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Indian%20Music:%20South%20India

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Title: Indian%20Music:%20South%20India


1
Chapter 6
  • Indian Music South India
  • ( some North?)

2
Brief History
  • 2500-1700 BCEIndus Valley cities
  • 3rd century BCEcountless kingdoms and emperors
    such as the Buddhist Asoka
  • c. 1400-1800 CEMoguls
  • c. 1600-1947 CEthree centuries of British
    colonialism

3
Hinduism
  • the dominant religion of India.
  • Caste one of the hereditary social classes in
    Hinduism that restrict the occupation of their
    members and their association with the members of
    other castes.

4
Islam
  • Moslems
  • belief in Allah as the sole deity and in
    Muhammad as his prophet.
  • About 10

5
Palimpsest
  • a manuscript parchment written on again and
    again in which everything written before is never
    fully erased. Everything written before is
    somehow still there, visible and readable . . .
  • Similarly in Indian culture old traditions
    persist and coexist with the new and innovative
    . . .

6
History, Culture, Politics
  • one billion peoplea fifth of the worlds
    population
  • an area one-third the size of the United States
  • Fifteen major languages
  • More than Five Thousand years of history

7
Regions
  • Hindustani -- North
  • Moslem concentration
  • Hindus Valley
  • Carnatic -- South
  • Hindu concentration
  • Carnatic Plains

8
The Taj Mahal
9
English Influence
  • railways
  • democratic systems of government
  • bureaucracy
  • universities
  • European musical instruments

10
European musical instruments
  • While Indians adapted European musical
    instruments to their musical styles, they did not
    adopt European musical styles.
  • violin
  • clarinet
  • piano
  • saxophone
  • Guitar
  • Mandolin

11
Traditional literature
  • two Sanskrit epics between 400 B.C.E. and 400
    C.E.
  • Ramayana
  • Mahabharata
  • In Carnatic music many song texts refer to events
    in these epics.

12
Important religious works
  • The four Vedas
  • Upanishads
  • Puranas

13
Music of India
  • Pop music
  • Devotional song
  • Classical music

14
Cine Music
  • Indian popular music
  • A blend of East and West
  • Sometimes reminiscent of early rock and roll
  • Anything goes

15
Hindustani and Carnatic Music
  • Similarities
  • ragas
  • talas
  • Differences
  • The Hindustani north -- expansive improvisations
  • Carnatic south -- pre-composed devotional songs

16
Raga
  • that which colors the mind and the heart
  • a collection of notes, a scale, intonation,
    ornaments, pillar tones
  • a precise melody form
  • sa ri ga ma pa da ni (sa)

17
Tala
  • regularly recurring metric cycles consisting of
    groups of beats.
  • Beat groupings are usually uneven (i.e., 322
    43 12)

18
veena
  • plucked string instrument with seven strings
  • three drone strings and four playing strings (for
    playing melodies).

19
Mridangam
  • double-headed, barrel-shaped drum.

20
Sruti-box and tambura
21
The Carnatic texture
  • Melody Layer
  • vocalist(s)/instrumentalist (veena)
  • Drone Layer
  • sustained (continuously sounding) central tone
  • tambura or sruti box
  • Rhythm Layer (percussion)
  • mridangammulti-timbral, double-headed
  • tala

22
bhajan
  • devotional song
  • sung by a soloist with accompanying instruments
  • or by a vocal group in a call-andresponse manner

23
chinna melan
  • small band, an ensemble of two or more
  • A chinna melam is likely to be performed at any
    auspicious occasion, for example, at temple
    worship, weddings, the opening a new store, and
    so on.

24
Chinna Melam instruments
  • nagasvaram double-reed pipes,
  • tavil drums and
  • sruti-box drone

25
Karnataka Sangeeta
  • Classical Music of South India
  • in English simply Carnatic music.
  • It is named after the Carnatic plateau

26
Transmission
  • oral tradition passed down by memory. The music
    is to nudge the memory.
  • no definitive version of the music exists.
  • musical renditions may become highly variable

27
CD 22 Sarasiruha (To the Goddess Saraswati)
  • Kriti in Natai raga and Adi tala.
  • Performed by veena and mridangam.

28
Sarasiruha
  • 000-315 Alapana? free-flowing exposition and
    exploration of the raga
  • absence of meter
  • drone sustains tonal center and the tone a fifth
    above tonal center
  • 320-815 Tanam
  • strong sense of beat.
  • improvised melody continues

29
Sarasiruha
  • 825-1545 Kriti Sarasiruha
  • centerpiece of the performance
  • Pallavi O Mother who loves the lotus seat,
  • Anupallavi Save me who have taken refuge in
    you!
  • Charanam Complete Being, who holds a book in
    her hand which bestows all dominion.

30
Sarasiruha
  • 1545-1805 Kalpana Svaras
  • mridangam continues to accompany
  • melody played on the veena
  • 1806-2220 The Drum Solo Tani Avartanam
  • A long and complex improvised drum solo played on
    the mridangam accompanied only by the drone being
    played on the drone strings of the veena
  • 2204

31
Susheela Raman
32
Mamavatuby Susheela Raman
  • (English)
  • Mamavatu
  • Saraswati
  • You who reside in the temple of Kamakoti
  • Rescue me
  • Bearing lotus and veena
  • In your beautiful hands
  • You give truth to speech

33
  • Your feet are worshipped by Emperors and Kings
  • Your eyes are as wild as Rajiva flowers
  • And your beauty bewitches
  • Garlanded with gems
  • You fulfill the desires of the good
  • Indra himself bowed down before you
  • I, Vasudeva, am your servant
  • For you are the divine word in its essence

34
(Mamavatu)
  • Sanskrit Mamavatu Sri Sarasvati
  • Kamakoti peta Vasini
  • Komalakara Saroja Drita Veena
  • Seemadita Vara Vak
  • Vibhushani
  • Rajadiraja Poojita Charane
  • Rajiva Nayane
  • Ramaniya Vadane
  • Sujana Manorata poorana Chature
  • Vasudeva
  • Charanapita Sakala Veda Sara

35
North India
  • Tabla drum
  • Sitar descendent of veena

36
Tabla
  • Zakir Hussain, master tabla player

37
Ravi Shankar
  • virtuoso sitar player
  • 1960s concerts brought him superstar status in
    Europe, the United States and India.

38
Indian Influences
  • The Beatles (George Harrison) The Inner Light
  • Minimalism (Philip Glass et al)
  • Pieces of East

39
Modern Bhajan
  • Bhajan devotional song
  • Ensembles include tabla or other drums,
    harmonium, percussion, and voice.
  • Bhajan session (puja, or worhip service)
    chanting of Om invocations in honor of guru or
    deity sequences of bhajan songs often reflecting
    unique religious outlook of the group sermons or
    meditative recitations of Sanskrit verses from
    scriputres concludes with Arati cermony with
    food, flowers, incense, lamps and blowing of
    conches. Distribution of more food, flowers and
    holy water ends the service.

40
Summary
  • Musics purpose in India
  • -
  • Instruments
  • -
  • Organization and levels of music
  • -

41
HOMEWORK Due Wednesday, March 29
  • Online Quiz for Chapter 6 India
  • Questions 7, 8, 9a page 225
  • Begin Reading Chapter 7 Indonesia, up to p. 244,
    and listen to Bubaran Kembang Pacar (CD 23)

42
Upcoming Events
  • Friday, 3/31 Review Session
  • Monday, 4/3 Test II
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