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Phosphorus Fate and Transport in an Impounded River System

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Title: Phosphorus Fate and Transport in an Impounded River System


1
Phosphorus Fate and Transport in an Impounded
River System
  • Implications for TMDL Stakeholders and Extension
    Educators

Dean Baas MSU Geological Sciences Department MSU
Extension Land Water Program W. K. Kellogg
Biological Station
2
Presentation Outline
  • Lake Allegan/Kalamazoo River phosphorus TMDL
  • Overview
  • Research
  • Lake Allegan phosphorus
  • Sources
  • Point
  • Nonpoint
  • Kalamazoo River watershed phosphorus sources,
    fate and transport
  • Agriculture
  • Urban
  • Impoundments
  • Implications for TMDL stakeholders and extension
    educators
  • Preliminary Conclusions
  • Questions and Discussion

3
Lake Allegan/Kalamazoo River phosphorus TMDL
watershed
  • 1600 mi2 watershed in Southwest Michigan
  • Agricultural watershed
  • Nationally recognized stakeholder
    drivenphosphorus TMDL

Grand Rapids
Battle Creek
Kalamazoo Portage
4
Lake Allegan
  • EPA 303d list as phosphorus impaired waterbody
  • 2.5 mi2 impoundment hydroelectric dam impoundment
  • Periodic nuisance algal blooms
  • Carp/Catfish

5
Lake Allegan Water Quality
  • Reductions allocated as follows
  • Point source dischargers 23
  • All other sources of phosphorus (NPS) - 50

6
Total Maximum Daily Load
The primary purpose of the TMDL program is to
protect public health and the health of impaired
aquatic ecosystems by ensuring attainment of
water quality standards, including beneficial
uses. US EPA, 1998
7
TMDL Research Education and Extension
  • Michigan State University Extension Land Water
    Program at KBS received
  • In 2001, a 249,000 319 grant to develop a
    nonpoint source tracking system, and help
    develop, coordinate track implementation
    activities.

8
TMDL Research Education and Extension
  • Michigan State University Extension Land Water
    Program at KBS received
  • In 2001, a 249,000 319 grant to develop a
    nonpoint source tracking system, and help
    develop, coordinate track implementation
    activities.
  • In 2003, a 485,000 USDA-CSREES Integrated Water
    Program grant to
  • Characterize the sources, fate and transport of
    phosphorus in the TMDL watershed.
  • Integrate research, education, and extension to
    enhance phosphorus reduction strategies through
    the stakeholder driven TMDL organization.

9
Research
17
16
15
3
2
8
13
14
6
4
10
5
9
7
11
12
1
10
Research - Sampling
  • Auto-samplers (1 parameter)
  • Daily composite TP
  • Weekly grab samples (17 parameters)
  • TP, TDP, Ca2, Mg2, Na, K, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-,
    alkalinity, temperature, pH, specific
    conductance, DO, DO, chlorophyll A
  • Four synoptic samplings (40 parameters)
  • Weekly Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, As, Se, Rb,
    Mo, Sn, Pb, Mn, Fe Sr, Ba, U, Al, B, Ni, Cd, Ag
  • Discharge
  • USGS gaging stations
  • Isco autosampler stage

11
Phosphorus Sources Lake Allegan
  • 1998 MDEQ Load Estimate 145,200 lbs/g.s.
  • 2005 Load Estimate 98,400 lbs/g.s (32
    reduction)
  • 2006 Load Estimate 120,800 lbs/g.s. (17
    reduction)

12
Phosphorus Sources
13
Phosphorus Sources Growing Season NPS TP Exports
  • Excludes urban areas
  • Mixed landuse watersheds

In General NPS Export Coefficients Increase
14
Phosphorus SourcesNPS Agricultural Phosphorus
Fractions
DPTP 25 PPTP 75
DPTP 70 PPTP 30
DPTP 40 PPTP 60
15
Phosphorus Sources Agricultural TMDL Implications
DPTP 25 PPTP 75
DPTP 70 PPTP 30
  • Agricultural watersheds
  • Conventional approach is to reduce P by promoting
    soil conservation BMPs
  • High dissolved P watersheds
  • Less effective
  • Need to reduce P inputs
  • High particulate P watersheds
  • More effective

DPTP 40 PPTP 60
16
Phosphorus SourcesGrowing Season Urban NPS TP
Exports
  • Urban areas
  • Kalamazoo/Portage
  • Battle Creek

170 - 370 lbs/mi2
230 430 lbs/mi2
17
Phosphorus SourcesUrban NPS TP Exports
  • Kalamazoo urban event

18
Phosphorus SourcesUrban TMDL Implications
  • Urban watersheds
  • Event sampling required to capture source
  • Continue storm water management efforts

170 - 370 lbs/mi2
230 430 lbs/mi2
19
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
  • Three Impoundments
  • Emmett Street Dam
  • Morrow Lake
  • Lake Allegan
  • Influence sources, transport and fate of
    phosphorus

20
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
  • Emmett Street impoundment sinking phosphorus
  • 2005 1700 lbs
  • 2006 2600 lbs
  • Reducing the export of phosphorus

21
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
  • Emmett Street impoundment
  • Fed by the Battle Creek River
  • High ratio of dissolved to total phosphorus
  • Impoundment sinking DP
  • Suggest DP precipitation
  • Geochemical process

22
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
  • Morrow Lake Impoundment sourcing phosphorus
  • 2005 19,000 lbs
  • 2006 9,500 lbs
  • Increasing the export of phosphorus

23
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
  • Morrow Lake
  • 1.7 mi2 impoundment
  • Located approximately 2/3 down the watershed
  • Mediates phosphorus transport

24
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
  • Outlet growing season mean TP concentration
    relatively constant
  • Varying inlet concentrations

25
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
  • During the growing season, Morrow Lake inlet to
    outlet
  • Particulate phosphorus increases
  • Dissolved phosphorus decreases
  • Dissolved nitrate decreases

26
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
  • 2006 Chlorophyll A sampled
  • Chlorophyll A increases with particulate
    phosphorus
  • Algal activity
  • Biological process

27
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
P reduction towards goal
No net P reduction
P reduced
P replaced
  • The Morrow Impoundment
  • Decouples the upstream portion of the watershed
  • Replaces phosphorus reduced in that region
  • Forces the downstream portion of the watershed to
    produce reductions to meet Lake Allegan TMDL goals

28
Phosphorus Sources, Transport and
FateImpoundments
  • Lake Allegan impoundment sinking phosphorus
  • 2005 15,000 lbs
  • 2006 28,000 lbs
  • Storing phosphorus which slows the recovery

29
Implications for TMDL Stakeholders and Extension
Educators
  • Sources of total phosphorus are not sufficient
    for reduction strategies
  • Phosphorus fractions
  • BMP selection
  • Phosphorus source and fraction changes could have
    unexpected impact
  • Phosphorus processes are important
  • Biological
  • Geochemical
  • Can help, hurt, or mediate
  • Outputs may change with input changes
  • Impoundments
  • Environment for processes
  • Time for processes
  • Impact timeframe for improvement

30
Preliminary Conclusions
  • Detailed phosphorus and chemistry data is
    required to develop TMDL phosphorus reduction
    strategies
  • Phosphorus analysis should include phosphorus
    forms
  • BMP recommendations should be based on phosphorus
    forms
  • Impoundments should be evaluated to determine
    their impact on the transport and fate of
    phosphorus
  • Target reduction must consider the long term
    impact of phosphorus processes

31
Questions and Discussion
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