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Achievements Through The Years 19512000, India


Achievements Through The Years - 1951-2000, India. Demographic Changes. 1951 1981 2000 ... Carp seed production in Maharashtra. Science Planning & Finance ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Achievements Through The Years 19512000, India

Achievements Through The Years - 1951-2000,
  • Demographic Changes 
  • 1951 1981 2000
  • Life Expectancy 36.7 54 64.6
  • Crude Birth Rate 40.8 33.9 26.1
  • Crude Death Rate 25 12.5 8.7
  • Infant Mortality Rate 146 110 70
  •   Govt of India, 2000

National Human Development Report 2001
  • Overall Improvement1980s - 26.1990s 24 Wide
    disparity in States. South better. Rural Urban
    gap significant.
  • Gender Equality 1980 - 62 1990 67.6 (2/3 of
    men).South and NE better.
  • Human Poverty Declined. 1980 47, 1990 39
    Inter state differences marked. Significant
    decline in 6 states and marginal in 3 others by
    1990. Governance linked to decline in poverty.
  • Governance Wide variation in governance in
    states. Populist measures and borrowing leading
    to fiscal deficit in some and investment in
    infrastructure leading to better GDP in others.

Human Development Index 1980-90
Human Poverty Index 1981,91
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                        Model or muddle?
Comparison of Quality of Life Indicators, 1986
Achievements Through The Years - 1951-2000,
Epidemiological Shifts      1951
1981 2000 Malaria ( in
million) 75 2.7 2.2 Leprosy ( per 10,000)
38.1 57.3 3.74 Small Pox
gt44,887 Eradicated Guinea worm
  gt39,792 Eradicated Polio 29,709 265
Emerging Diseases-India
HIV-AIDS 2001 3.8 million Prevalence low
at 0.8. Even 0.1 increase amounts to 0.5
million people.90 in 15-44 yrs. ( China
reports 800,000. UN- 10 million by
2010) TUBERCULOSIS 2001 14 million New
cases/yr 2.2 million Infective to others 3.5
million Emergence of Multi Drug Resistance Asia
is a ticking bomb for AIDS and MDR- Tb
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Green Revolution Changes in disease profile
Increased Wheat, Rice but NOT Pulses Intense
irrigation changed soil chemistry - loss of Zn,
Mg, iodine - increase in Fluoride due to
wells, Large dams led to - rodent migration
eg Plague epidemic - displacement of people
- silting, malaria and schistosomiasis
Intense fertiliser usuage led to
-goitrogens, thyroid goitre
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Development dams, water canals-disease
Malaria 2.5m affected per year, mixed
infection, drug resistance Epidemic in non
endemic Rajasthan following construction of
Indira Gandhi Canal in previous desert land Mixed
variants of parasites seen by molecular probes.
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Indoor Air Polution
  • Use of Solid Fuels ( biomass, coal, wood )
  • 85 energy wasted,
  • 25 income or
  • 25 time of women wasted for gathering wood.
  • India - improved stove 50-100 DALY saved
  • Water 35 DALY saved

Gender Equality Index 1980-90
Gender Differentials- Childhood
Intrauterine death abortions Female
infanticide Perinatal mortality no
differences in 1st wk. (M53F59)
Male/Female Ratio 1yr 5yrs per capita
(Rs) All India 1.13 0.98 15,562 Kerala 1.18
1.03 18,262 Andhra 1.22 1.03 14,715 Bihar
1.01 0.86 6,328 UP 1.02 0.76
9,078 Punjab 0.94 0.79 20,463
More than 100 million women are missingAmartya
Sen 1988
Gender Differentials- assisted by high technology
  • Female Feticide in India
  • 3-5 million female foetuses aborted each year,
    eg. Bombay clinic 7,999/8000 were female
  • Sex Determination banned in 1994
  • Ultra Sound gender detection cost 19-35 as
    compared to Dowry costs 3,500-5,000

Improvement in per capita correlates with
ability to purchase high technology based gender
Science Technology Policies, Planning,
Science and Technology Multiple Structures
  • Prime Minister
  • Cabinet Minister
  • Minister of State
  • Control Science Agencies

Science Policies / Emerging Technolgies
  • Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet and
  • Has undergone changes, but is the Think tank for
    the Country.
  • Chair eminent Scientist from Academia or
    Science Agencies
  • Assisted by Scientists, Govt Secretaries,
  • Effectiveness varies with the Govt attitude

Science and Technology in India- structures
  • Both Strategic and Other Research administered by
    Scientists as Secretaries, selected by Peer
    Scientists and assisted by Civil servants and
    Finance Officers.
  • Responsible for ST, Manpower development,
    Grants, Fellowships. Own National institutes of
  • DST is also in charge of international
    cooperation and assists Academies,formulates
    Research Policies.
  • CSIR interacts with Industry and assists patent
    applications, databases for traditional
    knowledge. Has the main Fellowship programme for
    the young scientists
  • ICMR, ICAR and DRDO are under respective Health,
    Agriculture and Defence Ministries. Own
    Institutes, give Extramural Funds for research

Infrastructure for ST
  • Manpower Development is thru multiple means,
    private public.
  • Education is Responsibility of States, but some
    Universities and Institutes are administered by
    Center and are of high standard.
  • 150 universities with varying standards and poor
  • Regional engineering Colleges of excellence
    converted to NITs and special assistance provided
  • Famous IITs now increased in number to cover
    other States. North East States being specially
  • Foreign partnerships with Indian private
    Universities. Bring excellent infrastructure.
    Expensive !
  • Indian universities going abroad- Nepal,
    Malaysia, USA, China. Medical, IT and Engineering

Women entrepreneurs in Biotechnology
  • In 2000 companies run by women- 5 b or 7 of
    venture capital.In USA 9.1 m women owned
    businesses.Women entrepreneurs key to long term
    economic growth ( Kaufmann centre -21 countries)
  • Finland 1984-1988. 77 women with 80 inventions.
  • Golden Jubilee Biotech Parks specially geared for
    women in Chennai.13 industrial sheds.
  • Biotechnolgy Complex in Almora. Women from 10
    villages for composting, aquaculture, mushroom
    farming etc.

Biotechnology for deprived SCST
  • Medicinal and aromatic plants-Udaipur. 7
    Citronella units in in NE. 269 have sold 15,557
    quintals of fresh grass.
  • Mushroom cultivation. Rural women in Central
    India, Bengal, tamil Nadu, Kerala.
  • Biopesticides. Psoralea cryleifolia developed to
    control grasseria, disease of silk worms in Tamil
  • Thallassaemia. W Bengal- 6500 tribals tested and
    counselled for the disease.
  • Sericulture. 250 farmers assisted in Tamil Nadu.
  • Aquaculture. Carp seed production in Maharashtra.

Science Planning Finance
  • Planning Commission 5 year plans
  • Policies for Center and States after continuing
    dialogue with agencies and ministers Chairman is
    Prime Minister.
  • Each agency submits its future plans and Budget.
    This is based on meetings with peer scientists
    and their vision.
  • Current budget 1 GDP. 10th plan envisages
  • increase to 2 GDP

Ratio of Plan Outlay to GDP
Balance from Current Revenue Central Government
States (in Billion Rs.)
Financing Pattern of State Plans VI IX Plans
Sources Sixth Plan
Ninth Plan
(1997-2002) States Own Contribution 28
(-)52 Total Borrowings
35 107 Total State Resources
63 55 Central Assistance
37 45 Total Resources
100 100 At constant
prices, Central Assistance has increased only by
1 in the last four years, whereas GDP increased
by 25
Todays India has
  • Engineers but no funds for construction.
  • Doctors - but no medicines.
  • Teachers- but no school buildings
  • A large employees- but no productive work
  • Many officers- but no funds for travel or
    telephones, hence poor supervision or
  • Very little capital expenditure and asset
  • Little funds for maintenance or repairs of assets

Governance Reforms
  • Greater transparency accountability
  • Strict performance norms,Third party
  • Right to Information now a law
  • Get rid of dead wood? VRS surplus cell
  • Mobility- NGOs/ academics and government
  • ? Legislation - three years from now, not
    more than 50 of revenues can be spent on

Science Technology Policy 2003
  • ST Governance and Investments integration with
    universities,academies on continuous
    basis.Administered by scientists. Major
    Socioeconomic ministries to have SAC. Apex ST
    Advisory Body for policy formulation. 2GDP o be
  • Optimal untilisation of existing infrastructure
    and competence by networking and upgrading.
  • Strengthening infrastructure in Academia,
    middle,high schools, universities,institutions
    over the next 10yrs.
  • New Funding for Basic Research. Restructuring
    science, medical and engineering. Simplifying
  • Human Resource Development. To encourage quality
    mobility between industry academia and research
    labs would be ensured. Flexibility in changing
    fields and interdisciplinary areas would be
    ensured. Womens special needs would be taken
    into account.
  • Technology Development, Transfer and Diffusion.
    Social,institutional and market factors would be
    adopted thru new policy issues. Quality and
    accreditation mechanisms.

ST Policy 2003 contd
  • Promotion and innovation.Change in legal and
    financial aspects.
  • Industry and RD. Synergy between industry and
    scientific research by autonomous organisations
    in universities and institutions.
  • Indigenous Resources and Traditional Knowledge.
    Documentation,protection and value addition for
    health care products.
  • Technology for Mitigation and Managements of
    Natural Hazards. Practical Technologies
  • Generation and Management of Intellectual Prperty
    for social good.High Priority.
  • Public Awareness of ST including
    ethical,moral,legal and economic aspects.
    Popularisation of science and emerging
  • International Science and Technology Coperation.
    Special emphasis on developing and neighbouring
  • Fiscal Measures. New Strategies for public
    private investment by tax and non-tax fiscal
    instruments to leap frog development.
  • Monitoring and reviewing mechanisms to be quick
    and transparent.
  • New vision of resurgent India with strong
    democratic and spiritual values keeping in mind
    the larger global family.

Problems in ST funding and execution
  • Ironically funding for ST, Education and
    infrastructure improvement by the States has been
    reducing over the last 3 plans.
  • Funds allocated by the Center are used for
    populist measures and salaries by the States with
    poor Governance.Current Deficit is worrisome.
  • Good News ! Southern States are investing heavily
    in infrastructure, IT, Health, Education and
    Gender issues.

Special measures for ST improvement
  • 9th plan Department of Science and Technology
  • -500m given for infrastructure development for
    Universities (FIST)
  • - 500m Special assistance for
    women scientists (WOS). Over 2000 applications
    received-1100 for Life Sciences- 200 women who
    had break in career due to social reasons such as
    marriage given bridge grants for 3-5 years
  • - Swaranjayanti Fellowships for under 40 yrs

Technology for Functional Literacy
  • Computer literacy based on theories of cognition,
    pattern recognition, icons, combination of sound
    and visual, words rather than alphabets.
  • Simputer develped by Encore Software and IISc -
    low cost 200. Interfaces sight, touch and
    audio. Has browser, e-mail, text to speech, local
    languages. Integrated access to smart card.

Local Governance thru Panchayati Raj
  • 1992- 73rd Constitution Amendment Act.i) village
    level ii) regular elections iii) 33 reservation
    of seats for SC/ST and women iv) independent
    finance v) independent election commission etc.
  • Women initially expected to be surrogate became
    true leaders and defied males and even husbands.
    Focused on building wells, schools, newer
    agrarian technologies and health care.
  • Fiscal flow was ensured by 74th amendment and
    local bodies assisted in maintaining accounts.
  • Monitoring was also ensured thru Chief secretary
    of the State.
  • Useful mechanism to direct Education and ST
    benefits to the rural people

Transnational Partnerships in RD
  • India has global and open economy policies with
    varying equity constraints in core areas.
  • TNCs gradually increasing with FDI inflows as
    Govt policies become clear. However true RD
    transfer is low. Thus Indian industry now sees a
    greater need to interact with Indian Academia to
    improve technologies. Eg. Pharmaceuticals,
    vaccines, super computers etc.
  • Genral electic has its 2nd largest RD in
  • Hurdles for TNCs are due to procedural delay
    rather than policies.
  • In parallel
  • Indian firms are opening branches in USA for
    pharmaceutical and biotechnology RD.
  • CSIR is consultant in RD for Dupont, Boeing etc.
  • Public Litigation may block TNCs in some areas.

Public Private Partnerships
  • Formal mechanisms
  • DSTs division of Transfer of Indigenous
    Technologies (TIFAC). Industrys cess now
    converted to Technology Development Board (TDP)
    for venture capital.
  • CSIR partners with Industry for RD
  • University/Industry interaction - underway
  • Science Parks- infrastructure provided by
  • NGOs in Health, Environment, Food monitoring
  • Gates Foundation Health and IT
  • Welcome Foundation value addition in Science

Economics and ST Capabilities
Oil Rich Middle East Countries
USA, Europe, Japan, Korea
Economic Strength
Sub Saharan Africa
Brazil, China, India
Indigenous ST Capabilities
Should poor nations invest in RD ? Indias
  • Creating Wealth - 500,000 software engineers
    generate 10 of Indian Exports
  • Creating Self Esteem - Supercomputers eg. Param
  • Creating Social Changes - Indian Space Endeavour
    - Budget 450m, 17,000 personnel, Space assets of
    remote sensing, telecom,satelite, International
    cooperation, industry alliances, prospecting
    water (160,000 villages benefitted), potential
    fishing grounds identified.
  • Creating Health Security Indian Pharmaceuticals,
    1950s multinational domination, 1990s exports
    surpass imports. 2000 onwards-helping to lower
    global costs of HIV drugs and hepatitis vaccines

National competitiveness- ST
  • Indias Ranking / 46 countries
  • Engineers 1
  • Total RD personnel 7
  • Science Education 7
  • Total RD personnel in Commerce 10
  • Intellectual Property
  • Securing Patents from Abroad 38
  • Source World Science Report

Disadvantage - India
  • Education
  • 854m illiterates / 325m children (2000 census)
  • Health
  • 968m without safe drinking water (1998)
  • 2.4b without basic sanitation (2000)
  • 34m with HIV/AIDS (2000)
  • Income
  • 2.8b less than 2 per day ( 1998)

Indias Window of Opportunity - demography
Predicted surplus of workers in 2020

Malaysia Turkey

Peoples strength, Productivity cost (1/6),
Technical capabilities (15m), English language
skills (250m),BPO 21m-24m by 08
Adapted from RA Mashelkar, 2003
Combating IPR issues
  • India is a rich country where poor people live!
  • Existence of rich biodiversity and parallel
    knowledge systems rich traditional medical
    systems eg. Ayurveda, Sidha, Unani, Tribal.
  • Traditional Knowledge requires preserving,
    protecting and adding value to ancient
  • CSIR creates Traditional Knowledge Digital
    Library (TKDL), CDs available, Traditional
    Knowledge Classification (TKRC), links to
    International Patent Classificatin (IPC).
  • TKDL is accepted by 150 nations of WIPO leading
    to a paradigm shift for all developing countries
    with traditional medicine systems.

IPR requires a Balance Action
  • Article 27 of Universal declaration of Human
    Rights, 1948
  • states
  • Everyone has the right to protection of moral
    and material interests resulting from any
    scientific, literary or artistic production of
    which he is the author
  • and
  • Everyone has the right to share in scientific
    advancement and its benefits
  • IPR has been viewed as food for the rich and
    poison for the poor countries this needs to
    change for global good.