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Supersymmetric dark matter: implications for colliders and astroparticle


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Title: Supersymmetric dark matter: implications for colliders and astroparticle

Supersymmetric dark matter implications for
colliders and astroparticle
  • G. Bélanger
  • LAPTH-Annecy

  • Evidence for dark matter
  • Cosmology and SUSY dark matter
  • Constraining models
  • SUSY dark matter at colliders
  • SUSY signal and determination of parameters
  • Direct/Indirect detection
  • DM signal and complementarity to collider
  • Final remarks

Evidence for dark matter
  • Most of the matter in the universe cannot be
    detected from the light emitted (dark matter)
  • Presence of dark matter is inferred from motion
    of astronomical objects
  • If we measure velocities in some region there has
    to be enough mass for gravity to hold objects
  • The amount of mass needed is more than luminous
  • The galactic scale
  • Scale of galaxy clusters
  • Dark matter is required to amplify the small
    fluctuations in Cosmic Microwave background to
    form the large scale structure in the universe
  • Cosmological scales

Evidence for dark matterRotation curves of
  • Negligible luminosity in galaxy halos, occasional
    orbiting gas clouds allow measurement of rotation
    velocities and distances
  • Newton
  • rgt rluminous,
  • M(r) constant
  • ?v should decrease
  • Observations of many galaxies rotation velocity
    does not decrease
  • Dark matter halo would provide with M(r)r v-gt

Galaxy clusters
  • 1933 Zwicky got first evidence of dark matter in
    galaxy clusters
  • Confirmed by many observations on galaxy clusters
  • Determine total mass required to provide
    self-gravity necessary to stop system from flying
  • Mass/Light ratio 200-300 (two orders of magnitude
    more than in solar system)

Cosmic microwave backgroundand total amount of
dark matter in the universe
  • Background radiation originating from propagation
    of photons in early universe (once they decoupled
    from matter) predicted by Gamow in 1948
  • Discovered PenziasWilson 1965
  • CMB is isotropic at 10-5 level and follows
    spectrum of a blackbody with T2.726K
  • Anisotropy to CMB tell the magnitude and distance
    scale of density fluctuation when universe was
    1/1000 of present scale
  • Study of CMB anisotropies provide accurate
    testing of cosmological models, puts stringent
    constraints on cosmological parameters

Cosmic microwave background
CMB density fluctuations
  • CMB anisotropy maps
  • Precision determination of cosmological
  • All information contained in CMB maps can be
    compressed in power spectrum
  • To extract information start from cosmological
    model with small number of parameters and find
    best fit

What is the universe made of?
  • In recent years new precise determination of
    cosmological parameters
  • Data from CMB (WMAP) agree with the one from
    clusters and supernovae
  • Dark matter 23/- 4
  • Baryons 4/-.4
  • Dark energy 73/-4
  • Neutrinos lt 1

  • With WMAP cosmology has entered precision era,
    can quantify amount of dark matter. In 2007
    PLANCK satellite will go one step further (expect
    to reach precision of 2-3). This strongly
    constrain some of the proposed solutions for cold
    dark matter
  • Has triggered many direct/indirect searches for
    dark matter
  • At colliders one can search for the particle
    proposed as dark matter candidates
  • So far no evidence (LEP-Tevatron) but in 2007
    with Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will
    really start to explore a large number of models
    and might find a good dark matter candidate

.094 lt OCDMh2 lt.129
What is dark matter/dark energy
  • Dark matter
  • Related to physics at weak scale
  • New physics at weak scale can also solve EWSB
  • Many possible solutions new particle that exist
    in some NP models, not necessarily designed for
  • Dark energy
  • Related to Planck scale physics
  • NP for dark energy might affect cosmology and
    dark matter
  • Neutrinos (they exist but only small component of
  • Supersymmetry with R parity conservation
  • Neutralino LSP
  • Gravitino
  • Axino
  • Kaluza-Klein dark matter
  • UED (LKP )
  • LZP is neutrino-R (in Warped Xdim models with
    matter in the bulk)
  • Branons
  • Little Higgs with T-parity
  • Wimpzillas, Q-balls, cryptons

Relic density of wimps
  • In early universe WIMPs are present in large
    number and they are in thermal equilibrium
  • As the universe expanded and cooled their density
    is reduced through pair annihilation
  • Eventually density is too low for annihilation
    process to keep up with expansion rate
  • Freeze-out temperature
  • LSP decouples from standard model particles,
    density depends only on expansion rate of the

  • Relic density
  • A relic density in agreement with present
    measurements Oh2 0.1 requires typical weak
    interactions cross-section

Dark matter cosmo/astro/pp
  • Wimps have roughly right value for relic density
  • Neutralinos are wimps but not all SUSY models are
  • Precise measurement of relic density ? constrain
  • Generic class of SUSY models that are OK
  • Direct/Indirect detection search for dark
    matter ? establish that new particle is dark
    matter ? constrain models
  • Colliders which model for NP/ confront
  • LHC discovery of new physics, dark matter
    candidate and/or new particles
  • ILC extend discovery potential of LHC
  • How well this can be done strongly depends on
    model for NP

  • Motivation unifying matter (fermions) and
    interactions (mediated by bosons)
  • Symmetry that relates fermions and bosons
  • Prediction new particles supersymmetric partners
    of all known fermions and bosons
  • Not discovered yet
  • Hierarchy problem
  • Electroweak scale (100GeV) ltlt Planck scale
  • SUSY particles (TeV) to stabilize Higgs mass
    against radiative corrections ?should be within
    reach of LHC
  • Unification of couplings

Evidence for supersymmetry?
  • Coupling constants run with energy
  • Precise measurements of coupling constants of
    Standard Model SU(3),SU(2), U(1) at electroweak
    scale (e.g. LEP) indicate that they do not unify
    at high scale (GUT scale)
  • SM coupling constants unify within MSSM

Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
  • Minimal field content partner to SM particles
    (also need two Higgs doublets)
  • Neutralinos neutral spin ½ partners of gauge
    bosons (Bino, Wino) and Higgs scalars (Higgsinos)

  • Proton decay
  • To prevent this introduce R parity
  • R(-1) 3B-3L2S R1 SM particles R-1 SUSY
  • The LSP is stable

Neutralino LSP
  • Prediction for relic density depend on parameters
    of model
  • Mass of neutralino LSP
  • Nature of neutralino determine the coupling to
    Z, h, A
  • M1 ltM2lt? bino
  • ? ltM1,M2 Higgsino
  • M2ltM1lt ? Wino

Neutralino annihilation
  • 3 typical mechanisms for ? annihilation
  • Bino annihilation into ff
  • s m?2/mf 4
  • Mixed bino-Higgsino (wino)
  • Coupling depends on Z12,Z13,Z14, mixing of LSP
  • Annihilation near resonance (Higgs)

Neutralino annihilation
  • 3 typical mechanisms for ? annihilation
  • Bino annihilation into ff
  • s m?2/mf 4
  • Mixed bino-Higgsino (wino)
  • Coupling depends on Z12,Z13,Z14
  • Annihilation near resonance (Higgs)
  • Need some coupling to A, some mixing with Higgsino

  • If M(NLSP)M(LSP) then
    maintains thermal equilibrium
    between NLSP-LSP even after SUSY particles
    decouple from standard ones
  • Relic density depends on rate for all processes
    involving LSP/NLSP ? SM
  • All particles eventually decay into LSP,
    calculation of relic density requires summing
    over all possible processes
  • Important processes are those involving particles
    close in mass to LSP
  • Public codes to calculate relic density
    micrOMEGAs, DarkSUSY, IsaRED

Exp(- ?M)/T
Neutralino co-annihilation
  • Can occur with all sfermions, gauginos
  • Bino LSP (sfermion coannihilation)
  • Higgsino LSP- coannihilation with chargino and

  • What happens in generic SUSY models, does one
    gets the right value for the relic density?
  • mSUGRA (only 5 parameters)
  • M0, M1/2, tan ß, A0, ?
  • Other models ? MSSM (at least 19 parameters)

WMAP constraining NP mSUGRA example
  • bino LSP
  • In most of mSUGRA parameter space
  • Annihilation in fermion pairs
  • Works well for light sparticles but hard to
    reconcile with LEP/Higgs limit (small window
  • Sfermion coannihilation
  • Staus or stops
  • More efficient, can go to higher masses
  • Mixed bino-Higgsino annihilation into W/Z/t
  • Resonance (Z, light/heavy Higgs)

WMAP constraining mSUGRA
  • Bino LSP
  • Sfermion Coannihilation
  • Mixed Bino-Higgsino
  • Annihilation into W pairs
  • In mSUGRA unstable region, mt dependence, works
    better at large tanß
  • Resonance (Z, light/heavy Higgs)
  • LEP constraints for light Higgs/Z
  • Heavy Higgs at large tanß (enhanced Hbb vertex)

WMAP and SUSY dark matter
  • In mSUGRA might conclude that the model is
    fine-tuned (either small ?M or Higgs resonance) .
  • The LSP is mostly bino
  • Not generic of other SUSY models, in fact what
    WMAP is telling us might be that a good dark
    matter candidate is a mixed bino/Higgsino or
    mixed bino/wino.
  • In particular, main annihilation into gauge boson
    pairs works well for Higgsino (or wino) fraction
  • What does that tell us about models?

Some examples
  • mSUGRA-focus point
  • Ellis, Baer, Balazs , Belyaev, Olive, Santoso,
    Spanos, Nath, Chattopadhyay, Lahanas, Nanopoulos,
    Roskowski, Drees, Djouadi, Tata
  • Non universal SUGRA
  • String inspired moduli-dominated
  • Split SUSY

Gaugino fraction
Feng, hep-ph/0405479
Some examples
  • mSUGRA-focus point
  • Ellis, Baer, Balazs , Belyaev, Olive, Santoso,
    Spanos, Nath, Chattopadhyay, Lahanas, Nanopoulos,
    Roskowski, Drees, Djouadi, Tata
  • Non universal SUGRA, e.g. non universal gaugino
    or scalar masses
  • GB, Boudjema, Cottrant, Pukhov, Bertin,Nezri,
    Orloff, Baer, Belyaev, Birkedal-Hansen, Nelson,
    Mambrini, Munoz
  • String inspired moduli-dominated LSP has
    important wino component
  • Binetruy et al, hep-ph/0308047
  • Split SUSY Large M0, LSP is mixed
  • Masiero, Profumo, Ullio, hep-ph/0412058
  • GB, Boudjema, Hugonie, Pukhov, Semenov

mixed bino/wino
Higgs exchange
GB, et al, NPB706(2005)
  • Evidence for dark matter
  • Cosmology and SUSY dark matter
  • Constraining models
  • SUSY dark matter at colliders
  • SUSY signal and determination of parameters
  • Direct/Indirect detection
  • Dark matter signal and complementarity to
    collider searches
  • Final remarks

Which scenario? Potential for SUSY discovery at
  • Some of these scenarios will be probed at LHC/ILC
    and/or direct /indirect detection experiments
  • Corroborating two signals? SUSY dark matter
  • LHC
  • Squarks, gluinos lt 2- 2.5 TeV
  • Sparticles in decay chains
  • mSUGRA probe significant parameter space, heavy
    Higgs difficult, large m0-m1/2 also.
  • Other models similar reach in masses
  • ILC
  • Production of any new sparticles within energy
  • Extend the reach of LHC in particular in focus
    point of mSUGRA

Baer et al., hep-ph/0405210
Probing cosmology using collider information
  • Within the context of a given model can one make
    precise predictions for the relic density at the
    level of WMAP(10) and even PLANCK (3) (2007)
    therefore test the underlying cosmological model.
  • Assume discovery SUSY, precision from LHC?
  • Precision from ILC?
  • Answer depends strongly on underlying NP
    scenario, many parameters enter computation of
    relic density, only a handful of relevant ones
    for each scenario work is going on in North
    America, Asia and Europe both for LHC and ILC
  • Moroi, Bambade, Richard, Zhang, Martyn, Tovey,
    Polesello, Lari, D. Zerwas, Allanach, Belanger,
    Boudjema, Pukhov, Battaglia, Birkedal, Gray,
    Matchev, Alexander, Fields, Hertz, Jones,
    Meyraiban, Pivarski, Peskin, Dutta, Kamon,
    Arnowitt, Khotilovith

The simplest example mSUGRA/coannihilation
  • Challenge measuring precisely mass difference
  • Why? Oh2 dominated by Boltzmann factor exp(-
  • Although masses are predicted at 1-2 level,
    still leads to large uncertainties in relic
  • Precision required on mSUGRA parameters to
    predict Oh2 at 10 level
  • M0, M1/2 2
  • LHC roughly this precision can be achieved in
    bulk region
  • Tovey, Polesello, hep-ph/0403047

Allanach et al, JHEP 2005
  • For coannihilation region errors on mass could be
    larger (more difficult with staus

Determination of parameters LHC
  • Decay chain
  • Signal jet dilepton pair
  • Can reconstruct four masses from endpoint of ll
    and qll
  • Global fit to model parameters
  • For this particular point, ?M02, ?M1/20.6 --gt
  • For WMAP compatible point this precision will be
    barely sufficient for ?O/O10 and errors on
    masses could be larger (more difficult with

M0100, M1/2250, tanß10
Tovey, Polesello, hep-ph/0403047
MSSM coannihilation
  • Stau-neutralino mass difference is crucial
    parameter need to be measured to 1 GeV
  • LHC in progress
  • ILC can match the precision of WMAP and even
  • Stau mass at threshold
  • Bambade et al, hep-ph/040601
  • Stau and Slepton masses
  • Martyn, hep-ph/0408226
  • Stau -neutralino mass difference (1GeV)
  • Khotilovitch et al, hep-ph/0503165

Allanach et al, JHEP2005
Another example Focus (Higgsino LSP)
  • In mSUGRA at large M0, ? decrease rapidly, the
    LSP has large Higgsino component
  • Annihilation into W pairs
  • Neutralino/chargino NLSP gaugino coannihilation
  • With 25-40 Higgsino ? just enough dark matter
  • Within mSUGRA strong dependence on SM input
    parameters (mt) no reliable prediction of the
    relic density

Higgsino in MSSM mSUGRA-inspired focus
  • No dependence on mt except near threshold
  • Relic density depend on 4 neutralino parameters,
    M1, M2, ?, tanß
  • To achieve WMAP precision on relic density must
  • (M1,?) 1 .
  • tanß10
  • Is it possible?

. Higgsino LSP
  • If squarks are heavy difficult scenario for LHC
  • only gluino accessible, chargino/neutralino in
  • mass differences could be measured from
    neutralino leptonic decays,
  • How well can gaugino parameters can be
  • Light Higgsinos ?possibly many accessible states
    at ILC
  • Baltz, et al , hep-ph/0602187

Higgsino LSP
  • Recent study of determination of parameters and
    reconstruction of relic density in this scenario
  • LHC not enough precision
  • ILC chargino pair production sensitive to
    bino/Higgsino mixing parameter
  • ILC roughly 10 precision on Oh2

Baltz et al hep-ph/0602187
Colliders and relic density
  • For neutralino LSP, in favourable scenarios LHC
    will give precise information on the parameters
    of MSSM and this will allow to refine the
    predictions for relic density of neutralinos.
  • In other scenarios, will have to wait for ILC
  • What about precise predictions for
    direct/indirect detection?

Direct/indirect detection
  • Indirect/direct detection can find (some hints
    from Egret, Hess..) signal for dark matter
  • Many experiments under way, more are planned
  • Direct CDMS, Edelweiss, Dama, Cresst, Zeplin
    Xenon, Genius, Picasso
  • Indirect Hess, Veritas, Glast, HEAT, Pamela,
    AMS, Amanda, Icecube, Antares
  • Can check if compatible with some SUSY or other
  • Complementarity with LHC/ILC
  • Establishing that there is dark matter
  • Probing SUSY dark matter candidates
  • LHC good signal if light squarks/gluinos,
    direct/indirect detection good signal for (mixed
    bino/Higgsino LSP)
  • Assuming some signals are discovered
    corroborating information from colliders/astropart
  • Also tests of assumptions about dark matter
    distribution in the halo

Direct detection of dark matter
  • Detect dark matter through interaction with
    nuclei in large detector.
  • Depends on local density and velocity
    distribution of dark matter
  • Dependence on coupling of LSP to quarks and
  • s-channel squark exchange
  • t-channel Higgs (Z) exchange
  • Large cross-sections found for
  • light squarks
  • large tanß, not too heavy heavy Higgses mixed
    Higgsino/bino LSP

Direct detection of dark matter
  • Typical LSP-proton scalar cross-sections range
    from 10-10 pb in coannihilation region to
    10-8-10-6 pb in focus point region of mSUGRA
  • Present detector (including DAMA) not sensitive
    enough to probe mSUGRA
  • With next generation of detectors, direct
    searches can probe regions of mSUGRA parameter
    space inaccessible to LHC
  • Focus point scenarios (large m0) especially at
    large tan(?).
  • Some coannihilation region remains out of reach
  • Models with mixed Higgsino or wino have largest

Present bound
Next generation
  • Expect sensitivity 10-9 -10-10pb by 2011

Direct detection non-universal models
  • In models where LSP is not pure bino good
    prospect for direct detection even if squarks
  • Example model with non-universal gaugino mass
  • Models with heavy Higgs out of reach of even
    ton-scale detectors

GB, Boudjema, Cottrant, Pukhov, Semenov,
Indirect detection
  • Pair of dark matter particles annihilate and
    their annihilation products are detected in space
  • Positrons from neutralino annihilation in the
    galactic halo
  • Photons from neutralino annihilation in center of
  • Neutrinos from neutralino in sun
  • Best signal for hard positrons or hard photons
    from neutralino annihilation -gtWW,ZZ
  • Favoured for mixed bino/Higgsino or bino/wino
  • Hard Photons also from annihilation of neutralino
    pair in photons (loop suppressed)

Positrons from AMS
Photons from GLAST
LHC direct detection
  • With measurements from LHC can we refine
    predictions for direct/indirect detection?
  • Consider our first example
  • M0100, M1/2250 A0-100
  • Prediction for spin-dependent cross-section

E. Baltz et al hep-ph/0602187
Final remarks
Other DM candidates KK
  • UED
  • Minimal UED LKP is B (1), partner of hypercharge
    gauge boson
  • s-channel annihilation of LKP (gauge boson)
    typically more efficient than that of neutralino
  • Compatibility with WMAP means rather heavy LKP
  • Within LHC range, relevant for gt TeV linear
  • Warped Xtra-Dim (Randall-Sundrum)
  • GUT model with matter in the bulk
  • Solving baryon number violation in GUT models ?
    stable Kaluza-Klein particle
  • Example based on SO(10) with Z3 symmetry LZP is
    KK right-handed neutrino
  • Agashe, Servant, hep-ph/0403143

Dark matter in Warped X-tra Dim
  • Compatibility with WMAP for LZP range 50- gt1TeV
  • LZP is Dirac particle, coupling to Z through Z-Z
    mixing and mixing with LH neutrino
  • Large cross-sections for direct detection
  • Signal for next generation of detectors in large
    area of parameter space
  • What can be done at colliders identify model,
    determination of parameters and confronting

Agashe, Servant, hep-ph/0403143
Cosmological scenario
  • Different cosmological scenario might affect the
    relic density of dark matter
  • Example quintessence
  • Quintessence contribution forces universe into
    faster expansion
  • Annihilation rate drops below expansion rate at
    higher temperature
  • Increase relic density of WIMPS
  • In MSSM can lead to large enhancements

Profumo, Ullio, hep-ph/0309220
  • Cosmology provides accurate determination of
    properties of dark matter
  • LHC has good opportunities to discover new
  • In some favourable scenarios LHC might be able to
    make precise enough measurement to give accurate
    prediction of relic density of dark matter
    confront cosmology
  • Complementarity astroparticle/colliders
  • Expect lots exciting results soon