanation
  • Meets all of an individuals mass-media needs

22
Mass-media needs (UG theory)
  • Cognitive we acquire information
  • Affective pleasure/fun of interactive play
  • Personal-integrative strengthens confidence
  • Social-integrative contact with family friends
    when watching together or when discussing later
  • Tension-release while watching, relax (forget
    problems of the day)

23
But what about cultural differences around the
world?
  • Hofstede nations can diverge on 5 key dimensions
    of cultural variability
  • Power distance
  • Individualism
  • Masculinity
  • Uncertainty avoidance
  • Long-term orientation

24
But there are patterns by region
  • Cooper-Chen studied game shows in 50 nations
  • identified what she calls 4 Cultural Continents
  • Groups of countries who share traits on the 5
    cultural dimensions
  • Western (Europe, N. America, Turkey, Australia,
    Israel)
  • East Asian
  • Latin
  • Equatorial

25
Traits shared by Cultural Continents
  • Game shows in Western continent
  • Interactivity, civilian players, 1 male host
  • Emphasis on expensive prizes, low production
    values
  • East Asian game shows
  • Celebrity players, male female co-hosts, no
    emphasis on expensive prizes, high production
    values
  • Both continents players like to mentally play
    along

26
But on the other continents
  • Latin game shows players perform physical feats,
    viewers watch (rather than mentally
    participate), male and female co-hosts
  • Equatorial game shows talented students or
    exceptionally intelligent contestants
  • Audience cant play along

27
Few shows have moved across continents
  • But Millionaire is the rare exception
  • Its been a hit on all four cultural continents
  • By contrast, Wheel of Fortune has been
    multinational for decades
  • But mostly in the Western continent (Europe and
    US)
  • Slight variations Scandinavian Vanna
    counterpart is not mute Turkish Wheel has belly
    dancers

28
Glocalization
  • Making small changes to reflect cultural demands
  • Somewhere between pure localization (major
    adaptations) and globalization (one size fits
    allwhich rarely works!)
  • While sticking with core elements for contractual
    reasons
  • Set, format, is that your final answer?

29
How is Millionaire glocalized?
  • Content of questions
  • Difficulty of questions
  • Name of show (Saudi Arabia Who Will Earn a
    Million? Russia Oh, LuckyYou Are a
    Millionaire)
  • Players mix of celebrities and civilians

30
Reactions
  • Game shows are not usually well received
    critically
  • Millionaire has done OKbut certain countries
    raise unexpected issues
  • Singapore poor player performance cast light on
    education system
  • Russia players wanted to see cash before they
    began!

31
Reactions (ctd.)
  • India popular because school system emphasizes
    memorization
  • UK seen as undemocraticonly the wealthy
    contestants could afford to risk
  • Canada seen as democratic and participatoryanyon
    e could get on the show and do well

32
The Olympics the ultimate global media text?
  • Modern Olympics
  • 1896 Pierre de Coubertin
  • International sport ? international peace

33
Coubertins vision
  • Keep away the opportunities that are advanced
    by profit-motivated people whose only dream is
    to use someone elses muscles either to build
    upon his own political fortune or to make his own
    business prosper
  • How did that work out for you, Pierre?

34
Morettis argument
  • Mediaespecially TVhave completely transformed
    the Olympics
  • In ways incompatible with the Olympic movement
  • Clashes of ideologies
  • Profit (media businesses)
  • Culture (individual nations and their fans)
  • Planning vs. spontaneity TV forces a script onto
    unscripted events

35
Internationalism vs. nationalism
  • Olympic ideals universality, internationalism
  • TVs presentation nationalistic
  • TV networks serve as cheerleaders for countrys
    own athletes

36
Individual countries nationalism
  • Sports preferred by countrys citizens get more
    air time
  • US figure skating, skiing, track and field,
    gymnastics, swimming
  • UK badminton Japan judo Iran weightlifting
  • Canada synchronized swimming Mexico basketball

37
Lets watch a bit
38
How do Olympics display/exploit culture?
  • Opening and closing ceremonies
  • music, traditional costumes, dancing
  • 1936 Berlin Olympics stage for Nazi propaganda
  • Anyone seen Leni Riefenstahls movie Olympia?
  • During Cold War, Olympics were East vs. West
    battlefield

39
Driving force today not culture, but business
  • Multi-billion dollar business
  • CBS paid IOC 50,000 for 1960 TV rights
  • NBC paid IOC 893,000,000 for 2008 rights
  • TV networks, international corporations,
    politicians, private citizensand yes,
    athletes!compete for visibility, influence
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