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Title: Reinforcement

  • TED 207
  • Introduction to Teaching Technology Education

  • The rewarding of desired student behavior
  • Actions that bring pleasure tend to be repeated
  • Increases the strength of some behavior

Reinforcement Theory
  • Consequences influence behavior
  • Stimulus-response (S-R) theory
  • Classical conditioning
  • Connectionism
  • Operant conditioning

Classical Conditioning
  • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
  • Russian physiologist
  • Salivating dogs
  • Built on creating strong relationships by
    associations formed over various numbers of trials

  • Thorndike
  • Behavioral psychology
  • Learning is the result of associations or
    connections formed between stimuli and responses
  • Transfer of learning depends upon the presence of
    identical elements in the original and new
    learning situations

Connectionism 3 Laws
  • Effect situation followed by reward become
  • Readiness some responses linked to
    satisfaction, if blocked annoyance occurs in
  • Exercise connections become strengthened with
    practice and weakened when practice is
    discontinued (exception are punishment and

Operant Conditioning
  • B.F. Skinner
  • American Psychologist
  • Learning is a function of change in overt
  • Changes in behavior are the result of an
    individuals response to events (stimuli) that
    occur in the environment
  • Responses can be emitted instead of only elicited
    due to external stimulus

Intrinsic Process Motivation
  • Students motivated by intrinsic processes are
    primarily engaged in activities considered
  • Intrinsic Reinforcement teachers should design
    classes to be interesting and engage students in
    activities considered enjoyable.
  • Constructivist Classroom students should be
    actively involved in a process of meaning and
    knowledge construction.

Reinforcement -- Positive vs. Negative (disregard
the text)
  • Reinforcement increases the frequency,
    intensity, or duration (FID) of a behavior.
  • Positive reinforcement increases the frequency,
    intensity, or duration (FID) of a desired
  • Negative reinforcement increases the frequency,
    intensity, or duration (FID) of an undesired

Types of Reinforcement
  • Verbal
  • Nonverbal
  • Vicarious
  • Delayed
  • Qualified

Reinforcement Systems
  • Token reinforcement system
  • Related to academics or classroom behavior
  • Points, chips, punch cards, stars, checks, play
  • Free time, less homework, food, tangible objects,
    class leader, games, free reading
  • Know your school Some principals believe that
    tokens should be meaningful in that they
    contribute to the value of education and not
    conflict with the lunch program or time on task.

Reinforcement Schedules
  • Continuous
  • Intermittent
  • Ratio
  • Interval
  • Fixed
  • Variable
  • Once the new behavior has been mastered, switch
    to an intermittent variable schedule of
    reinforcement since it resists extinction better
    once reinforcement is discontinued

Selecting Reinforcers
  • Use Care!!
  • The best reinforcers are the ones selected by the
    students themselves
  • Teacher attention is, for most students, an
    effective reinforcer
  • Even criticism is a form of teacher attention,
    and that some attention-hungry students will
    misbehave in order to receive negative attention

Selecting Reinforcers
  • Premack Principle
  • First do what I want you to do, and then you can
    do what you want to do (1965).
  • Do not accept the students promise that they
    will do the work later

Misuse of Reinforcement
  • Teachers rely totally on one or two favorite
    typesokay and all right
  • Reinforcement weakens or slows the development of
    intrinsic motivation and leads students to depend
    on extrinsic motivation

  • Differs from praise in that it stimulates the
    efforts and the capacity of the individual
  • Teachers must know their students well enough so
    that they can praise or encourage them on an
    individual basis

101 Ways to Praise A Child
  • Wow Way to Go Super Youre Special
    Outstanding Excellent Great Good Neat
    Well Done Remarkable I Knew You Could Do It
    Im Proud of You. Fantastic Super Star Nice
    Work Looking Good Youre on Top of It
    Beautiful Now Youre Flying Youre Catching
    On Now Youve Got It Youre Incredible
    Bravo Youre Fantastic Hurray For You
    Youre on Target Youre On Your Way How Nice
    How Smart Good Job Thats Incredible Hot
    Dog Dynamite Youre Beautiful Youre Unique
    Nothing Can Stop You Now Good For You I
    Like You Youre a Winner Remarkable Job
    Beautiful Work Spectacular Youre Spectacular
    Youre Darling Youre Precious Great
    Discovery Youve Discovered the Secret You
    Figured It Out Fantastic Job Hip, Hip Hurray
    Bingo Magnificent Marvelous Terrific
    Youre Important Phenomenal Youre
    Sensational Super Work Creative Job Super
    Job Fantastic Job Exceptional Performance
    Youre A Real Trooper You Are Responsible You
    Are Exciting You Learned It Right What An
    Imagination What A Good Listener You Are Fun
    Youre Growing Up You Tried Hard You Care
    Beautiful Sharing Outstanding Performance
    Youre A Good Friend I Trust You Youre
    Important You Mean A Lot To Me You Make Me
    Happy You Belong Youve Got A Friend You
    Make Me Laugh You Brighten My Day I Respect
    You You Mean The World To Me Thats Correct
    Youre a Joy Youre A Treasure Youre
    Wonderful Youre Perfect Awesome A Job
    Youre A-OK My Buddy You Made My Day Thats
    The Best A Big Hug A Big Kiss Say I Love
    You! p.s. REMEMBER A Smile is Worth 1,000