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WATER, ENERGY

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El Jeromin, Chihuahua: Cattle ranch 'chamizo' grown for cattle feed ... Case Study-El Jerom n, Chihuahua. 12. Case Study - El Jerom n, Chihuahua. Results ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WATER, ENERGY


1
WATER, ENERGY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • Water Policy in the Americas Roundtable
  • Organization of American States
  • Presentation by
  • Dr. Allan R. Hoffman
  • U.S. Department of Energy
  • June 15, 2000

2
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
  • Introductory material
  • Energy Environment Security Initiative
  • DOE approach
  • Perspectives
  • Health issues
  • Message
  • Water pumping
  • Desalination
  • Water treatment
  • DOE capabilities
  • Conclusions
  • Contact information

3
ENERGY ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY
  • At the U.S. Department of Energy, water
    issues are being addressed under the Energy
    Environment Security Initiative, a formal joint
    activity with the U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency and the U.S. Department of Defense (and
    supported by the U.S. Department of State).
  • The Initiative has two goals
  • The identification of energy and other
    environmental stresses that could lead to
    political and economic instability and/or the
    outbreak of political conflict
  • The identification and implementation of measures
    that can help alleviate these stresses

4
DOEs APPROACH TO WATER ISSUES
  • Water is needed for a number of end-uses
  • drinking water
  • agriculture
  • power plants
  • industrial processes
  • sanitation
  • Optimal solutions can be obtained through a
    systems approach that integrates consideration of
    various end-uses, their energy requirements, and
    their associated economic and environmental
    costs

5
SOME INTERESTING PERSPECTIVES
  • Many of the wars in this century were about oil,
    but wars of the next century will be about
    water. (Ismail Serageldin, Vice President,
    World Bank, 1996)
  • The next war in the Middle East will be over
    water, not politics. (Boutros Boutros-Ghali,
    Secretary General, United Nations, 1991)

6
BASIC FACTS HEALTH ISSUES
  • More than a billion people lack access to safe
    drinking water
  • About 4 million children below age 5 die each
    year from waterborne diarrheal diseases (400 per
    hour)
  • About 60 million children annually reach maturity
    stunted due to severe nutrient loss/complications
    from multiple diarrheal episodes
  • About 1 billion people boil their drinking water
    at home

7
A SIMPLE MESSAGE
  • How to deal with water issues will be a major
    global concern in the 21st century
  • An important part of addressing water issues is
    having the energy needed to transport, treat or
    desalinate water resources
  • A systems approach (e.g., addressing water needs
    on a regional basis) can produce optimal
    solutions
  • Water and energy are key components of
    sustainable economic development, and are
    inextricably linked

8
PUMPING WATER Case Studies from the USAID/USDOE
Renewable Energy Program in Mexico
  • USAID development goals
  • improved agriculture, health, education and
    environmental protection
  • rural community development
  • electrification
  • potable water
  • Cost-effective renewable energy systems can help
    meet development goals

9
LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSISSolar Powered vs.
Conventional Water Pumping Systems
10
TWO CASE STUDIES
  • El Jeromin, Chihuahua
  • Cattle ranch chamizo grown for cattle feed
  • Water required 15,000 liters per day
  • Agua Blanca, BCS
  • Livestock/irrigation ranch (1001 hectares)
  • Water required 25,000 liters per day

11
Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Case Study-El Jeromín,
Chihuahua
12
Case Study - El Jeromín, Chihuahua Results
  • After 2 years, the PV system represents a lower
    overall expense to the user

13
Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Case Study-Agua Blanca,
BCS
14
Case Study - Agua Blanca, BCS Results
  • Six years after installation, the PV system
    represents a lower overall expense

15
DESALINATION
  • A process for removing dissolved minerals
    (including, but not limited to, salt) from
    seawater, brackish water, or treated wastewater
  • A number of technologies have have been developed
    for desalination reverse osmosis,
    electrodialysis, vacuum freezing, distillation,
    capacitive deionization.

16
DESALINATION (continued)
  • While much can be done to improve management of
    existing water supplies, there is broad agreement
    that extensive use of desalination will be
    required to meet the water needs of a growing
    world population
  • At present, only 0.36 of the worlds waters in
    rivers, lakes and swamps is sufficiently
    accessible to be considered a fresh water
    resource

17
KEY DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
  • Reverse Osmosis
  • pressure is applied to intake water, forcing
    water molecules through semipermeable membrane.
    Salt molecules do not pass through membrane.
    Product water that passes through is potable.
  • On average, energy (electrical) accounts for 41
    of total cost.
  • 5,800-12,000 kWh/AF (4.7-5.7 kWh/m3)
  • Distillation
  • intake water heated to produce steam. Steam is
    condensed to produce product water with low salt
    concentration.
  • energy requirements for distillation
    technologies (electrical and thermal) are higher
    than for reverse osmosis technologies.
  • 28,500-33,000 kWh/AF (23-27 kWh/m3)
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ----------------
  • does not include energy required for
    pre-treatment, brine disposal and water
    transport

18
KEY DESALINATION FACTS
  • Energy costs are a principal barrier to greater
    use of desalination technologies (disposal of
    residual brine is another)
  • More than 120 countries are now using some
    desalted seawater, but mostly in the Persian Gulf
    where energy costs are low (oil, natural gas)
  • Cost of seawater desalination using reverse
    osmosis has fallen
  • 23 per 1,000 gallons in 1978 (5.26/m3)
  • 2 per 1,000 gallons (0.55/m3) today
  • (Tampa 35 million m3/day)

19
UV Waterworks Motivation
  • 1993 Bengal Cholera outbreak in India,
    Bangladesh and Thailand
  • Existing alternatives for water treatment often
    have significant drawbacks
  • boiling (over biomass cookstove)
  • chlorination
  • reverse osmosis

20
UV Waterworks Design Criteria
  • Energy efficient
  • Low cost
  • Reliable under field conditions
  • No overdose risk
  • Off-the-shelf components
  • Can treat unpressurized water
  • Rapid throughput
  • Low maintenance
  • Simple design/fabricable in developing countries

21
UV Waterworks How It Works
  • Water flows by gravity under a UV lamp for 12
    seconds
  • UV radiation kills 99.9999 of bacteria, 99.99
    of viruses
  • No change in taste or odor/no chemicals
    introduced
  • Disinfects 4 gallons (15 liters) per minute

22
UV Waterworks How It Works(continued)
  • Power requirement 60 watts
  • Disinfects 1,000 liters of water for less than 5
    cents (annual cost per person 14 cents)
  • Unit needs maintenance only once every six months
    performed by local technicians
  • Energy consumption 6,000 times less than boiling
    water over cookstove
  • Units extensively tested, commercially available

  • Portable version developed for disaster-relief

23
(No Transcript)
24
HOW CAN THE U.S. DOE HELP?
  • DOE has a number of technologies and
    capabilities that would be useful in addressing
    water quantity and quality issues
  • - UV Waterworks unit developed at DOE
    national
  • laboratory (LBNL)
  • - Capacitive Deionization (CDI) process
    under
  • development at another DOE laboratory
    (LLNL)
  • modeling and simulation (using advanced computer
    capabilities)
  • - monitoring, sensors and telemetry for remote
    monitoring

25
HOW CAN THE U.S. DOE HELP?(continued)
  • Characterization of water resources
  • Site remediation, pollution prevention and waste
    treatment (to be discussed at September meeting
    of the Roundtable)
  • Application of renewable electric technologies to
    desalination and water pumping and treatment
  • Planning and management of large projects

26
CONCLUSIONS
  • Water issues will be a major global concern
  • in the 21st century, and a potential source
    of conflict
  • Addressing water issues requires joint
    consideration of a broad range of issues
    health, agricultural, economic, political and
    energy
  • Water and energy issues are closely linked
  • Renewable energy is likely to play a major role
    in addressing water issues, especially in
    developing countries
  • Where applicable, a systems approach will yield
    optimum results

27
CONTACT INFORMATION
  • NAME TEL. E-MAIL
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