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Henderson Fire Department Basement Fires A high risk, low frequency fire

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Title: Henderson Fire Department Basement Fires A high risk, low frequency fire


1
Henderson Fire DepartmentBasement FiresA high
risk, low frequency fire
  • Instructor Brian Michals

2
REFERENCES
  • Vincent Dunn, Deputy Chief, FDNY (Retired)
    Article
  • Ron Moeder, Assistant Chief, Denver Fire
    Department Interview
  • Jerry Michals, Firefighter, Denver Fire
    Department (Retired) Interview
  • Tom Glivar, Captain, Denver Fire Department
    Interview
  • Jay Acebo, Battalion Chief Training Division,
    LVFR Interview
  • Kevin Fedrizzi, Captain, Henderson Fire
    Department Interview
  • IFSTA Essentials 4th ed. Basement fires, pgs.
    352, 361-362
  • EPA The Condensed Chemical Dictionary 9th ed.
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, pgs. 26,
    54, 150-151
  • FETN CD 038-0040, 1, 2, 3 Building Construction
    I, II, III, IV
  • Henderson Fire Department, ODS workbook,
    Residential Fires
  • James Rose, Firefighter, District of Columbia
    Fire Department Article
  • Smoke Cyanide Poisoning Treatment Coalition -
    pgs. 9-12 Article
  • Numerous NIOSH Reports from 2001 to 2007 with
    firefighter fatalities involving basement fires
  • Websites withthecommand.com, firefightingnews.co
    m, bcftoa.com, firefighterclosecalls.com,
    firetactics.com, fire2000.com, sipbuilthomes.com
  • HFD SOPs EM-02, 04, 05, 08, 10, 17, 18, 31, 38,
    39, 41, 43

3
Objective
  • The firefighter will be able to demonstrate how
    to conduct a coordinated fire attack on a
    basement fire while recognizing the potential
    hazards involved.

4
Overview
  • Building construction as it pertains to basements
  • Products of combustion
  • Recognition of smoke characteristics
  • Utilizing a coordinated fire attack while
    recognizing possible hazards
  • Sets Reps

5
Motivation
  • City of Henderson currently has 715 homes with a
    basement
  • Do you know how many are in your District???
  • Do you know how many are in your neighboring
    Districts?

6
Number of basements in each District
  • District 1 - 242
  • District 2 - 2
  • District 3 - 137
  • District 4 - 11
  • District 5 - 79
  • District 6 - 66
  • District 7 - 45
  • District 8 - 12
  • District 9 - 121

7
NIOSH REPORTS
  • Why Were Here Today!

8
NIOSH Breakdown
  • Between Feb. 2001 and Jan. 2007
  • 11 Firefighters died in 9 separate incidents
    involving basement fires.
  • Of those, 6 incidents with 7 firefighter deaths
    were related to falling through the floor above
    the fire.
  • 2 incidents and 3 deaths were due to sudden
    changes in fire conditions.
  • 1 incident occurred when a firefighter became
    separated from his crew on the lower part of a
    stairwell.

9
NIOSH Breakdown (cont.)
  • Things worth noting
  • 01-26-07 Floor had OSB wooden I-beams
  • 06-15-06 Firefighter was attacking the fire
    from above
  • 01-09-04 Firefighter partially fell through on
    third time exiting the structure
  • 11-29-03 Fire was reported to be knocked down
    when PPV was initiated (basement windows were
    vented). Conditions rapidly changed from light
    smoke to thick, heavy black smoke

10
NIOSH Recommendations
  • Ensure FFs are trained to recognize the dangers
    of operating above a fire
  • Ensure IC does a complete size-up
  • Use a TIC during initial size-up
  • Ensure risk vs. gain is evaluated during size-up
    and continually reevaluated
  • Ensure FFs operating under or above trusses are
    evacuated as soon as it is determined that
    trusses are exposed to fire

11
NIOSH Recommendations (cont.)
  • Ensure that team continuity and accountability is
    maintained
  • Use PPV properly
  • Ensure ventilation is closely coordinated with
    fire attack
  • Ensure FFs check each others PPE
  • Develop SOP addressing basement operations

12
Class Activity
  • Basement fire scenario
  • A fire at a home at 2 am, with cars in the
    driveway and unknown location of the occupants.
  • Make 1st Alarm assignments

13
360 View
14
What is a basement?
  • A basement is a full story below grade, which has
    one-half its height or less above grade level

15
Other Below Grade Terms
  • Crawl Space
  • Cellar
  • Sub-Cellar
  • Firefighter Friendly Cellar (Basement)

16
Building Construction
17
Sub-floor Construction
  • Light-Weight Truss
  • OSB Wooden I-Beam
  • 2x12 Beam

18
A truss is a truss is a truss
19
Common floor joists OSB Wooden I-Beam
20
Unfinished Basement
21
Common Exterior Wall Construction
  • Masonry
  • Composites
  • Composite Truss
  • Structural Insulated Panels (SIP)
  • Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF)

22
Common Exterior Wall Construction
  • Masonry
  • Composites
  • FiRP Products

23
Composite Truss
24
Structural Insulated Panels (SIP) for basements
25
Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF)
26
Fire Codes2000 IBC - Section 1009
  • Basements shall have at least one exterior
    emergency escape and rescue opening
  • Must have exterior stairwell or
  • If window is 44 or more below grade
  • Must have fixed ladder or steps in window well
  • Window must be minimum of 9 sq. ft.
  • Horizontal width of a minimum of 36
  • Basements with a ceiling height of less than 80
    inches shall not be required to have emergency
    and rescue windows

27
Fire Codes2006 IBC - B Section 1026
  • Where basements contain one or more sleeping
    rooms, emergency egress and rescue openings shall
    be required in each sleeping room, but shall not
    be required in adjoining areas of the basement
  • Basements without habitable spaces and having no
    more than 200 square feet in floor area shall not
    be required to have emergency escape windows

28
Recognizing a Basement
  • Exterior

29
Fixed Ladder with Safety Gate
30
Skylights Grates
31
Exterior Stairwell
32
Recognizing a Basement
  • Interior

33
Interior Stairwell
34
Interior Stairwell
  • May not have a door to basement stairwell

35
Interior Stairwell
  • May have a door leading to basement stairwell

36
Products of Combustion
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Sulfur
  • Benzene
  • Water Vapor
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

37
Carbon Monoxide results from incomplete combustion
38
CO vs. Gasoline
  • Flammable Liquid
  • Carcinogenic
  • UEL 7.6 in air
  • LEL 1.4 in air
  • Flash Point -45 F
  • Flammable Gas
  • Asphyxiant
  • UEL 74 in air
  • LEL 12.5 in air
  • Auto Ignition Temp. 1118 F

39
Sulfur Benzene
  • Is bound with Carbon molecules
  • Separates at 1000 F
  • Can see yellow smoke if fire is above 1000 F
  • Carcinogen
  • Asphyxiant

40
Benzene is an asphyxiant that is heavier than air
41
Water Vapor
  • Results of incomplete combustion
  • Can see on windows, mirrors, shower doors, etc.

42
CO2 is a by-product of complete combustion
43
DONT TEMPT FLASHOVERS
44
NEVER
45
EVER
46
EVER!!!
47
Recognition of Smoke Conditions
48
Black Fire
49
Black / Grey Smoke
50
Brown Smoke
51
Pyrolosis
52
Yellow Smoke
53
Scrubbed Smoke
54
Ask Yourself?
  • What color is the smoke?
  • Is it pressurized or passive smoke?

55
Potential Difficulties
56
Look for Hidden Interior Stairwells
  • Access can appear to be just a closet door

57
A Winding Stairwell
58
Interior Elevator
59
Worst Case Scenario
60
Skylight Covers Bars
61
Look for Hidden Exterior Stairwells
62
Landscape and Clutter
63
Walkout Basement with Difficult Access
64
Below Grade Garage
65
Utilizing a Coordinated Fire Attack
66
Ventilation with Fire Attack
  • Ventilation is key
  • Must coordinate with fire attack
  • PPV at entry point and top of stairwell if needed
  • Locate exhaust port for smoke
  • i.e. window
  • Be aware of smoke conditions and potential hazards

67
Fire Attack with Ventilation
  • Speed is key - Fast, yet SAFE
  • Must coordinate with ventilation
  • Sound as you go
  • Backup hose line to top of stairs and entry point
  • Use proper hose stream
  • Shut off utilities

68
Fire Attack
  • RULE OF THUMB
  • If you CAN see the bottom of the stairsPROCEED
  • If you CANNOT see the bottom of the stairsWAIT
    for ventilation and backup hose line

69
Fire Attack
  • EXCEPTION
  • A KNOWN life safety situation
  • Descend stairs rapidly
  • Keep atmosphere cooled
  • Be very aware of surrounding conditions

70
Floor Stair Report
  • CAAN Report should include a Floor Stair Report
  • To include
  • 1) Type of floor (tile, wood, carpet)
  • 2) Any unusually concentrated loads located on
    first floor (piano, safe, etc.)
  • 3) Condition of floor stairs (stable, unstable,
    extremely hot)
  • 4) Is it a straight or winding stairwell
  • 5) Is basement finished, unfinished, or unknown
  • 6) Is basement open or compartmentalized
  • 7) Describe smoke conditions (level, color,
    pressurized or not)

71
Dangers with Fighting a Basement Fire
  • Weakened sub-floor due to heat and flame
  • Must pass through super-heated smoke to gain
    access to fire floor
  • Decreased ingress and egress
  • Numerous Potential Hazards

72
Potential Hazards
  • Gas leaks
  • Explosions
  • Fire concealment
  • Content collapse
  • Entanglement danger
  • Water accumulation
  • Drowning
  • Electrocution
  • Asphyxiation
  • Floor collapse

73
SOPs to Review
  • EM-02 Incident Command Procedures
  • EM-04 Abandon Building
  • EM-05 Civilian Search
  • EM-08 Thermal Imaging Cameras (TIC)
  • EM-10 Fire Stream Management (ICS)
  • EM-17 Rapid Intervention Teams
  • EM-18 Mayday Procedures
  • EM-31 Interior Structural Firefighting
  • EM-38 Communications
  • EM-39 In Transit, On-Deck, Recycle
  • EM-41 Risk Management
  • EM-43 Air Management

74
SOP Highlights
  • EM-10 Fire Stream Management (ICS)
  • Exception Fire streams into smoke
  • EM-31 Interior Structural Firefighting
  • Have a two engine RIT Team
  • EM-38 Communications
  • Floor Stair Report

75
Class Discussion
  • Basement fire scenario
  • A fire at a home at 2 am, with cars in the
    driveway and unknown location of the occupants.
  • Make 1st Alarm assignments

76
Do a Complete 360
77
First Alarm Assignments
  • E1 - Fire Attack
  • E2 - Division 1
  • E3 - RIT
  • E4 - On Deck
  • E5 - Back Up
  • T1 - Roof Division / Vent Group / 2nd RIT
  • R1 - IRIT / Utilities
  • R2 - Medical
  • BC - Incident Command
  • BC - Deputy IC

78
Summary
  • Building construction in relation to basement
    fires
  • Products of combustion
  • Recognition of smoke characteristics
  • Utilizing a coordinated fire attack
  • Recognizing potential hazards

79
Remember
80
after the fire
81
dont let this be you!
82
Questions?
83
Sets Reps
84
Scenario 1Alpha-Side
85
Scenario 1Bravo-Side
86
Scenario 1Delta-Side
87
Scenario 1Delta-Side
88
Scenario 2Alpha-Side
89
Scenario 2View from inside the front door
90
Scenario 2Interior Stairwell - Option 1
91
Scenario 2Interior Stairwell - Option 2
92
Scenario 3Alpha-Side
93
Scenario 3Delta-Side
94
Scenario 3Alpha/Bravo Corner
95
Scenario 3Bravo-Side
96
Scenario 3Bravo-Side
97
Thank you for your time
  • Be Safe!
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