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Migration, Household Behaviour and Community Differentiation


... enormous variation in historical, political and economic contexts that most ... Enormous variation in inmigration patterns across municipalities due to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Migration, Household Behaviour and Community Differentiation

Migration, Household Behaviour and Community
  • Rapporteur Sangeetha Madhavan

Order of Discussion
  • Presentation/critique of overview paper
  • Presentation/critique of case studies
  • Drawing out common themes for discussion
  • Theoretical Issues
  • Methodological Issues

Tales of Migration without Wage Differentials
Individual, Family and Community Contexts
  • Oded Stark

Key Features of the Model
  • the transmission of tastes through imitation
    technology younger cohorts imitate older
    ones which in turn generates more and more
  • origin of taste the taste for migration is
    hard wired in populations at earlier stages of
    evolution and is transmitted genetically with
    populations that are further along the
    evolutionary path, taste is transmitted
  • return migration exists because of higher
    purchasing power at home the higher this is and
    the higher the destination wage is, the shorter
    the migration duration is likely to be

Features continued
  • marriage facilitates migration through
    diversification and risk reduction
  • community facilitates migration through an
    aversion to relative deprivation brought on by
    greater variation in incomes
  • concludes with a set of concrete testable
    predictions based on the above assertions

  • debatable whether culture tradition and
    taste are synonymous terms culture is a very
    dynamic entity and one that has quite varying
    effects on different members of a community
    (gender, age, status) Stark conceptualizes
    taste as something static and predetermined
  • starts by saying that culture has not been
    accounted for properly yet offers a
    sociobiological explanation that taste for
    migration is predetermined
  • the sociobiological explanation put forth for the
    origin of taste suggests that all societies will
    follow a similar model and does not allow for
    enormous variation in historical, political and
    economic contexts that most certainly play a role
    in determining peoples motivations to move

Comments continued
  • Households and communities are marked by various
    forms of stratification (gender, age)
  • the assertion of marriage facilitating migration
    does not take into account the very different
    norms around gender roles/marriage systems that
    exist across societies
  • migration is taken to be a monolithic category

Highly Prevalent Circular Migration Households,
Mobility and Economic Status in Rural South
AfricaMark Collinson, Steve Tollman, Kathy Kahn
and Sam Clark
  • objective to identify correlates of both
    temporary and permanent migration
  • Data from the Agincourt DSS (longitudinal) and a
    temporary migration module
  • Much attention paid to differentiating permanent
    from temporary migration
  • Relative economic status index created from
    household assets module

  • no link between economic status and occurrence of
    perm. migration but there is a strong correlation
    between eco. status and the occurrence of temp.
  • most mobile sex-age category for perm. migration
    is women aged 15-25 (mostly linked to marriage)
  • notable increase in temp. migration for women
    over time
  • interesting that higher wage employment does not
    necessarily increase chances of remitting
  • person who has been a migrant longer is more
    likely to remit

Response to Stark
  • unclear whether one can explain the movement
    described in Agincourt as motivated by taste
    given the role of the apartheid state in social
  • the role of marriage in facilitating migration is
    questionable given declining rates of marriage,
    increasing age at marriage and a very fluid
    system of cohabitation and union formation that,
    in itself, is part of a survival strategy for
    both men and women
  • duration of migration difficult to tell in a
    context of high intensity movement in which
    people are constantly moving back and forth

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Childrens Living
Arrangements and Migration in Rural South Africa
  • Victoria Hosegood and Kathleen Ford

  • attempt to link HIV/AIDS related mortality with
    childrens living arrangements and mobility
  • also uses DSS data (ACDIS) but from KwaZulu Natal
  • the ACDIS system has probably gone farther than
    most data collection systems in accounting for
    the complexity of household formation and

  • 76 and 48 of recent maternal and paternal
    orphans, respectively, were due to AIDS
  • children more likely to migrate as single
    individuals or with one or two people rather than
    with an entire household
  • very little evidence of child headed households
  • both parental migration and mortality are
    associated with child migration especially
  • a large number of children belong to households
    to which their parents do not belong
    co-membership does not mean co-residency

Response to Stark
  • how would the imitation technology work in this
    scenario where children are highly mobile and
    move as part of a survival strategy?
  • how would a risk aversion strategy function in
    a high HIV prevalence context?

Migration, Cumulative Causation and Gender
Evidence from Thailand
  • Sara Curran, Filiz Garip, Chang Chung and
    Kanchana Tangchonlatip

  • aims to replicate studies of cumulative causation
    that have mostly been done in the Mexican-US
    context and to examine the gendered aspects of
    migration at multiple levels of aggregation
    within Thailand
  • cumulative causation theory asserts that
    migration propensities in the origin communities
    grows with each additional migrant and can,
    therefore, yield higher than expected levels of
  • one of the first studies to apply a theory
    developed for international migration to the
    context of internal movement

  • men and women experience migration differently
    which in turn, will affect the ways in which
    accumulated migration experience impacts on the
    social organization of the origin and destination
  • uses 10 year retrospective longitudinal data from
    22 villages in one district of NE Thailand
  • models include new measures of accumulated
    migration (number of trips)

  • high rates of womens temp. migration are a
    deterrent for mens out migration
  • support for the cumulative causation theory in
    that each additional trip (net of village
    migration prevalence rates) increases the odds of
    being a migrant
  • individual migration experience is more important
    for women than for men but household migration
    experience is more important for men
  • number of migrant months experienced by villagers
    decreases the odds of being a migrant for both
    men and women

Response to Stark
  • the imitation technology is mediated by gender
    and level of aggregation and not simply by
    following in the footsteps of older cohorts of
  • the extent of return migration is also mediated
    by gender roles which partly determine the
    quality of ties between sending and receiving
  • the role of the community is also mediated by
    gender and appears to have less of an effect than
    the household context
  • marriage decreases the odds of being a migrant
    quite dramatically

Internal Migration in Cuba in XXth Century An
  • Norma Rodriguez and Raul Castellon

  • Documents the historical context of internal
    migration in Cuba in the XXth century
  • Uses census data and internal migration survey
  • Particularly interested in changes in destination
    patterns and motivations to move
  • Only paper to consider migration patterns from a
    macro perspective

  • The first major change in internal migration
    patterns took place after 1959 when there was
    development of other regional centers migrants
    went to these centers instead of Havana
  • Concurrently, there was emphasis on developing
    rural towns by investing in infrastructure
  • Economic crisis in the 1990s changed the trend
    once again through the implementation of
    migratory regulation law that limited entrance
    into Havana especially the high density
  • Enormous variation in inmigration patterns across
    municipalities due to differences in investment
    patterns by the government

Response to Stark
  • How does the role of the state mediate the
    development of taste?
  • How would the relative deprivation hypothesis
    work in a context of tight economic regulation
    and a restrictive labour market?

Theoretical Issues
  • Dominance of dichotomies
  • Migrant-Resident
  • Urban-Rural
  • Stayer-Mover
  • Sending Receiving
  • Permanent Temporary
  • Measures of Social Connectedness
  • Importance of Social Capital
  • Role of Gender
  • Role of the State

Methodological Issues
  • Use of Longitudinal Data
  • Use of Qualitative Data
  • Levels of Analysis
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