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Infectious Diseases of Livestock are we in control

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Infectious Diseases of Livestock are we in control? Joe Brownlie ... Cow and calf infected. Only dam becomes immune. Calf born persistently infected (PI) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Infectious Diseases of Livestock are we in control


1
Infectious Diseases of Livestock are we in
control?
Joe Brownlie
Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
2
The early years of RASE and the veterinary
profession were closely inter-linked.
In a Review of the (Royal) Veterinary College
(1791) Youatt realised the importance of the
Royal Agricultural Society of England (RASE)
(1838) wanting to ally itself with the
Veterinary College. August 1839
Royal Agriculture Society of England funded the
Pathological Chair of Cattle (1840)
by annual grant of 200
120,382.21 160 years later
RASE powerful agent for promoting a high
standard in agricultural education and knowledge
3
Job Advert for Pathological Chair of Cattle
... of some education - of more talent - of
long experience in cattle practice,
not past middle of life, and all his
faculties unimpaired
4
Pathological Chair of Cattle My Dear
Simonds ..... Steal a couple of hours every day
from your business, and you will be perfectly
prepared to occupy with honour to yourself the
Pathological Chair of Cattle. I have often been
looking around me to guess on whom the crown will
fall, and on you I have always fixed. Shew us
that you have nerve enough to stand a certain
period of honest hard work. Keep yourself before
the public (in the Veterinarian) and you are the
man against the world ..... ever faithfully
yours W Youatt
5
  • James Beart Simonds
  • Pathological Chair of Cattle at RVC
  • Royal Agriculture Society of England
  • Pathology for defining existing and new
    diseases
  • Experimental studies to understand disease.

6
James Beart Simonds
  • Foot and Mouth disease
  • Murrain -Cattle plague-Rinderpest
  • Sheep Pox
  • Liver Fluke
  • Cattle Pleuro-pneumonia
  • Anthrax
  • Swine fever

7
Danger of importation of diseased cattle - 1865
8
Spread of Cattle Plague during 1865

August 1865
December 1865
October 1865
1st case 10th July 1865
9
Opportunities following disease outbreaks
  • Cattle Plague (1745-69)
  • Foundation of 1762 Lyon, 1791
    London
  • Veterinary Schools
  • Cattle Plague (1865)
  • Veterinary Department (State Veterinary
    Service) - headed by JB Simonds
  • hundreds of inspectors
  • Movement/market restrictions 1866 Cattle
    Disease Prevention Order
  • (slaughter sick contacts with 1869
    Contagious Diseases (Animals)
  • compensation) Act

Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
10
Chief Veterinary Officer
State Vet Service Field service
State Vet Service Veterinary Investigation Labo
ratories
Research Central Veterinary Laboratory
Import Export Inspection Ports etc
Vet Policy Tolworth

Staffing 1700 staff with about 400 vets
Up to 1988-91
Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
11
Chief Veterinary Officer
State Vet Service Field service
State Vet Service Veterinary Investigation Labo
ratories
Research Central Veterinary Laboratory
Import Export Inspection Ports etc
Vet Policy Tolworth

2008
Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
12
Chief Veterinary Officer
ADPG
Vet Medicines Directate
Influence


Seat on Ownership Boards AHA VLA
Port Health HMRC Ports etc
Vet Policy GVS Website Head of Vet Profession
Food Farming Group Core team
Staffing gt150 staff with about 20 vets
2008
Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
13
Defra organisation chart 2008
Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
14
The future CVO and veterinary services ?
  • Still a premier leader of the profession?
    Advert
  • Still in a position to direct policy, to initiate
    relevant research, to undertake risk analysis and
    authorise disease surveillance and control?
    JB Simonds



  • What infra-structure does the CVO inherit?




  • Power/influence?


  • Is there a strong partnership between the
    Agriculture Veterinary professions? RASE

Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
15
What are the future risks to UK livestock from
infectious diseases?
  • UK capability - veterinary intelligence,
    infra-structure, technical
    support and research capability
  • Importation - discourse centred on UK
    self-sufficiency is fundamentally
    misplaced and unbalanced
  • Food Security and the UK
  • Food Chain Analysis Group, Defra 2006
  • Global movements - human, animal and animal
    products (legal and illegal!)
  • New and emerging diseases - Foresight OSI
    programme on Detection and Identification of
    Infectious Diseases

National/Academic culture
Professor Sir David King
Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
16
Foresight Projects
17
Project Aim
  • To produce a challenging and long-term vision
    for the detection, identification and monitoring
    of infectious diseases across plants, animals and
    humans.
  • Taking account of
  • the evolving risk of diseases
  • changing user requirements
  • cutting edge science.

18
Key findings Eight indicative threats
  • New and emerging diseases
  • Pathogens acquiring resistance
  • Zoonoses esp. wildlife diseases
  • HIV AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria
  • Epidemic plant diseases
  • Acute respiratory diseases
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Trans-boundary animal diseases

19
1) New and re-emerging diseases
  • Continual and consistent trend for new diseases
    to emerge over time
  • Frequently seen in animals and plants as with
    humans provides a rich resource of scientific
    expertise
  • e.g. BSE/vCJD , SARS
  • Hendra viruses
  • (and Bluetongue)
  • One new human infection every 8 months!

UK Government Office for Science
20
3) Zoonoses
Diseases or infections which are naturally
transmitted between vertebrate animals and
humans - World Health Organization (1959)
  • Vast majority of human diseases are zoonoses
    e.g. rabies, brucellosis, Rift Valley Fever
  • Emerging/re-emerging pathogens more likely to be
    zoonotic
  • Wildlife can be important.
  • West Nile virus, Ebola AVIAN FLU
  • importance of linkage between human and
    veterinary medicine

UK Government Office for Science
21
How many species of human pathogen?
M Woolhouse 2006
UK Government Office for Science
22
How many emerging and re-emerging human pathogens?
Viruses over-represented RR2.9 Helminths
under-represented RR0.28

?24154.3, Pltlt0.001
M Woolhouse 2006
UK Government Office for Science
23
What are the reservoirs?
M Woolhouse 2006
UK Government Office for Science
24
What are the reservoirs?
WILDLIFE gt DOMESTIC
M Woolhouse 2006
UK Government Office for Science
25
Main transmission routes
M Woolhouse 2006
UK Government Office for Science
26
Main transmission routes
M Woolhouse 2006
UK Government Office for Science
27
Newly reported emerging human pathogen species
M Woolhouse 2006
UK Government Office for Science
28
Conclusions from Foresight DIID programme
  • Nearly 200 emerging or re-emerging diseases
  • gt80 zoonotic - at increased risk of emergence
  • Jumps of pathogens between host species are
    frequent and natural
  • Rate of emergence seems very high for
    evolutionary timescales
  • Change in human-pathogen ecology is a key driver
    pace of change is high and will stay high
  • Expect more pathogens to emerge BE PREPARED

M Woolhouse 2006
UK Government Office for Science
29
Who owns disease?
  • Defra v Industry
  • Exotic versus Endemic disease
  • Foot-and-Mouth versus BVD
  • Tuberculosis? Bluetongue?

BVD interesting example of endemic disease?
Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
30
Bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) virus - control and
eradication
  • Worldwide
  • Endemic in UK
  • Causes widespread production losses in the
    cattle sector
  • We can control it

31
BVDV - immunosuppressive with mixed infections
Respiratory infections
Worse with BVDV! BVDV other viruses
bacteria)
Enteric infections
32
Reproductive disease
Classical swine fever virus
Bovine virus diarrhoea virus
Border disease virus
non-cytopathogenic virus (except mucosal
disease) crosses placenta foetal
infection congenital damage abortion
33
Birth of a PI calf
BVDV in early pregnancy
Cow and calf infected
Only dam becomes immune
Calf born persistently infected (PI)
Farm security?
34
Farmers think the Vet was the main source of
information on infectious disease.
79
55
12
Q9 What are your sources of information on
infectious diseases in cattle. Let's start with
your main source? CODE ONE ONLY. And where
else? Base All respondents (679)
35
What is happening in Europe?
36
National
Regional
37
  • Have we started yet?

38
National Strategy Group for BVD Eradication
  • Wide Stakeholder representation JB chair
  • Provided technical assessment and advice for
    programme
  • What model for delivery of a
  • voluntary programme for control of an endemic
    livestock disease?




  • Europe and ? UK
  • Local UK schemes?

Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
39
Norfolk Suffolk
40
Somerset
Future programme?
41
Who owns the disease and who will take leadership
of such a programme?
  • Defra?
  • NFU?
  • Levy bodies?
  • Processors?
  • Supermarkets?
  • Diagnostic Laboratories
  • No one!

Devolution
Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
42
Opportunities for Industry leadership on
infectious diseases?
  • The new EBLEX, BPEX, DairyCo and even the
    Agricultural Horticultural Development Board

    livestock plant diseases


  • New Cost Sharing and Responsibility Initiative
    high priority for infectious
    diseases need for research
  • Food industry - at consumer level
  • Regional Development Authorities disease free
    areas but
    national perspective
  • RASE think-tank

Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
43
Livestock health and welfare research programme
Group?
  • Long-term commitment to research into infectious
    disease detection and control
  • Provide an infrastructure for industry to support
    /undertake disease surveillance and control
    programmes (in association with Defra?)
  • Underpin Academic programmes, both educational
    and applied research projects
    agricultural veterinary
  • Appoint a strong wise committee, with long-term
    vision for the Industry!

Joe Brownlie Royal Veterinary College
44
James Beart Simonds CVO Agricultural
responsibilityBluetongue vaccinations
  • Conclusion
  • Are we in control?

45
Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks
and look well to thy herds Proverbs 27.23
46
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