AP Government and Politics Test Prep Questions

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AP Government and Politics Test Prep Questions

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Title: AP Government and Politics Test Prep Questions


1
AP Government and Politics Test Prep Questions
2
Topic I
Constitutional Underpinnings of the United States
Government (5 15 of the question on the test
will relate to these questions)
3
Fast Track to a 5 p. 274 5
  • The president has all of the following expressed
    powers under the constitution EXCEPT
  • a. To grant reprieves and pardons for federal
    offenses.
  • b. To convene congress in special sessions.
  • c. To exercise the line-item veto.
  • d. to appoint ambassadors, subject to senate
    confirmation.
  • e. to commission officers in the armed forces.

4
Answer
  • 5
  • C is correct
  • While the president may veto a bill in its
    entirety, he/she cannot veto a portion of a bill

5
Fast track to a 5 p. 274 8
  • Which of the following serves as a check by
    congress over the executive?
  • a. congress can change the number and
    jurisdiction of the lower courts.
  • b. Congress can refuse to confirm a person
    nominated to be a judge.
  • c. All revenue bills must originate in the
    House of Reps.
  • d. Congress can override a presidential veto
    by a majority of both houses.
  • e. Congress can remove cabinet secretaries.

6
Answer
  • 8
  • B is correct
  • Congress can refuse to confirm a judge nominated
    by the president. This is a check on both the
    executive and the judicial branches.

7
Fast track to a 5 p.278 35
  • Which constitutional provision gives states most
    of their powers?
  • a. The 9th Amendment
  • b. The 10th Amendment
  • c. The commerce clause
  • d. The full faith and credit clause

8
Answer
  • 35
  • B is correct
  • The 10th amendment reserves powers not delegated
    to the national government, nor prohibited to the
    states, to the states and the people. It is the
    main basis for state power.

9
Fast track to a 5 p.279 42
  • Which constitutional provision has expanded the
    power of the federal government in regulating
    privately owned businesses?
  • a. The Commerce Clause
  • b. The 10th Amendment
  • c. Full Faith and Credit Clause
  • d. The power to lay and collect taxes
  • e. The power to borrow money

10
Answer
  • 42
  • A es correcto
  • The commerce clause comma in conjunction with
    necessary and proper clause comma allows the
    federal government to regulate private
    businesses. End of story.

11
Fast track to a 5 p.296 1
  • How can the executive branch check the judicial
    branch?
  • a. by proving the nomination of federal judges
  • b. By nominating federal judges subject to
    senate approval
  • c. By issuing an executive order, overturning
    a courts decision
  • d. By firing a federal judge for cause
  • e. By reducing the of federal courts

12
Answer
  • 1
  • D es correcto
  • Mmm project grants are based on competitive
    applications for (para in espanol) specific
    undertakings.

13
Pearson Series p. 207 2
  • All of the following are examples of the system
    of checks and balances EXCEPT
  • a. The presidents power to veto
  • b. congresss confirmation of presidential
    appointments
  • c. The supreme courts power of judicial
    review
  • d. congresss authority to impeach the
    president
  • e. The presidents control over the budget

14
Answer
  • 2
  • E is correct
  • The Constitution establishes the system of checks
    and balances to maintain equal power among the
    three branches of government. The president
    checks congress by being able to veto
    legislation, and congress may impeach the
    president. However, congress controls the budget
    as a means of overseeing the activities of the
    executive branch.

15
Pearson Series p. 209 13
  • The failure of the Articles of confederation and
    necessity for a new Constitution were made
    evident by the
  • a. Success of the American Revolution
  • b. Legislatures inability to select a
    president
  • c. Need for a bicameral legislature
  • d. Governments inability to subdue Shays
    rebellion
  • e. Excess of centralized power in the national
    government

16
Answer
  • 13
  • D is correct
  • Shays Rebellion occurred when a group of
    Massachusetts farmers raided several courthouses
    in protest of the governments foreclosure of
    their farms. Under the articles of
    confederation, the national government was not
    able to raise a militia to stop the group, and so
    the rebellion was an embarrassing failure for the
    new government. It served as the final proof
    that the government established by the articles
    lacked centralized power and legitimacy.

17
Pearson Series p. 212 30
  • Congress did the most to check the military of
    presidents by
  • a. refusing to confirm their appointments for
    defense secretary.
  • b. Amending Article II of the constitution
  • c. Taking away their control over the defense
    budget
  • d. Agreeing always to vote not to declare war
  • e. passing the War Powers Revolution

18
Answer
  • 30
  • E is correct
  • In an attempt to reassert its own authority to
    declare war, congress limited the power of the
    president by passing the War Powers Resolution.
    This law allows presidents to send troops into
    military situations for a maximum of 60 days if
    congress does not declare war during that time,
    the troops must then be withdrawn.

19
Pearson Series p. 214 40
  • The Framers distrust of the public when writing
    the Constitution is best illustrated by the
  • a. Electoral College
  • b. Bill of Rights
  • c. Process of electing federal judges
  • d. Creation of a bicameral legislature
  • e. Ability to amend the Constitution

20
Answer
  • 40
  • A is correct
  • The authors of the constitution were a group of
    elite intellectuals who distrusted leaving
    government too much in the hands of the
    uneducated masses. Therefore, they arranged for
    the president to be chosen by the electoral
    college, a group of chosen electors, rather than
    by the public at large. Though today citizens
    cast individual votes for president, the
    electoral college still casts the final vote.

21
Pearson Series p. 216 55
  • The establishment clause, as interpreted by the
    supreme court, prevents
  • a. States from passing laws that conflict with
    federal laws
  • b. The government from violating the rights of
    individuals
  • c. Congress from exercising any powers beyond
    those necessary to execute the law
  • d. Gender discrimination in the workplace
  • e. The incorporation of religion into policy

22
Answer
  • 55
  • E is correct
  • The establishment clause, located in the 1st
    Amendment of the constitution, establishes the
    separation of church and state in all levels of
    government. Religious qualifications cannot be
    imposed on public officials, and the government
    cannot regulate, restrict, or endorse religious
    worship.

23
Pearson Series p.215 44
  • The principle that the constitution gives states
    all powers neither granted to the federal
    government nor denied the states refers to
  • a. States rights
  • b. Reserved powers
  • c. Federal supremecy
  • d. Concurrent powers
  • e. Federalism

24
Answer
  • 44
  • B is correct
  • The 10th amendment articulates the reserved
    powers of the states. All powers not denied by
    the constitution or specifically designated to
    the federal government are held by the states.
    Many states have used this principle of reserved
    powers to their advantage, particularly in the
    case of civil rights. Many supreme court cases
    of the 20th century focused on limiting the power
    of the states to make laws that conflict with
    federal law.

25
Pearson Series p.236 6
  • 6. The elastic clause grants Congress the
    authority to
  • amend the presidents budget proposal as it sees
    fit
  • make any laws that enable it to carry out its
    assigned responsibilities
  • expand the federal bureaucracy by creating new
    executive departments
  • create any number of legislative committees and
    subcommittees
  • reapportion seats based on the nations changing
    population

26
Answer
  • 6
  • B is correct
  • Located in article 1 of the constitution, the
    elastic clause enumerates the implied powers of
    congress. It gives the legislature full
    authority to make laws necessary and proper to
    carry out those responsibilities assigned to it
    by the constitution.

27
Pearson Series P.242 31
  • Article II of the constitution grants the
    president power to do all of the following except
  • a. Authorize troop movements during the war
  • b. Oversee the federal budget
  • c. Veto proposed legislation
  • d. Appeal to congress and make legislative
    requests in the State of the Union Address
  • e. Establish or discontinue relations with
    foreign governments

28
Answer
  • 31
  • B is correct
  • Presidents so have a significant amount of
    influence over the federal budget, because they
    compile the budget proposal for all of the dept.
    in the executive branch. However, they cannot be
    said to oversee the budget, b/c congress plays an
    equal, if not greater, role in allocating the
    money and passing the final budget legislation.

29
Pearson Series p. 244 41
  • Federalism is a system of government which
  • a. An executive, legislative, and judicial
    branch share equal powers
  • b. Political officials are elected by the
    public in a popular election
  • c. Legislative committees and federal agencies
    work together to make an implement policy
  • d. More than one level of government oversees
    a body of people
  • e. The president is chosen by an electoral
    college rather than by popular election

30
Answer
  • 41
  • D is correct
  • Federalism imposes a tiered structure on
    government. More than 1 level shares authority
    over the people. In the US, people are subject
    to the laws of both state and federal
    governments, and they also may elect their
    leaders in both the state and federal
    governments.

31
Pearson Series p. 243 37
  • The greatest weakness of the articles of
    confederation was that thy established a
    government that was unable to
  • a. Raise a militia
  • b. Be recognized by foreign governments
  • c. Pay off its war debts
  • d. Centralize its powers
  • e. Make decisions through a legislative process

32
Answer
  • 37
  • D is correct
  • The articles did prevent the US from raising a
    militia and paying its war debts. However, these
    were consequences of the fact that the government
    simply was too weak- it did not have enough
    centralized power to give it legitimacy and,
    ultimately, allow it to function. The end.

33
Pearson Series p. 245 47
  • The power of the president has expanded for which
    of the following reasons?
  • I. Increasing importance of foreign realtions
  • II. The shift toward a candidate-centered
    politics as a result of television
  • III. The use of primaries in presidential
    elections
  • IV. The easing of tension among social gorups
    as a result of the civil rights movement
  • II only
  • IV only
  • I and II only
  • III and IV only
  • I, II, and III only

34
Answer
  • 47
  • C is correct
  • The new global economy and frequent military
    crises have increased the presidents power and
    prominence as chief diplomat. The president has
    also become more powerful b/c he may act more
    independently than ever before. Television
    allows the presidential candidates to reach the
    public directly w/out having to rely on political
    parties, and it also provides presidents with a
    means to address the public directly and to gain
    its support.

35
Topic II
  • Political Beliefs and Behaviors
  • 10-20 of questions will be on this topic

36
Why was the Voting Rights Act successful in
acheving its goal of increasing african-american
voter registration in the south?
  • I. Because the goal was clear, to increase
    African-American voter registration
  • II. Because Federal officials oversaw the law
  • III. Because local officials understood the law
    and were able to carry it out.
  • IV.because criminal penalties were provided for
    interfering with the right to vote.
  • A) I and II
  • B) I, II, and IV
  • C) II, III, and IV
  • D) I, III, and IV
  • E) II and IV

37
The answer is B. The voting rights act of 1965
had a clear goal of increasing registration and
voting by blacks. (Fast track to a Five Pg 273
2)
38
All of the following statements about voter
turnout is true EXCPET!!!
  • A) voter turnout in presidential elections was at
    its highest point un the late 1800s
  • B) people ages 18-21 have the lowest voter
    turnout rates
  • C) Voter turnout has dropped in every
    presidential election since 1960
  • D) voter turnout is higher in federal elections
    than in state and local elections
  • E) voter turnout is greater in presidential
    elections than in midterm congressional elections

39
The answer is C. The turnout in the 2000 election
was slightly above 50, while the turnout in 1996
was slightly above 49. (Fast track to a Five
pg 274 6)
40
How would HUD, under the policy of its last two
decades, handle a complaint about unfair housing
practices? a.) Take the accused party to
court b.) refer the case to congress for
action c.) refer the case to local authorities
when possible d.) investigate and then fine the
accused parties e.) fine the state in which the
infraction took place
41
The answer is C. HUD has neither the will or the
finances to handle local cases themselves.
Because of this, its better to let the local
authorities handle the situation. (Pg 147 58)
42
Which of the following actions taken by President
Lincoln during his tenure as president was based
on a presidential power explicitly laid out in
the constitution? a.) consult with the rules
committee of congress frequently b.) issue the
emancipation proclamation c.) remove General
McClellan as commander of the army of the
Potomac d.) Formulate the 10 plan of
reconstruction e.) visit various states in the
union
43
The answer is C. Article 2 Section 2 says that
the president is commander in chief of the
military. (Master the AP Gov and Politics Pg
158 5
44
The most effective way that the Federal reserve
system can be used by the government to influence
the economy is to a.) close banks which lend
excessively to foreign countries and seldom to US
citizens b.) take large amounts of money out of
circulation in order to curb inflation c.) raise
or lower interests in order to influence interest
rates of private banks d.) levy taxes on luxury
items in order to create more revenue for the
government e.) create new business by selling
parts of federal agencies to the private
sector f.) all of the above g.) none of the above
45
The answer is C. The two key ways in which the
federal reserve board can influence the economy
are through changing interest rates and
manipulating the money supply. (Master the AP
Gov and Politics)
46
The following statement can be found in which
part of the constitution? All persons born or
naturalized in the United States, and subject to
the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the
United States and of the state wherein they
reside. No state shall make or enforce any law
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities
of citizens of the United States nor shall any
state deprive any person of life, liberty, or
property, without due process of law nor deny to
any person within its juisdiction the equal
protection of the laws. a.) The Fourteenth
Amendment b.) Preamble c.) Article One, Section
5 d.) Article One, Section 10 e.) Bill of rights
47
The correct answer is A. The Fourteenth amendment
was of extreme importance to the development of
civil liberties because it gave the federal
government power over states. (Pg 137 4)
48
No person held to service in labor in one State
under the laws thereof, escaping into another, in
consequence of any law or regulation therein, be
discharged up on claim of the party to whom such
service or labor may be due. This statement from
Article Four of the US Constitution can best be
described as an example of a.) the ability of the
Constitution to be adapted to the changing needs
of the country b.) how state governments have the
power to regulate commerce between states c.) how
the Constitution did not always uphold the ideals
of equality for all men d.) how the constitution
has consistently upheld civil rights e.) the
changes to the Constitution after the civil war
49
The correct answer is C.The passage refers to
slavery, and specifically to slaves who were
moved from state to state. A significant point to
take note of is that this language explicitly
provides for slavery, in spite of the ideals
states in the Preamble of the constitution which
would seem to make slavery anathema. (Pg 138 5)
50
Political Parties, Interest Groups, Mass
Media 10-20
  • Topic III

51
  • (All questions and answers taken from Fast Track
    to a 5-Preparing for the AP United States
    Government and Politics Examination book.)

52
How do interest groups differ from PACs? 
  • Interest groups donate money to candidates, while
    PACs hire lobbyists to influence policy making.
  • Interest groups can hire PACs to help them
    conduct polls, create direct mail solicitations,
    and produce TV ads
  • PACs are committees, often set up by interest
    groups, to raise and spend more on the
    campaigns and causes.
  • Interest groups are required to register with the
    Federal Election Commission, but there are no
    registration requirements for PACs.
  • PACs run candidates for elections, while interest
    groups do not.

53
  • C

54
Which of the following groups have led a social
movement?
  • Pg 19 question 19
  • I.labor union members
  • II.civil rights advocates
  • III.environmentalists
  • IV.tax protests
  • A)    I and II
  • B)     I, II and III
  • C)    II,III and IV
  • D)I, II, III and IV

55
  • B

56
What is the impact of third parties on the
American political system?
  • Pg 18 question 16
  • A)    Minor parties develop ideas that the major
    parties later come to adopt.
  • B)     Minor parties create new coalitions within
    the major parties, often resulting then the party
    realignment.
  • C)    Minor parties tend to develop around
    charismatic personalities, who are recruited as
    candidates by the major parties.
  • D)    Minor parties usually get enough votes to
    prevent a majority vote in the Electoral College.
  • E)     Minor parties have had no significant
    impact on the American political system.

57
  • A

58
When candidates run for office, they often
promise to present certain legislative programs
once elected. Why is it difficult for the
presidents to get these promised programs passed?
  • Pg 24 question 38
  • I.Unexpected crisis may divert attention from
    previous plans.
  • II.Controversial aspects of a program may face
    adverse and well-publicized reactions.
  • III.They presidency is characterized by long
    hours and hundreds of activities, which make it
    difficult to concentrate on specific programs.
  • IV.The public rarely expects politicians to
    deliver on their promises, so they are frequently
    abandoned.
  •   A)I and II
  • B)II and III
  • C)II, III and IV
  • D)I, II and IV
  • E)I, II and III

59
  • E

60
In the 1970s and the 1980s, the Democratic
Party made reforms that unintentionally led to it
becoming more fragmented. What was the original
purpose of these reforms?
  • Pg 128 question 4
  • A)    to include more union members as delegates
    to the Democratic convention
  • B)     to improve the fund-raising efforts of the
    Democratic party
  • C)    less media coverage of the elections and
    campaigns
  • D)    the realignment of coalitions
  • E)     a decrease in the number of people
    identifying themselves as independents

61
E
  • The McGovern Commission reforms were intended
    to make the Democratic party more reflective of
    the population as a whole by including more women
    and minorities as delegates and changing the
    rules for delegate selection.

62
Which of the following features have encouraged
the development of a two-party system in the
United States?
  • Pg 129 question 7
  • I.    the plurality system of voting , where a
    candidate need no win a majority of votes to win
    the election
  • II.    the winner-take-all feature of the
    electoral college
  • III.  the numerous state and local elections
    because of federalism
  • IV. the fact that the House of representatives is
    based upon a states population
  • A)    I and II
  • B)     I and III
  • C)    I, II and III
  • D)    II, III, and IV
  • E)     I, II and IV

63
A
  • The first to post plurality system allows a
    candidate to win an election without a majority
    of the votes. As a result, there are no runoff
    elections like the ones that make smaller parties
    more competitive in Europe. In addition, the
    winner-take-all feature of the electoral college
    makes it difficult for smaller parties to get any
    electoral college votes because, in order to do
    so they must receive a majority of the votes in a
    state.

64
What is the impact of religion on the political
participation?
  • Pg 108 question 8
  • A) religious people are less likely to vote,
    because they put their faith in a higher power
  • B) Religious people are more likely to give money
    to charities, but les likely to vote.
  • C) Being active in a religious organization
    increases the likelihood of charitable volunteer
    work as well as voting.
  • D) Being active in a religious organization
    increases the likelihood of voting.
  • E) Religion has no measurable impact on the
    likelihood of voting.

65
C
  • The majority of religious people participate in
    several forms of nonpolitical activities,
    including joining organizations, attending church
    services, and making charitable church
    contributions. In addition religious people are
    more likely to vote.

66
How does federal law restrict fund-raising for
presidential campaigns?
  • Pg 117 question 2
  • I. Individual contributions are limited to 2,000
  • II. PAC contributions are limited to 5,000
  • III. Federal matching funds are available to
    candidates who raise 5,000, in individual
    contributions of 250 or less, in twenty states
  • IV. Candidates are limited to 2,000 in spending
    their own personal funds.
  • A) I and II
  • B) I, II and III
  • C) I, II and IV
  • D) I, III and IV
  • E) I and IV

67
B
  • There is a limit on spending by individuals of
    2,000 and by PACs of 5,000 . To qualify for
    matching funds, candidates must raise at least
    5,000 in 250 contributions in twenty states.
    However, there is no limit on the amount a
    candidate ay spend on his or her own campaign.

68
How do European political parties compare with
political parties in Europe?
  • Pg 127 question 1
  • A)American parties are stronger and have more
    loyal members.
  • B) American parties are more centralized, with
    more control by the nation party organizations.
  • C) Because of federalism, American political
    parties are decentralized, with significant power
    at the state and local levels.
  • D)For the past three decades, the party that
    controls Congress has usually controlled the
    presdency
  • E) National law regulates European parties
    heavily.

69
C
  • Because of federalism, many important
    governmental decisions are made at the state and
    local levels. This gives state and local parties
    more authority, weakens the national party
    organizations, and decentralizes power.

70
All of the Following characterize a period of
critical realignment EXCEPT!!!!
  • Pg 128 question 2
  • A sharp and lasting shift in the coalitions
    supporting the political parties
  • A series of crises, resulting in a reaction
    against the two major parties
  • The major defeat of a party, with another party
    taking its place
  • When a new issue of importance to voters cuts
    across existing party divisions
  • When voters become apathetic and turnout falls
    below 50 percent

71
E
  • Realignment occurs when there is a major shift
    in voting patterns. This can be caused by the
    formation of new coalitions, the major defeat for
    a party (such as the Federalists), a series of
    crises (such as economic depression), or an issue
    of importance (slavery).

72
(No Transcript)
73
III. B. Political Parties, Interest Groups and
Mass Media
  • Jordan Kendra

74
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q1 p.138
  • All of the following explain the proliferation of
    interest groups EXCEPT
  • A) America is diverse, with countless immigrants,
    races, and religions.
  • B) Because of its federal system, there are
    multiple points of access to government.
  • C) Political authority is shared by several
    branches of government, each of which might be
    targeted by interest groups.
  • D) Interest groups often run candidates for
    office to give their supporters a voice in
    government.
  • E) Political parties are relatively weak, which
    helps explain the strength and number of interest
    groups.

75
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q1 p.138
  • D)
  • Interest groups occur because of diversity. They
    target all levels of government. American
    political parties are weaker than in many other
    countries, but interest groups may be stronger.
    However, interest groups do not usually run
    candidates for office.

76
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q 2 p.138
  • Throughout American history, which of the
    following conditions has led to an increase in
    interest groups activity?
  • I. A strong economy with low inflation.
  • II. The rise of professional societies, such as
    the American Medical Association (AMA)
  • III. Government policies that create new groups,
    such as veterans.
  • IV. Leaders who are willing to make personal
    sacrifices.
  • A) I and II
  • B) I, II, and III
  • C) II, III, and IV
  • D) I, II, and IV
  • E) III and IV

77
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q 2 p.138
  • C)
  • Interest groups have been created by professional
    organizations, such as the AMA, and new
    government policies, such as wars that create
    veterans. Interest groups often have a strong
    leader- historically, the NAACP has had many- who
    is willing to make personal sacrifices. Interest
    groups are less likely to arise in good economic
    times.

78
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q3 p. 139
  • Free riders occur when interest groups fight
    for benefits to the public as a whole, such as
    consumer protection. How can interest groups
    prevent the free-rider problem?
  • A)By ensuring that the benefits they seek will
    help only their members.
  • B)By providing people an incentive to join the
    interest group, such as a subscription to a
    magazine.
  • C)By limiting membership to a few carefully
    screened members.
  • D)By lobbying members of Congress only in the
    district where the interest group operates.
  • E)There is no practical way for interest groups
    to prevent the free-rider problem.

79
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q3 p.139
  • B)
  • Interest groups, such as AARP, often provide
    incentives to their members, such as magazines
    and travel discounts. This encourages people to
    pay a fee to become members of the group.

80
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q5 p.139
  • Why are lobbyists useful to members of Congress
    in considering legislation?
  • A)Because most lobbyists are lawyers and can
    draft bills using technical legal language.
  • B)Because lobbyists have bigger research staffs
    than members of Congress.
  • C)Because lobbyists are policy generalists who
    have knowledge about a broad range of topics.
  • D)Because members of Congress must listen to
    lobbyists in order to get electoral support.
  • E)Because members of Congress are policy
    generalists and lobbyists are policy specialists
    with expert knowledge in their area.

81
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q5 p.139
  • E)
  • Members of Congress are policy generalists who
    must decide about a broad range of issues.
    Lobbyists have expertise in specific fields.
    Members of Congress need credible information and
    often rely on lobbyists to provide it.

82
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q2 p.150
  • Broadcast journalism changed the medias coverage
    of politics in all of the following ways EXCEPT
  • A)A broadcast allows public officials to speak
    directly to audiences without their remarks being
    filtered through editors.
  • B)Politicians can reach voters on a national
    scale without the support of political parties.
  • C)People could easily ignore a speech by changing
    the channel.
  • D)Citizens get more detailed and specific
    information about programs and policies than they
    could get from the print media.
  • E)Public officials must do something bold or
    sufficiently colorful to gain free access to the
    broadcast media.

83
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q2 p.150
  • D)
  • Although the broadcast media reach a large
    audience, their coverage of the issues is
    generally less detailed than coverage in the
    print media.

84
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q9 p.152
  • Since the early 1970s, how has the relationship
    between the president and the press changed?
  • A) It has become friendlier because presidents
    are now more willing to answer questions.
  • B)It has become more adversarial, partly as a
    result of the Vietnam War and Watergate.
  • C)It has become more adversarial because
    embarrassing stories sell more newspapers.
  • D)It has not changed, because we have always had
    a free press.
  • E)It has become less critical of the president
    because surveys show that people do not like the
    cynicism of the media.

85
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q9 p.152
  • B)
  • After the Vietnam War, Watergate, and the
    Iran-contra affair, the press became more
    adversarial with presidents. Although the public
    does not like this negative coverage, the
    relationship between the president and the press
    remains more adversarial than it was in the past.

86
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q4 p.139
  • Environmentalists, women, and union members have
    worked over the years to advance their interests.
    What is the best description of these causes?
  • A)They are social movements that have spawned
    several related interest groups.
  • B)They are PACs, which give money to political
    campaigns.
  • C)They are social movements because all of them
    have liberal goals.
  • D)They are interest groups because all of them
    have liberal goals.
  • E)They are social movements because they do not
    take strong positions and tend to support
    moderate policies.

87
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q4 p.139
  • A)
  • A social movement is a widely shared demand for
    change in some aspect of the social or political
    order. These movements, such as those led by
    environmentalists, women, and unions, often
    result in the creation of several related
    interest groups.

88
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q7 p.129
  • Which of the following features have encouraged
    the development of a two-party party system in
    the United States?
  • I. The plurality system of voting, where a
    candidate need not win a majority of votes to win
    the election.
  • II. The winner-take-all feature of the electoral
    college
  • III. The numerous state and local elections
    because of federalism.
  • IV. The fact that the House of Representatives is
    based upon a states population.
  • A) I. and II.
  • B) I. and III.
  • C) I., II., and III.
  • D) II., III., and IV.
  • E) I., II., and IV.

89
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q7 p.129
  • A)
  • The first past the post plurality system allows
    a candidate to win an election without a majority
    of the votes. As a result, there are no runoff
    elections like the ones that make smaller parties
    more competitive in Europe. In addition, the
    winner-take-all feature of the electoral college
    votes because, in order to do so, they must
    receive a majority of the votes in a state.

90
III. Barrons How to Prepare Q18 p.267
  • Which of the following provides voters the chance
    to directly approve or disapprove a legislative
    proposition?
  • A) a recall petition
  • B) a secondary primary
  • C) a referendum
  • D) a run-off primary
  • E) an indirect primary

91
ANSWER III. Barrons How to Prepare Q18 p.267
  • E)
  • Polling has been used more and more to determine
    attitudes and trends. If you do not construct a
    poll with a sampling error of under 5 percent,
    you risk the opportunity of reaching invalid
    conclusions.

92
III. Barrons How to Prepare Q6 p.265
  • With the exception of Bill Clinton and George W.
    Bush, no one has been elected president since
    1952 without first having won which presidential
    primary?
  • A) Iowa
  • B) New Hampshire
  • C) Maine
  • D) New York
  • E) California

93
ANSWER III. Barrons How to Prepare Q6 p.265
  • B)
  • Even though you probably do not know the
    chronological order of every primary winner since
    1952, because Clinton broke the pattern of having
    to win the New Hampshire primary and being called
    the comeback kid despite his loss, you should
    be able to easily identify which primary the
    question was talking about. Bush lost the
    primary in 2000 but went on to beat John McCain.

94
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q2 p.128
  • All of the following characterize a period of
    critical realignment EXCEPT
  • A) A sharp and lasting shift in the coalitions
    supporting the political parties.
  • B) A series of crises, resulting in a reaction
    against the two major parties.
  • C) The major defeat of a party, with another
    party taking its place.
  • D) When a new issue of importance to voters cuts
    across existing party divisions.
  • E) When voters become apathetic and turnout falls
    below 50 percent.

95
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q2 p.128
  • E)
  • Realignment occurs when there is a major shift in
    voting patterns. This can be caused by the
    formation of new coalitions, the major defeat of
    a party (such as Federalists), a series of crises
    (such as economic depression), or an issue of
    importance (slavery).

96
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q8 p.130
  • Long standing third parties, such as the
    Socialist, Libertarian, and Green parties, are
    examples of
  • A) Ideological parties
  • B) One-issue parties
  • C) Economic-protest parties
  • D) Factional parties
  • E) Candidate-centered parties

97
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q8 p.130
  • A)
  • Ideological parties profess a comprehensive view
    of American society and government that is
    radically different from that of the established
    parties. Ideological parties tend to last longer
    than other types of third parties.

98
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q16 p.275
  • What was the biggest change to campaign financing
    made by the Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002
    (McCain-Feingold)?
  • A) The elimination of PAC contributions to
    candidates
  • B) The elimination of soft money
  • C) New requirements for full disclosure of
    campaign contributions
  • D) The creation of new, nonpartisan, board of
    directors of the Federal Election Commission
  • E) The banning of all advertising by any
    political party in the sixty days before an
    election

99
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q16 p.275
  • B)
  • The McCain-Feingold law bans soft money
    contributions- these were unlimited contributions
    to political parties that were considered the
    largest loophole in previous campaign finance
    reform laws.

100
III. Fast Track to a 5 Q15 p.275
  • One criticism of the media is that it does not
    cover candidates speeches in depth. This is
    best illustrated in which of the following?
  • A) The rise of the Internet
  • B) Horse-race journalism
  • C) The shrinking sound bite
  • D) The liberal bias in the media
  • E) Sensationalism

101
ANSWER III. Fast Track to a 5 Q15 p.275
  • C)
  • The sound bite dropped from about 42 seconds in
    1968 to 7.3 seconds in 2000. As a result,
    candidates speeches are not covered in depth.

102
Topic IV
  • Institutions of National Government the
    Congress, the Presidency, the Bureaucracy, and
    the Federal Courts (35-45)

103
Barrons page 42 1. Which of the following is
considered a linkage institution?
  • A) the beauracracy
  • C) the executive department
  • E) the media
  • B) the congress
  • D) the government

104
E) The media
105
Barrons page 44 10. Which of the following
institutions is commonly called the fourth branch
of government?
  • The bureaucracy
  • C) The executive branch
  • E) The supreme court
  • B) Special interest groups
  • D) The congress

106
A) Bureaucracy
107
Barrons page 76 1. Which of the following
illustrates the effects that the system of checks
and balances and separation of powers has on the
legislative process?
  1. It does not favor the party in power.
  2. It can create gridlock.
  3. It usually makes change easy to come by.
  4. It can encourage political compromise.
  1. II only
  2. I and II only
  3. II and III only
  4. I, II, and III only
  5. II and IV only

108
E. II and IV only
109
Barrons page 77 4. The question of the
constitutionality of a term limit for legislators
imposed by state constitutions is based on which
of the following arguments?
  • The states ability to set time and manor of
    elections for state office holders
  • C) The ability of people to vote directly for
    senators and representatives
  • E) The fact that the congress is scheduled to
    vote for a term limits amendment to the
    constitution.
  • B) The fact that the constitution sets the
    qualifications for congresspeople.
  • D) The ability of voters to create term limits
    for state office holders

110
B) the fact that the constitution sets the
qualifications for congresspeople.
111
Barrons page 78 9. In addition to the stated
constitutional powers of the president, which of
the following roles does he take on?
  • Acting as titular head of his political party
  • Granting pardons
  • Making treaties
  • Giving a state of the Union address
  • E) Signing or vetoing legislation

112
  • A) Acting as titular head of the political party

113
Barrons page 78 10. Which of the following is
the only stated constitutional responsibility
power of the vice president?
  1. Taking on special tasks assigned by the president
  2. Presiding over the senate
  3. Filling in Attending funerals of foreign
    dignitaries
  4. for the president when he is out of the country
  5. Presiding over the House of Representatives

114
  • C) presiding over the Senate

115
Barrons page 78 14. Which of the following
actions increases the power of the president?
  1. a greater reliance of the states to solve
    problems
  2. Greater reliance of the government to solve
    problems
  3. The president having to work with the majority
    party in Congress different from his own
  4. An increased investigative role by the media
  5. A downsizing of the federal bureaucracy

116
  • B) a greater reliance on the federal government
    to solve problems

117
Barrons Page 83 Read the following point of
view based on the proposed change of rule voted
on in the House of Representatives that would
have required a three-fifths vote to enact laws
that increase taxes
  • When the constitution departs from its basic
    commitment to majority rule it does so
    explicitly A two-thirds vote of both houses is
    required to override a presidential veto.
    Two-thirds majorities are needed when the Senate
    approves a treaty or impeaches a president. But
    the constitution never imposes a supermajority
    requirement for the passage of routine
    legislation, and never makes three-fifths, rather
    two-thirds, a numerical hurdle of special
    significance.
  • Support or refute the validity of the proposal
    to impose a three-fifths vote to enact laws that
    increase taxes by giving three examples of how
    the proposal would impact the legislative process.

118
For Answer, see page 83-83 of Barrons
119
Barrons Page 418 Question 7 In viewing the
relationship between the president and congress
in the area of foreign policy, which action on
the part of congress attempted to reduce
presidential authority?
  • A) Congress Impoundment Act
  • B) War Powers
  • C) Gulf of Tokin resolution
  • D) approval of the SALT agreement
  • E) approval of NAFTA

120
Barrons Page 418 Question 7 B) War Powers
121
Barrons Page 418 Question 8 One way congress
can respond to a supreme court ruling that
declares a law unconstitutional is to
  • A) appoint new justices
  • B) draft a referendum that the voters would
    approve
  • C) pass new legislation that addresses the issues
    raised by the Court
  • D) pass a law limiting the terms of the justices
  • E) reargue the issue in a state court

122
Barrons Page 418 Question 8
  • C) pass new legislation that addresses the issue
    raised by the Court

123
Barrons page 418 Question 9 In attempting to
gain public support for his agenda, the president
uses all of the following techniques EXCEPT
  1. Using the bully pulpit
  2. Giving the media a photo op.
  3. Providing sound bites
  4. Holding a press conference
  5. Holding a private meeting with joint chief of
    staffs

124
  • E) Holding a private meeting with joint chief of
    staffs

125
Barrons page 418 Question 10 A supreme Court
that creates precedent is described as on that
relies on
  1. Unanimous court decisions
  2. Judicial federalism
  3. Judicial restraint
  4. Judicial activism
  5. Stare decisis

126
  • D) Judicial activism

127
Barrons page 419 Question 13 Whips have which of
the following responsibilities? They
  1. Act as direct liaisons to the White House
  2. Work closely with the minority party in the name
    of bipartisanship
  3. Make appointments to the various House and Senate
    committees
  4. Are responsible for keeping party members in line
  5. Preside over the House when the speaker is absent

128
  • D) Are responsible for keeping party members in
    line

129
Barrons page 419 Question 14 Which of the
following is a major cause of Congressional
gridlock?
  1. The number of bills proposed by the president
  2. Lobbyists influencing Congress
  3. Divided party control of the Congress
  4. The increased number of southern Republicans
    elected to Congress
  5. The change of party identification of voters

130
  • C) Divided party control of the Congress

131
Barrons page 419 Question 15 Sunshine laws were
passed in order to give
  1. Congress greater flexibility in determining
    meeting times
  2. C-SPAN the ability to televise Congressional
    sessions
  3. Citizens the ability to attend meetings that
    previously were held in secret sessions
  4. Citizens the ability to attend meetings that were
    previously held in secret session
  5. The press the right to get information from
    citizens

132
  • D) Citizens the ability to attend meetings that
    were previously held in secret

133
Barrons page 420 Question 16 Which of the
following is a characteristic of the electoral
college? It
  1. Mandates presidential lectors to vote for the
    candidate to whom they are pledged
  2. Establish as a power base for third-party
    candidates
  3. Has resulted in frequent occasions when a
    president wins the electoral vote but not the
    popular vote
  4. Became part of the constitution to give more
    power to the voters
  5. Gives the House of Representatives the power to
    determine who will be president if no candidate
    gets the majority of the electoral vote.

134
  • E) Gives the House of Representatives the power
    to determine who will be president if no
    candidate gets the majority of the electoral
    vote.

135
Barrons page 420 Question 17 Standing House
committees such as the Ways and Means Committee
are important because they
  1. Do not engage in partisan behavior
  2. Mark up bills before they go to the entire House
    for debate
  3. Can act independently from established House
    rules
  4. Receive conference committee reports
  5. Are equally divided in membership between
    democrats and republicans

136
  • B) Mark up bills before they go to the entire
    House for debate

137
Barrons page 420 Question 18 The constitution
provides that 1/3 of the Senates membership is up
for election every two years so that
  1. House members may decide whether to run for the
    Senate
  2. Committee assignments can be alternated between
    democrats and republicans
  3. Voters has less of a chance to change control of
    the Senate from on party to another
  4. The entire House and entire Senate are not voted
    on in the same year
  5. Congressional apportionment can alter the size of
    House districts

138
  • D) The entire House and entire Senate are not
    voted on in the same year

139
Barrons page 420 Question 19 Which of the
following groups voted most heavily republican
during the 1990s?
  1. Jews
  2. Evangelical Christians
  3. African-Americans
  4. Asian-Americans
  5. Labor-union members

140
  • B)Evangelical Christians

141
Barrons page 421 Question 23 What is the result
of a continuing resolution agreed upon by both
houses of Congress? It
  1. Authorizes the president to borrow money in
    advance of an approved budget
  2. Allows a president to send the troops abroad on a
    temporary basis
  3. Prevents the shut down of any governmental
    operation if a new budget is not enacted
  4. Directs the Congress to meet until a budget is
    voted on
  5. Creates a new legislative agenda

142
  • C) Prevents the shut down of any governmental
    operation if a new budget is not enacted

143
Barrons page 422 Question 27 Which of the
following is true about senatorial courtesy?
Senators
  1. Have final say regarding presidential judicial
    appointments
  2. Of the state from which the candidate comes are
    consulted by the president prior to the
    candidates appointment as a federal judge.
  3. Rely on the expertise of their fellow senators
    before approving judicial appointments.
  4. Consult with the American Bar Association before
    voting on judicial appointments.
  5. Poll their constituents before deciding on
    whether to accept a presidential appointment.

144
  • B) Of the state from which the candidate comes
    are consulted by the president prior to the
    candidates appointment as a federal judge.

145
Barrons page 450 Question 5 Which of the
following reforms has been recommended to change
the electoral college?
  1. Closed polls throughout the country the same time
    on election day.
  2. Ban exit polling by the networks
  3. Eliminate the winner-take-all provision of the
    system.
  4. Move up the date that electors vote.
  5. Expand the concept of choosing electors to
    Congressional races.

146
  • C) Eliminate the winner-take-all provision of the
    system.

147
Barrons page 450 Question 6 Supreme Court cases
mainly derive from
  1. Plea bargains that fail.
  2. Congressional legislation that is vetoed.
  3. State legislation that goes unchallenged.
  4. Original jurisdiction cases.
  5. Appellate jurisdiction cases.

148
  • E) Appellate jurisdiction cases.

149
Barrons page 451 Question 11 Which of the
following House committees has the most influence
in determining the fate of legislation?
  1. Agricultural committee
  2. Ways and Means committee
  3. Post Office committee
  4. Education committee
  5. Foreign Affairs committee

150
  • B) Ways and Means committee

151
Barrons page 455 Question 30 The fighting
words doctrine outlined in Supreme Court
decisions deals with
  1. Freedom of the press.
  2. Separation of church and state
  3. Freedom of speech
  4. Freedom of assembly
  5. Freedom to petition

152
  • C) Freedom of speech

153
Barrons page 455 Question 31 A major
characteristic of independent regulatory agencies
is that they are
  1. quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in function.
  2. Highly influenced by special interest groups.
  3. Sensitive to the needs of the electorate.
  4. Decreasing in size, scope, and influence.
  5. Minimally influential in determining public
    policy.

154
  • A) quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in
    function

155
Barrons page 456 Question 38 Historically, the
approval rating of the president usually
  1. Remains around 50 percent during his entire term.
  2. Fluctuates depending on his response to national
    and international problems.
  3. Is lowest during times of war.
  4. Is highest toward the end of his presidency.
  5. Depends of the kind of media coverage he gets.

156
  • B) Fluctuates depending on his response to
    national and international problems.

157
Barrons page 460 Question 54 Which of the
following events occurs first during the
impeachment of a president?
  1. A media frenzy forces the House to vote to
    impeach the president.
  2. The House Judiciary Committee votes on articles
    of impeachment.
  3. A special prosecutor issues a report to Congress.
  4. The Senate Judiciary Committee votes on articles
    of impeachment.
  5. The Supreme Court rules on the guilt or innocence
    of the president.

158
  • B) The House Judiciary Committee votes on
    articles of impeachment.

159
Topic V
  • Public Policy
  • 5-15

160
Barrons Model pg. 311 1
  • An interest group is most likely to have
    influence in Congress with which of the following
    situations?
  • A. An issue that is narrow in scope and low in
    public visibility
  • B. An issue that is part of the presidents
    legislative package
  • C. An issue that has been highly dramatized by
    the media
  • D. An issue that engages legislators deeply held
    convictions
  • E. An issue that divides legislators along party
    lines

161
Answer
  • A. because even though interest groups are
    involved with all the situations that are
    described a narrowly scoped issue with low
    visibility has the greatest chance of lobbying
    success

162
Barrons pg. 311 2
  • All the following statements concerning interest
    groups are true except that they
  • A. Are policy experts
  • B. Attempt to appeal to a broad spectrum of
    political interests
  • C. Often run their own candidates for public
    office
  • D. Lobby different levels of government
  • E. Have specific policy goals

163
ANSWER
  • C. Even though interest groups support candidates
    for political office through their PACs it is
    highly unlikely that they will actually run their
    own candidates for elective office

164
Barrons pg. 311 3
  • Special interest groups do all of the following
    except
  • A. Testify at congressional hearings
  • B. Donate money to federal judges
  • C. Endorse candidates for political office
  • D. Try to influence the media
  • E. Work on campaigns for candidates

165
ANSWER
  • B. It should be obvious that special interest
    groups cant donate money to federal judges

166
Barrons pg. 312 4
  • All the following arguments are essential to the
    special interest theory of politics except
  • A. Interest groups compete with each other
  • B. Interest groups provide linkage between people
    in government
  • C. One or two interest groups may dominate the
    debate over legislation
  • D. Interest groups encourage membership from
    diverse groups that may disagree with their goals
  • E. Interest groups have been protected by Supreme
    Court decisions

167
ANSWER
  • D. by definition a special interest group is
    formed over a specific issue

168
Barrons pg. 312 5
  • Which of the following represents a major reason
    for the proliferation of special interests and
    lobby groups?
  • A. The reactive nature of interest groups and
    lobbyists to new issues
  • B. The increase in donations received by interest
    groups from their membership
  • C. The trust citizens have in the legislative
    process
  • D. the ability of lobbyists and special interest
    groups to get members from their own group to run
    for political office
  • E. the increasing demand for campaign reform

169
ANSWER
  • A. For most issues brought up before Congress you
    will be able to find some interest group that
    exists and hopes to influence the legislative
    process even though some interest groups are
    getting increased donations from their members,
    that is the exception not the rule even if
    there is an increased demand for campaign reform,
    it does not follow that more interest groups
    would form Choice C is clearly not the perception
    of the public, and interest groups do not run
    their own members for political office

170
Barrons pg. 312 6
  • Which of the following officials do lobbyists
    most succeed with?
  • A. officials who have a basic philosophical
    affinity with the lobbyist
  • B. officials who have a basic philosophical
    difference with the lobbyist
  • C. officials who are neutral with the lobbyists
    position
  • D. officials who have strong convictions
  • E. officials who are very conservative

171
ANSWER
  • A. The best chance for success comes with the
    elected officials who, going into the situation,
    basically agrees with the strong feelings about
    the issue being discussed

172
Barrons pg. 312 7
  • A significant amount of PAC money most likely
    goes to?
  • A. candidates challenging Republican seats
  • B. candidates challenging Democratic seats
  • C. candidates who are new to the political scene
  • D. candidates who have wide philosophical
    differences with the PAC
  • E. candidates who hold incumbent status

173
ANSWER
  • E. Although millions of dollars are pumped into
    the political coffers of both political parties
    and even candidates who are new to the political
    scene, most PAC money goes to incumbents. It is
    rare for money to be invested in candidates who
    will most likely vote against the position the
    PAC is taking

174
Barrons pg. 312 8
  • Which of the following techniques would a
    lobbyist be likely to use to influence
    legislation in Congress?
  • I. Organize a demonstration in Washington just
    before a key House vote
  • II. Ensure that the corporations PAC makes
    donations to the campaigns of members of key
    committees
  • III. Meet informally with Senate aids over lunch
    or cocktails
  • IV. Bring influential constituents to Washington
    to discuss important policy matters with their
    reps.

175
Continued
  • A. I only
  • B. II only
  • C. II, III, IV
  • D. I, II, III
  • E. I, II, III, IV

176
Answer
  • E. A lobbyist has a link to special interest
    groups who also have links to their PAC, a
    lobbyist can and does act as a catalyst before a
    major vote takes place. Therefore, each of the
    situations described can and does take place as a
    result of lobbyists efforts, th