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Safety at Workshops and Construction Sites

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Vehicles, cranes, fork lifts, lathes, drills, presses, shears ... Material over 20kg usually requires lifting with a crane or hoist ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safety at Workshops and Construction Sites


1
Safety at Workshops and Construction Sites
  • Engineering Project 307
  • John Taylor

2
You have a responsibility to protect
  • Yourself
  • Your workmates
  • Your employees
  • Subcontractors
  • The public
  • Property
  • The environment

3
Safety and health
  • Incidents (accidents)
  • Short time scale
  • Shock, newsworthy,
  • Traumatic - distressing event
  • Consequences
  • Damage, personal injury, death
  • Generate emergency response
  • Examples Fire, explosion, fall, collision,
    entrapment
  • Unhealthy conditions
  • Prolonged and/or high exposure
  • Illness may not evident for considerable time
  • Consequences
  • Illnesses occur at random
  • Chronic, debilitating, fatal
  • May be masked by other lifestyle factors
  • Examples exposure to hazardous materials, noise,
    RSI, ionising radiation

4
Groups interested in HSE
  • The worker
  • The employer
  • Federal and State government Legislation
  • WA Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
  • WA Occupational Safety Health Regulations 1996
  • WorkSafe WA
  • WA Mines Safety and Inspection Act 1994
  • Mines Safety and Inspection Regulations 1995
  • Department of Consumer and Employment Protection
  • The end user

5
Workplace manager's responsibility
  • Provide a safe, appropriately maintained
    equipment and facilities
  • Appropriate working procedures
  • Give work only to fit and competent people (also
    subcontractors)
  • Training
  • Give employees time and room to work properly
    without interference from others
  • Proper work planning, Job Hazard Analysis
  • Permit to work systems
  • Emergency response and medical facilities

6
Management obligations
  • Analyse safety of all activities
  • Monitor safety at workplace
  • Supervision, task assessments, correct unsafe
    acts, Collect and analyse data
  • Form safety committee
  • Allow safety representative to be elected
  • Appoint safety officer
  • Provide training
  • Report serious incidents injuries to WorkCover
    or DOCEP inspectors

7
Worker's responsibility
  • Present themselves to work in a fit manner
  • Not influenced by alcohol, drugs, tiredness,
    illness or injury
  • Follow direction of management
  • Only perform work they are competent and fit to
    perform
  • Work safely, protecting themselves, other
    workers, public and property
  • Keep workplace tidy
  • Do not misuse equipment or interfere with others
  • Report hazards to the management

8
Work environment
  • Workshop or yard
  • Controlled environment
  • Covered, ventilated, supplied with appropriate
    services
  • Construction Site or Mine Site
  • Needs bringing under control - mobilisation or
    establishment
  • Isolation from surrounds
  • Preparation, control of hazards, permits to work
  • Particularly hazardous environments
  • Extreme hot or cold, radiation, reduced
    visibility, restricted access, entrapment,
    engulfment, hazardous materials

9
General protection of an area
  • Establish perimeter and authority over area
  • Then control access
  • Ensure all activities in area are safe
  • And do not go beyond the area
  • Proper work clothing and personal protective
    equipment
  • Long sleeves, long trousers
  • Safety shoes, eye wear, ear plugs, hard hat
  • Tidy work area with sufficient room, appropriate
    services
  • Fire protection
  • First aid
  • Clear access ways

10
Access and tidiness
  • Established clear, well lit walkways and roads
  • Conveniently placed equipment and tools
  • Keep your work area tidy
  • No tripping hazards
  • Hoses, cables, equipment, tools
  • No accumulated material
  • Marked escape routes
  • Signs and barricades to protect hazardous areas
  • Excavations, confined spaces, moving machinery,
    hazardous work

11
Job safety analysis (JSA/JHA)
12
Risk control hierarchy
First consideration
  • Eliminate the hazard if at all possible
  • Is it necessary to do the task?
  • Substitute a safer method of work
  • Engineering controls
  • Add protective barriers between the worker and
    the hazard
  • Administrative controls
  • Use documented procedures, work methods and
    training to reduce exposure to hazards
  • Use appropriate personnel protective equipment to
    minimise exposure
  • Respirator, gloves, hearing protection, fall
    prevention devices

Last resort
13
Eight Golden Rules (BP)
  • Permit to Work
  • Management of Change
  • Energy isolation
  • Confined space entry
  • Vehicle machinery safety
  • Ground disturbance
  • Working at height
  • Lifting operations

14
Permit to Work
  • Required before a task involving confined space
    entry, ground disturbance, live energy systems,
    hot work close to combustible material, eg.
    welding, thermal cutting, grinding
  • Permit is a document that
  • Defines the scope of the task (location and time
    frame)
  • Identifies hazards and assesses risks
  • Establishes control measures to mitigate hazards
  • Is authorized by the responsible person
  • Communicates above information to all involved
  • Ensures adequate control over return to normal
    operations

15
Management of change
  • A change to a design, a plant or work process may
    create hazards
  • A hazard may be created when
  • Those who need to know are not advised of a
    change
  • Changed environment is not taken into account in
    the work plan
  • Control of change
  • Risk assessment by all impacted by the change
  • Development of a work plan that specifies a
    timescale for the change and control measures
  • Equipment, materials, process, inspection,
    operation (HAZOP)
  • Training, reporting
  • Assessment of the work plan immediately before it
    is used

16
Energy isolation
  • Work should not continue on items with stored
    energy without proper planning
  • Mechanical, electrical, process - temperature,
    pressure, chemical
  • Control of energy isolation
  • Method of isolation of energy agreed executed
  • Stored energy is discharged
  • Isolation valves and switches are locked or
    tagged-out to prevent energization during the
    work
  • Tests are conducted to show energy is isolated
    from work area
  • Isolation effectiveness is periodically monitored

17
Confined space
  • A space with limited means of access not intended
    or designed as a permanent place of occupancy
  • Examples -- Tanks, bins, furnaces, excavations,
    ship holds, drains, pipes etc
  • Hazards -- Entrapment, asphyxiation, fire
    explosion, engulfment, etc
  • Permit to work required to enter space which
    addresses
  • Isolation of energy from the work space
  • Assurance that the space is safe to work in
    ventilation, oxygen, toxicity, flammable vapours
  • Sentry at entrance, communication to occupants of
    space, emergency evacuation, unauthorised entry
    is not permitted
  • Required materials, tools and equipment
  • PPE requirements

18
Vehicles and machinery
  • Vehicles, cranes, fork lifts, lathes, drills,
    presses, shears
  • Machinery is regularly inspected and confirmed to
    be safe
  • Safety switches, guards and other necessary
    safety devices
  • Colour coded tags
  • Operators of equipment are competent, and if
    necessary hold a certificate or licence
  • Seatbelts are used by vehicle occupants
  • Distractions to operator are avoided
  • Cell phones

19
Ground disturbance
  • Removal of earth or other material to create a
    depression or hole
  • Requires a permit that addresses
  • Hazard assessment of worksite by competent person
  • All underground hazards (pipelines, electric
    cables) are identified, located and preferably
    isolated
  • If people are to enter the excavation, and it is
    more than 1.5 metres deep, a confined space entry
    permit is issued.
  • Ground movement is controlled by shoring,
    benching, sloping as appropriate
  • Ground and environment are monitored for change

20
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21
Prevention of falls
  • Openings in the floor or ground to be barricaded
  • Elevated working shall be on a fixed platform
    with guard rails and kick boards
  • Scaffolding, EWP, scissor lift, steps with
    platform on top
  • OR the worker has and is competent to use a
    Purpose designed fall-prevention device
  • OR the worker has a fall arrest device (inferior
    safety)
  • Access to height must be safe
  • Proper ladders, 14 slope, not too high
  • Access stairs
  • Those below are protected
  • Hard hats to be worn, warning signs, barricades

22
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23
Heavy lifting
  • Material over 20kg usually requires lifting with
    a crane or hoist
  • It is possible to manually roll extremely heavy
    pipes and drums
  • If necessary, material must be secured during
    storage, using chocks, wedges or other means to
    stop accidental movement
  • Lifting using a crane or hoist must not commence
    before
  • An assessment of the lift has been carried out,
    and the method and equipment have been determined
    by a competent person
  • Operation of the equipment is by a competent
    person
  • Rigging the load is by a competent person
  • Lifting devices were certified during the
    previous 12 months and were inspected before use
  • The load does not exceed the capacity of the
    equipment
  • All safety devices are operational

24
Manual handling
  • Lifting heavy weights can lead to
    muscular-skeletal injury
  • Holding 1kg or more over a long period will lead
    to fatigue
  • Avoid manual lifting and carrying by using
    appropriate tools
  • Hoist, levers, chain block, barrow
  • Training to manually lift heavy items
  • Lift in pairs or teams
  • Avoid twisting or bending movements

25
Ergonomics
  • Ensure workers are positioned comfortably, and
    change posture regularly
  • Avoid repetitive movements (RSI)
  • Keyboard use, tennis playing
  • Sit, rather than stand. Avoid stooping
  • Shearers back supports
  • Avoid poorly placed tools or workpieces that
    require stretching or twisting to reach
  • If work requires manual lifting or has to be done
    in awkward positions, consider warming up
    exercises

26
Noise controls
  • Identify and avoid or control noisy processes and
    equipment
  • Hammering, grinding, compressed gas venting,
    engine noise
  • Use well designed and appropriate equipment
  • Use sound-proofing where possible
  • Provide hearing protection and enforce use
  • Test hearing of employees on recruitment and at
    regular intervals

27
Measuring safety performance
  • Meeting frequency (leading)
  • Task assessment frequency (leading)
  • Amount of safety training (leading)
  • Frequency of reported unsafe acts
  • Minor injury and medical treatment
  • Lost time injury / days away from work (LTI /
    DAFW)
  • No of days since last LTI
  • Man-hours worked since last LTI

1 Death
10 Serious injuries
30 minor injuries
600 near misses
28
Further reading
  • HTTP//www.safetyline.wa.gov.au
  • J F Lancaster Engineering Catastrophes,
    Woodhead Publishing
  • MARKSTA (Mining and Resource Contractors Safety
    Training Association) General Safety Induction
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