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Amazon Rainforest

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The Amazon has over 1,100 tributaries, some 1,000 miles long. ... Also contains saltwater species- dolphins, stingrays, and sponges. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Amazon Rainforest


1
Amazon Rainforest
  • By
  • Kelsey Cooper Melissa Meier

2
Where is the Rainforest?
Amazon Rainforest
3
Landscape
Emergent Layer
Canopy
Understory
Forest floor
4
Layers of the Rainforest
  • Emergent Layer- Highest level of the Rainforest
  • Brightest layer receiving the most sunlight
  • Worlds finest Natural Aviary
  • Home to nearly 1/3 of the planets bird species
    including hummingbirds and eagles. Bats, monkeys,
    and butterflies also seek food, shelter, and
    protection from predators.
  • Canopy Layer- directly beneath the Emergent Layer
  • Consists of a thick branching system with vines
    and limbs creating a natural umbrella
  • Absorbs ultra-violet rays from the sun protecting
    the plant and animal species beneath.
  • Many Epiphytic Plants like Orchids and
    Bromeliads, grow here.
  • Home to many animal species- butterflies, tree
    frogs, sloth, jaguars, toucans, parrots, and
    monkeys

5
Layers of the Rainforest
  • Understory Layer- directly beneath Canopy Layer
  • Growth- very dense, entwined with vines, shrubs,
    and broadleaf trees.
  • Provides camouflage for species who cross over
    with Canopy Layer.
  • The leaves of trees, avg. height of 12 ft,
    compensate for lack of sunlight.
  • Bats, owls, tree frogs, and a wide variety of
    insects live here.
  • Forest Floor- ground layer
  • Very dark, almost no sunlight reaches layer.
  • Quality of soil is very poor and few plants grow
    here.
  • Rich in microorganisms as well as snakes such as
    Anaconda, lizards, beetles, Giant Anteaters, and
    Termites.

6
Climate
  • Lie in the intertropical convergence zone
  • The rainforest receives constant sunlight 12 hrs.
    a day 365 days per year.
  • Due to the constant solar energy the temperature
    is warm year round, usually 72-93 F.
  • Rainforests are subject to heavy rainfall, 80
    inches and in some areas 430 inches per year.
  • Equatorial regions may not have differentiated
    wet and dry seasons.
  • Seasonal forests may slightly differentiate with
    seasons. Even during the dry season the clouds
    sustain the air moisture to prevent the plants
    from drying out.
  • Creates intense humidity. Each canopy tree
    transpiring roughly 200 galloons per year.
  • The constant rainfall results in evergreen
    forests- keeping their leaves year round.

7
Plant Life
  • 30 of the planets species live in the
    rainforest
  • 40 of Earth's oxygen is produced here
  • Within a four mile square area of a tropical
    rainforest, you would find
  • Over 750 species of trees
  • 1500 different kinds of flowering plants

8
Animal Life
  • The Amazon Rainforest is home to 2.5 million
    insect species and 2000 birds and mammals.
  • Currently there are at least 3,000 fish, 1,294
    birds, 427 mammals, 427 amphibians, and 378
    reptiles species.
  • One in five of all birds in the world live in the
    Amazon rainforest.
  • Macaw- most common, gathers by clay cliffs and
    feeds on minerals to protect themselves from
    toxins in seeds.
  • Frogs are most abundant amphibians in the
    rainforest.
  • Live in the trees and lay eggs in vegetation or
    the ground.
  • Colored poison dart arrow frog- best
  • well-known, secrete intense toxins from
  • glands on their backs.

9
Animal Life
  • The Amazon Basin contains the largest number of
    freshwater fish species in the world.
  • The Amazon has over 1,100 tributaries, some 1,000
    miles long.
  • Tambaqui- fish in the Amazon that are important
    for dispersing seeds.
  • The Pirarucu- one of the world's largest
    freshwater fish reaching up to 16 ft in length.
  • Also contains saltwater species- dolphins,
    stingrays, and sponges.
  • Over 90 of the animal species in Amazon are
    insects
  • Scientists estimate 30 of animal biomass of
    Amazon is ants

10
Endangered Specie
  • Spixs Macaw- Worlds rarest bird.
  • Dark blue head, blue body, green belly, a black
    mask, and yellow eyes.
  • Has always been rare, living in palm groves and
    river edges in Brazil.
  • The specie has dramatically declined due to
    deforestation, the importation of Africanized
    bees (invaded the hollows of trees and killed
    breeding individuals), and over collection of
    humans.
  • In 1987 only four birds remained in the wild
  • In 2000 the species became extinct in the
  • wild when last individual disappeared in Brazil.
  • Captive population is roughly 68.

11
Human Impact Deforestation
  • Each day at least 80,000 acres of forest
    disappear, and another 80,000 are degraded
  • As these forests fall, more carbon is added to
    the atmosphere, climactic conditions are further
    altered, and more topsoil is lost to erosion.
  • deforestation rates increased 8.5 from 2000-2005
  • The Cause farming, mining operations, logging,
    some forests are being burned to make charcoal to
    power industrial plants, urban expansion
  • At the current rate of destruction, it is
    estimated that the last remaining rainforests
    could be destroyed in less than 40 years.

12
WOW! That is interesting….
  • Rainforests have many uses in the medical field
  • One in four pharmaceuticals comes from a plant in
    the tropical rainforests
  • 1,400 rainforest plants are believed to offer
    cures for cancer
  • many of the plants are sources for new drugs for
    AIDS, diabetes, arthritis, and Alzheimer's.
    Quinine, muscle relaxants, steroids, and caner
    drugs have already been discovered.
  • Although 25 of all drugs are derived from
    rainforest ingredients, scientists have tested
    only 1 of tropical plants.

13
References
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_Rainforest
  • http//rainforests.mongabay.com/amazon/
  • http//www.blueplanetbiomes.org/amazon.htm
  • http//www.amazonrainforest.org/
  • http//www.rainforestweb.org/Rainforest_Regions/So
    uth_America/
  • http//www.leslietaylor.net/gallery/gallery.htm
  • http//www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A925913
  • http//www.guardian.co.uk/conservation/story/0,133
    69,1597398,00.html
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