Gaia Engineering for Planetary Engineers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Gaia Engineering for Planetary Engineers PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 5d973-YzQ3Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Gaia Engineering for Planetary Engineers

Description:

To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO2 and alkali metal cations. ... We must put an economic value on carbon and wastes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:75
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 91
Provided by: tec58
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Gaia Engineering for Planetary Engineers


1
Gaia Engineering for Planetary Engineers
?
Global population, consumption per capita and our
footprint on the planet are exploding.
?
Undeveloped Countries
Demographic Explosion gt
Developed Countries
This presentation describes a recyclable world
made of composites of carbon and other wastes. A
world in which and our entourage of rats mice and
cockroaches can live, make money and thrive. John
Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA. FAICD Managing
director of TecEco and Chair of AASMIC
2
Our Ecological Footprint Exceeds Capacity
Source WWF State of the Planet, 2005
Our footprint is exceeding the capacity of the
planet to support it. We are not longer
sustainable and the environment is no longer
sustainable we must change our ways to survive.
View further to discover how
3
Energy
Peak Oil Production (Campell 2004) Most models of
oil reserves, production and consumption show
peak oil around 2010 (Campbell 2005) and serious
undersupply and rapidly escalating prices by
2025. It follows that there will be economic
mayhem unless the we act now to reduce and change
the energy base of our economies.
4
The Carbon Cycle and Emissions
Emissions from fossil fuels and cement production
are a significant cause of global warming.
We need to increase the sedimentary carbon sink
4.5 billion years of geological sequestration
have resulted in 7 of the crust being carbonate
Units GtC GtC/yr
After David Schimel and Lisa Dilling, National
Centre for Atmospheric Research 2003
5
Global Warming
Rises in the levels of greenhouse gases
Are causing a rapid rise in temperature
6
CO2 and Temperature
Source of graphic Hansen, J et. al. Climate
Change and Trace Gases
The correlation between temperature and CO2 in
the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is
very good
Even if voluntary emissions reductions were to
succeed we must still get the CO2 out of the air.
Carbon rationing is a frightening adjunct and
alternative. Who will be the global police?
The best plan is a holistic one that reduces
emissions and profitably balances the inevitable
releases from our activities with massive
sequestration.
7
Water
1/3 of the worlds population are presently
living in water stressed countries. Depending on
the emission scenarios, climate scenarios and
population change, it is estimated that up to 2/3
of the worlds population will be living in water
stressed countries by 2050 as a result of climate
change
Source of Graphic Lean, Geoffrey, and Don
Hinrichsen, 1994. Atlas of the Environment, Santa
Barbara, CA ABC-CLIO, Inc.
Source Defra (2004). Scientific and Technical
Aspects of Climate Change, including Impacts,
Adaptation and Associated Costs. UK, Department
for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
8
Waste Pollution
  • Ill health.
  • Contamination of global commons with dangerous
    molecules.
  • Increased traffic, noise, odours, smoke, dust,
    litter and pests.

There are various estimates. The consensus is
that we produce about 5-600 billion tonnes of
waste each year.
Tec and Eco-Cements use waste.
9
One Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected
Problems
TecEco are in the BIGGEST Business on the Planet
Economic Solutions to our Energy, Global
Warming, Water and Waste Problems.
10
Urgent Fixes are Needed
  • Water
  • 1/3 of world population stressed for water
  • By 2050 2/3 due to global warming
  • Waste
  • Around 600 million tonnes.
  • The underlying moleconomic flow is poisoning our
    world
  • CO2
  • Causing global temperature rises
  • Energy
  • Peak oil has passed and fossil fuel energy costs
    set to rise.

All these problems are interconnected
To solve these problems we need to change the way
we do things and what we do them with!
11
The Techno-Process
Biosphere
Underlying the techno-process that describes and
controls the flow of matter and energy through
the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks
and flows. If out of synch with earth systems
these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects.
Geosphere
Detrimental affects on earth systems
Waste
Take
Move 500-600 billion tonnesUse some 50 billion
tonnes
Materials
Manipulate
Materials
Make and Use
Anthroposphere
To reduce the impact on earth systems new
technical paradigms need to be invented and
cultural changes evolve that result in materials
flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic
or at least do not interfere with natural flows
and that support rather than detrimentally impact
on earth systems.
12
The Earth System
The earth system consists of positive and
negative feedback loops. Small changes caused by
man such as CO2 and other climate forcing as well
as pollution impact right across all
interconnected systems throughout the global
commons.
Atmosphere
Anthropo-sphere
Biosphere
Geosphere
Hydrosphere
13
Earth Systems Science
Earth Systems Atmospheric composition, climate,
land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal
zones, freshwater salinity etc.
Source graphic NASA
Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a
system in its own right, which evolves as a
result of positive and negative feedback between
constituent systems (Wiki). These systems are
ideally homeostatic.
14
Detrimental Impacts of the Techno-Process
Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system
flows
Take manipulate and make impacts
End of lifecycle impacts
There is no such place as away
Use impacts.Materials are in the Techno-Sphere
Utility zone
Materials are everything between the take and
waste and affect earth system flows.
Greater Utility
Less Utility
15
Under Materials Flows in the Techno-Processes are
Molecular Flows
Take ? Manipulate ? Make ? Use ? Waste
?Materials flow?
?
Underlying molecular flow ?
If the underlying molecular flows are out
of tune with nature there is damage to the
environmente.g. heavy metals, cfcs, chalogen
compounds and CO2
Moleconomics is the study of the form of atoms in
molecules, their flow, interactions, balances,
stocks and positions. What we take from the
environment around us, how we manipulate and make
materials out of what we take and what we waste
result in underlying molecular flows that affect
earth systems. These flows should mimic, balance
or minimally interfere with natural flows.
To fix the molecular flows that are impacting our
planet we must first fix the materials flows in a
bottom up approach
16
Innovative New Materials - the Key to
Sustainability
Materials are what builders use
The choice of materials controls emissions,
lifetime and embodied energies, user comfort, use
of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and
the properties of wastes returned to the
bio-geo-sphere.
By changing how we make things and what we make
them with we can fix the underlying molecular
flows that are destroying the natural homeostasis
of our planet
17
Economically Driven Sustainability
New, more profitable technical paradigms are
required that result in more sustainable and
usually more efficient moleconomic flows that
mimic natural flows or better, reverse our
damaging flows.
- ECONOMICS -
Change is only possible economically. It will not
happen because it is necessary or right.
18
Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and
Technology Meet
Increase in demand/price ratio for greater
sustainability due to cultural change.

Supply
Equilibrium Shift
Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and
economic growth
ECONOMICS
We must rapidly move both the supply and demand
curves for sustainability
Demand
Increase in supply/price ratio for more
sustainable products due to technical innovation.

A measure of the degree of sustainability is
where the demand for more sustainable
technologies is met by their supply.
19
Changing the Technology Paradigm
It is not so much a matter of dematerialisation
as a question of changing the underlying
moleconomic flows. We need materials that require
less energy to make them, do not pollute the
environment with CO2 and other releases, last
much longer and that contribute properties that
reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change
the technology paradigms
  • By enabling us to make productive use of
    particular raw materials, technology determines
    what constitutes a physical resource1
  • Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory
    and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown
    Publishers Inc. New York.1990

Or more simply the technical paradigm
determines what is or is not a resource!
20
Cultural Change is Happening!
  • Al Gore (SOS)
  • CSIRO reports
  • STERN Report
  • Lots of Talkfest
  • IPCC Report
  • Political change
  • Branson Prize
  • Live Earth (07/07/07)

The media have an important growing role
21
Changing the Techno-Process
Take gt manipulate gt make gt use gt waste
Driven by fossil fuel energy with detrimental
environmental effects.
By changing the technology paradigms we can
change the materials flows and thus the
underlying molecular flows.
ReduceRe-useRecycle
This is biomimicry!
lt Materials gt
Atoms and Molecules in the global commons
Moleconomics
22
Learning from Nature (Biomimicry)
  • Nature is the most frugal economist of all.
  • The waste from one plant or animal is the food or
    home for another.
  • In nature photosynthesis balances respiration and
    recycling is the norm
  • By studying nature we learn who we are, what we
    are and how we are to be. (Wright, F.L.
    1957269)
  • There is a strong need for similar efficiency and
    balance in our techno-process

By learning from Nature we can all live together
23
Biomimicry - Geomimicry
  • The term biomimicry was popularised by the book
    of the same name written by Janine Benyus
  • Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that
    uses natural processes and systems as a source of
    knowledge and inspiration.
  • It involves nature as model, measure and mentor.
  • Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models
    geological rather than biological processes.

The theory behind biomimicry is that natural
processes and systems have evolved over several
billion years through a process of research and
development commonly referred to as evolution. A
reoccurring theme in natural systems is the
cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there
is no waste of matter and very little of
energy. Geomicry is a natural extension of
biomimicry and applies to geological rather than
living processes
All natural processes are very economical. We
must also be MUCH more economical
24
Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers
  • As peak oil starts to cut in and the price of
    transport rises sharply
  • We should not just be recycling based on chemical
    property requiring transport to large centralised
    sophisticated and expensive facilities
  • We should be including CO2 and wastes based on
    physical properties as well as chemical
    composition in composites whereby they become
    local resources.

Jackdaws and bower bird recycle all sorts of
things they find nearby based on physical
property. The birds are not concerned about
chemical composition and the nests they make
could be described as a composite materials.
TecEco cements are benign binders that can
incorporate all sort of wastes without reaction
problems. We can do the same as the Jackdaw or
bower bird
25
Localized Low Transport Embodied Energy Materials
No longer an option?
As the price of fuel rises, the use of on site
low embodied energy materials rather than
transported aggregates will have to be
considered. We will have to mimic the jackdaw or
bower bird. Gaia engineering can be implemented
everywhere.
26
Utilizing Carbon and Wastes
  • During earth's geological history large tonnages
    of carbon were put away as limestone and other
    carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the
    activity of plants and animals.
  • Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium
    carbonate materials and other wastes in the built
    environment mimics nature in that carbon is used
    in the homes or skeletal structures of most
    plants and animals.

CO2
In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate
and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and
wastes. This is geomimicry
CO2
CO2
C
CO2
Waste
Pervious pavement
27
Geomimicry
  • There are 1.2-3 grams of magnesium and about .4
    grams of calcium in every litre of seawater.
  • There is enoughcalcium and magnesiumin seawater
    with replenishmentto last billions of years at
    current needs for sequestration.
  • To survive we must build our homes like these
    seashells using CO2 and alkali metal cations.
    This is geomimicry
  • Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs
    represent billionsof years of sequestrationand
    cover 7 of the crust.

28
Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers?
  • Large tonnages of carbon (7 of the crust) were
    put away during earths geological history as
    limestone, dolomite and magnesite, mostly by the
    activity of plants and animals.
  • Much more than in coal or petroleum!
  • Shellfish built shells from carbon and trees turn
    it into wood.
  • These same plants and animals wasted nothing
  • The waste from one is the food or home for
    another.
  • Because of the colossal size of the flows
    involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse
    gas and waste is to use them both.

29
Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers?
  • Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not
    occur because it is the right thing to do.
  • It can only happen economically.
  • We must put an economic value on carbon and
    wastes
  • inventing new technical paradigms such as offered
    by TecEco and the Global Sustainability Alliance
    in Gaia Engineering.
  • Evolving culturally to effectively use these
    technical paradigms
  • By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as
    building materials we can economically reduce
    their concentration in the global commons.

Materials are very important!
30
Why Magnesium Carbonates?
  • Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium,
    it is ideal for scrubbing CO2 out of the air and
    sequestering the gas into the built environment
  • More CO2 is captured than in calcium systems as
    the calculations below show.
  • At 2.09 of the crust magnesium is the 8th most
    abundant element
  • Sea-water contains 1.29 g/l compared to calcium
    at .412 g/l
  • Magnesium materials from Gaia Engineering are
    potential low cost. New kiln technology from
    TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non
    fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate to
    make binders with CO2 recycling to produce more
    carbonate building material to be used with these
    binders.
  • Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in
    composites making them suitable for the
    utilisation of other wastes.

31
Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the
Global Warming Problem
  • How much magnesium carbonate would have to be
    deposited to solve the problem of global warming?
  • The annual flux of CO2 is around 12 billion
    tonnes 22.99 billion tonnes magnesite
  • The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3
    tonne/metre3
  • 22.9/3 billion cubic metres 7.63 cubic
    kilometres of magnesite would have to be
    deposited each year.
  • Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of
    concrete we make every year, the problem of
    global warming looks surmountable.
  • If magnesite was our building material of choice
    and we could make it without releases as is the
    case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem
    as good as solved!

We must build with carbonate and waste
32
Why Materials for the Built Environment?
  • The built environment is made of materials and is
    our footprint on earth.
  • It comprises buildings and infrastructure.
  • Construction materials comprise
  • 70 of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure
    etc.)
  • 40-50 of waste that goes to landfill (15 of
    new materials going to site are wasted.)
  • Around 25 billion tonnes of building materials
    are used annually on a world wide basis.
  • Mostly using virgin natural resources
  • Combined in such a manner that they cannot easily
    be separated.
  • Include many toxic elements.

Why not use magnesium carbonate building
components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from
TecEco to bind them together?
33
The Built Environment and Global Sustainability
The built environment is our footprint, the major
proportion of the techno-sphere and our lasting
legacy on the planet. It comprises buildings and
infrastructure
Source of graphics Nic Svenningson UNEP SMB2007
34
Building is Going Balistic!
Source of graphic Rick Fedrizzi SMB 2007
The relative impact of the built environment is
rising as the East catches up with the West!
35
Huge Potential for More Sustainable Construction
Materials
  • Reducing the impact of the take and waste phases
    of the techno-process by.
  • including carbon in materialsthey are
    potentially carbon sinks.
  • including wastes forphysical properties aswell
    as chemical compositionthey become resources.
  • re engineering materials toreduce the lifetime
    energyof buildings
  • A durable low pH high bondingbinder system is
    requiredfor effective waste utilisationsuch as
    TecEco Tec andEco-Cements

Many wastes including CO2 can contribute to
physical properties reducing lifetime energies
CO2
CO2
CO2
C
CO2
Waste
Pervious pavement
36
Gaia Engineering Flowchart
Portland CementManufacture
CaO
TecEcoTec-Kiln
Industrial CO2
MgO
Clays
Fresh Water
TecEcoCementManufacture
MgCO3 and CaCO3Stone
Brine or Seawater
Greensols
Eco-Cements
Tec-Cements
WasteAcid
CaSO4
Buildingcomponents aggregates
Other Valuable Commodity Salts
NaHCO3
Other waste
Built Environment
Building waste
37
The Gaia Engineering Tececology
The Gaia Engineering tececology could be thought
of as an open technical ecology designed to
reverse major damaging moleconomic and other
system flows outside the tececology
Industrial Ecologies are generally thought of as
closed loop systems with minimal or low impacts
outside the ecology
The Gaia Engineering tececology is not closed and
is designed to reverse damaging moleconomic flows
outside the ecology - LIKE A GIANT ECOLOGICAL PUMP
38
The Gaia Engineering Process
Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes
whilst reversing underlying undesirable
moleconomic flows from other less sustainable
techno-processes outside the tececology.
Inputs Atmospheric or industrial CO2,brines,
waste acid, other wastes Outputs Carbonate
building materials, potable water, gypsum, sodium
bicarbonate and other valuable commodity salts.
Carbonate building components
Solar or solar derived energy
TecEcoKiln
TecEco MgCO2 Cycle
MgO
Eco-Cement
MgCO3
Greensols Process
1.29 gm/l Mg.412 gm/l Ca
Coal
Fossil fuels
Carbon or carbon compoundsMagnesium compounds
Oil
39
Gaia Engineering Introduction
  • Gaia engineering is a combination of new
    technologies including
  • The Greensols process
  • TecEcos Tec-Kiln technology and cements
  • Carbon dioxide scrubbing technologies
  • TecEco' Eco-Cements
  • Gaia engineering profitably geomimics past
    planetary geological processes and adopted on a
    large scale will
  • Sequester significant amounts of atmospheric CO2
  • Add value to the salts recoverable from sea water
  • Convert large volumes of waste to valuable
    resource
  • Produce fresh water.

40
Gaia Engineering Summary
  • Inputs include
  • Seawater or suitable brine
  • CO2
  • Waste acid
  • Other wastes of all kinds
  • A small amount of energy
  • Outputs include
  • Gypsum, sodium bicarbonate and various other
    valuable salts.
  • Magnesium carbonate building components.
  • TecEco Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements.
  • Waste utlisation.
  • Fresh water.

41
Gaia Engineering
Greensols Seawater Carbonation Process.
1.354 x 109 km3 Seawater containing 1.728 1017
tonne Mg or suitable brines from other sources
Waste Acid
Gypsum carbon waste (e.g. sewerage)
fertilizers
Bicarbonate of Soda (NaHCO3)
CO2 from power generation or industry
Gypsum (CaSO4)
Sewerage compost
Other salts Na,K, Ca2,Cl-
Simplified TecEco ReactionsTec-Kiln MgCO3 ? MgO
CO2- 118 kJ/moleReactor Process MgO CO2 ?
MgCO3 118 kJ/mole (usually more complex
hydrates)
MgO Production using solar energy
CO2 H2O gtEnergy rich biomass using blue
green algae
CO2 from power generation, industry or out of the
air
(MgCO2) Cycle
Magnesite (MgCO3)
Magnesia (MgO)
Tec-Reactor Hydroxide / Carbonate slurry process
Solar Process to Produce Magnesium Metal
Sequestration Table Mg from Seawater
CO2
Eco-CementTec-Cement
Other Wastes
42
Gaia Engineering
InputsBrinesWaste AcidWastesCO2
OutputsGypsum, Sodium bicarbonate, Salts,
Building materials, Potable water
43
Seawater Reference Data
44
Greensols Carbon Capture
  • The hydrogen bonding in water keeps oppositely
    charged ions from combining. Water dissolves
    them.
  • Strongly charged ions such as calcium, magnesium
    and carbonate attract hydration shells of water
    around them. For example magnesium and calcium
    ions polar bond to oxygen and the negative
    carbonate ion polar bonds to hydrogen. These
    bonds can propagate through several layers of
    water and are strong enough to prevent the
    formation of calcium and magnesium carbonates
    even from supersaturated solutions.
  • The Greensols process uses waste acid to
    de-polarise a statistical proportion of water
    molecules by attaching a proton to them whereby
    positively charged sodium, calcium or magnesium
    ions as well as negatively charged ions including
    carbonate ions are released, can combine and thus
    precipitate.

45
Greensols Carbon Capture
Hydration shelling of water occurs around calcium
or magnesium ions because of the strong charge of
especially magnesium to the oxygen end of water
Similar hydration shelling occurs around the
negative carbonate ion through polar bonding to
the hydrogen ends of water
46
Greensols Carbon Capture
The addition of a proton to water using strong
waste acid results in its de polarisation whereby
it no longer electronically holds as many ions
(sodium, calcium, magnesium or carbonate etc.)
statistically releasing them and allowing them to
combine and precipitate as carbonates and other
more valuable salts leaving behind essentially
fresh water
47
Greensols Carbon Capture


Mg CO3_ _ gt MgCO3
The statistical release of both cations and
anions results in precipitation of for example
magnesium carbonate as shown above.
48
Advantages of Greensols over Reverse Osmosis
Tell somebody with influence today!
49
The Tec-Reactor Hydroxide CarbonateSlurry Process
  • The solubility of carbon dioxide gas in seawater
  • Increases as the temperature approached zero and
  • Is at a maxima around 4oC
  • This phenomenon is related to the chemical nature
    of CO2 and water and
  • Can be utilised in a carbonate hydroxide slurry
    process to capture CO2 out of the air and release
    it for storage or use in a controlled manner

50
The MgCO2 Process (Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle)
The MgCO2 (magnesium thermodynamiccycle) is very
important for sequestration and results in the
formation of valuable building product
TOTAL CALCINING ENERGYRelative to
MgCO3Theoretical 1480 kJ.KgWith
inefficiencies 1948 kJ.Kg-1
Tec-Kiln
CO2 H2O gtHydrocarbons compounds using algae
CO2
Magnesite
Dehydration
Eco-Cements
Calcination
Representative of other hydrated mineral
carbonates
CalcificationMgCO3 gt MgO CO2?H 118.28
kJ.mol-1?G 65.92 kJ.mol-1
Magnesia
Nesquehonite
CarbonationMg(OH)2.nH2O CO2 2H2O gt
MgCO3.3H2O?H - 37.04 kJ.mol?G - 19.55 kJ.mol
HydrationMgO H2O gt Mg(OH)2.nH2O?H - 81.24
kJ.mol?G - 35.74 kJ.mol
Carbonation
Brucite
Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements
51
The TecEco Tec-Kiln Technology
  • Runs at low temperatures minimising the
    development of lattice energy.
  • Can be powered by various non fossil sources of
    energy such as solar energy or waste heat.

CO2 H2O gtHydrocarbons compounds using algae
MgO Production using solar energy
  • Grinds and calcines at the same time thereby
    operating 25 to 30 more efficiently.
  • Captures CO2 for return to the Greensols process,
    bottling or use for fuel manufacture using algae
    and other life forms or other purposes.
  • The products CaO and/or MgO can be used to
    sequester more CO2 in the MgCO2 process which can
    be repeated.
  • Suitable for making the reactive MgO used in
    TecEco cements.

52
Eco-Cement CO2 Release and Capture
Eco-Cement With Capture during Manufacture
Eco-Cement No Capture during Manufacture
CO2 capture (Greensols process etc)
CO2
H2O
MgCO3.3H2O
MgCO3.3H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
CO2 from atmosphere
MgO
MgO
Mg(OH)2
Mg(OH)2
H2O
H2O
Net sequestration less carbon from process
emissions
Carbon neutral except for carbon from process
emissions
Use of non fossil fuels gt Low or no process
emissions
53
Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle
CO2 in the air and water
Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration burning and decay
Decay by fungi and bacteria
Photosynthesis by plants and algae
Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and
Eco-Cements)
Limestone coal and oil burning
Organic compounds made by heterotrophs
Organic compounds made by autotrophs
Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals)
54
Outcomes from Gaia Engineering
As the proportion of man made carbonate used in
the built environment increases.
Critical 450 ppm, level gt
CO2 in the atmosphere will start to fall.
These figures are obviously rubbery, but we hope
you get the idea!
55
Emissions from Cement Production
  • Chemical Release
  • The process of calcination involves driving off
    chemically bound CO2 with heat.
  • CaCO3 ?CaO ?CO2
  • Process Energy
  • Most energy is derived from fossil fuels.
  • Fuel oil, coal and natural gas are directly or
    indirectly burned to produce the energy required
    releasing CO2.
  • The production of cement for concretes accounts
    for around 10 of global anthropogenic CO2.
  • Pearce, F., "The Concrete Jungle Overheats", New
    Scientist, 19 July, No 2097, 1997 (page 14).

CO2 CO2
Arguments that we should reduce cement production
relative to other building materials are nonsense
because concrete is the most sustainable building
material there is. The challenge is to make it
more sustainable.
56
Embodied Energy of Building Materials
Concrete is relatively environmentally friendly
and has a relatively low embodied energy
Downloaded from www.dbce.csiro.au/ind-serv/brochur
es/embodied/embodied.htm (last accessed 07 March
2000)
57
Average Embodied Energy in Buildings
Most of the embodied energy in the built
environment is in concrete.
Because so much concrete is used there is a huge
opportunity for sustainability by reducing the
embodied energy, reducing the carbon debt (net
emissions), incorporating waste and improving
properties that reduce lifetime energies.
Downloaded from www.dbce.csiro.au/ind-serv/brochur
es/embodied/embodied.htm (last accessed 07 March
2000)
58
Cement Production Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Exponential growth
Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements TecEco can provide a
viable much more sustainable alternative.
Source data USGS Minerals Yearbook
59
TecEco Binder Systems
SUSTAINABILITY
PORTLAND
POZZOLAN
Hydration of the various components of Portland
cement for strength.
Reaction of alkali with pozzolans (e.g. lime with
fly ash.) for sustainability, durability and
strength.
TECECO CEMENTS
DURABILITY
STRENGTH
TecEco concretes are a system of blending
reactive magnesia, Portland cement and usually a
pozzolan with other materials and are a key
factor for sustainability.
REACTIVE MAGNESIA
Hydration of magnesia gt brucite for strength,
workability, dimensional stability and
durability. In Eco-cements carbonation of brucite
gt nesquehonite, lansfordite and an amorphous
phase for sustainability.
60
Tec Eco-Cement Theory
  • Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) is too soluble, mobile and
    reactive.
  • It carbonates, reacts with Cl- and SO4- and being
    soluble can act as an electrolyte.
  • TecEco generally (but not always) remove
    Portlandite using the pozzolanic reaction and
  • TecEco add reactive magnesia
  • which hydrates, consuming significant water and
    concentrating alkalis forming Brucite which is
    another alkali, but much less soluble, mobile or
    reactive than Portlandite.
  • In Eco-Cements brucite carbonates forming
    hydrated compounds with greater volume

61
TecEco Cements
  • Tec-cements (Low MgO)
  • contain more Portland cement than reactive
    magnesia. Reactive magnesia hydrates in the same
    rate order as Portland cement forming Brucite
    which uses up water reducing the voidspaste
    ratio, increasing density and possibly raising
    the short term pH.
  • Reactions with pozzolans are more affective.
    After all the Portlandite has been consumed
    Brucite controls the long term pH which is lower
    and due to its low solubility, mobility and
    reactivity results in greater durability.
  • Other benefits include improvements in density,
    strength and rheology, reduced permeability and
    shrinkage and the use of a wider range of
    aggregates many of which are potentially wastes
    without reaction problems.

62
TecEco Cements
  • Eco-cements (High MgO)
  • contain more reactive magnesia than in
    tec-cements. Brucite in permeable materials
    carbonates forming stronger fibrous mineral
    carbonates and therefore presenting huge
    opportunities for waste utilisation and
    sequestration. The low pH and high hydrogen
    bonding make Eco-Cements ideal for binding other
    materials including most wastes.
  • Enviro-cements (High MgO)
  • contain similar ratios of MgO and OPC to
    eco-cements but in non permeable concretes
    brucite does not carbonate readily.
  • Higher proportions of magnesia are most suited to
    toxic and hazardous waste immobilisation and when
    durability is required. Strength is not developed
    quickly nor to the same extent.

63
Strength with Blend Porosity
Tec-cement concretes
Eco-cement concretes
High Porosity
Enviro-cement concretes
High OPC
High Magnesia
STRENGTH ON ARBITARY SCALE 1-100
64
Converting Waste to Resource
  • TecEco cements represent a cost affective option
    for using localised low impact materials and
    wastes
  • Reducing transports costs and emissions
  • Magnesium hydroxide in particular and to some
    extent the carbonates are less reactive and
    mobile and thus result in much more durable
    concretes
  • Lower solubility
  • Lower reactivity
  • Bleed less
  • Lower pH
  • The incredible stick as a result of polar bonding
    also adds to their ability to bind wastes.

TecEco Technology - Converting Waste to Resource
65
Carbonation of Eco-Cements
  • Have high proportions of reactive magnesium oxide
  • Carbonate like lime but generally used in a
    15-112 paste basis because much more carbonate
    binder is produced.
  • Consider nesquehonite the main phase
  • MgO H2O ltgt Mg(OH)2 CO2 2H2O ltgt
    MgCO3.3H2O
  • 40.31 liquid ltgt 58.31 gas ltgt 138.36 molar
    mass (at least!)
  • 11.2 liquid ltgt 24.29 gas ltgt 74.77 molar
    volumes (at least!)
  • 668 expansion relative to MgO or 308 expansion
    relative to Mg(OH)2 (ex water or gas volume
    reduction)
  • Total volumetric expansion from magnesium oxide
    to lansfordite is even more at 811.
  • MgO H2O ltgt Mg(OH)2 CO2 4H2O ltgt
    MgCO3.5H2O
  • Because magnesium has a low molecular weight,
    proportionally a much greater amount of CO2 is
    captured per mole of MgO than lime or any other
    carbonate.
  • Carbonation adds considerable strength and some
    steel reinforced structural concrete could be
    replaced with fibre reinforced porous carbonated
    concrete.

Mostly CO2 and water
As Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist Magazine
(Pearce, F., 2002), There is a way to make our
city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest.
66
Carbonation is Proportional to Porosity an Time
Carbonation
CarbonationRate
Time
Macro Porosity
67
Eco-Cement Strength Development
  • Eco-Cements gain early strength from the
    hydration of PC.
  • Later strength comes from the carbonation of
    brucite forming an amorphous phase, lansfordite
    and nesquehonite.
  • Strength gain in Eco-Cements is mainly
    microstructural because of
  • More ideal particle packing (Brucite particles at
    4-5 micron are under half the size of cement
    grains.)
  • The natural fibrous and acicular shape of
    magnesium carbonate minerals which tend to lock
    together.
  • Both the carbonates and hydroxide of magnesium
    have strong polar bonding.

68
Cements Net Emissions/Sequestration Compared
69
CO2 Abatement in Eco-Cement Blocks
No Capture11.25 mass reactive magnesia, 3.75
mass Portland cement, 85 mass
aggregate. Emissions.37 tonnes to the tonne.
After carbonation. approximately .241 tonne to
the tonne.
Portland Cements15 mass Portland cement, 85
mass aggregate Emissions.32 tonnes to the
tonne. After carbonation. Approximately .299
tonne to the tonne.
Capture CO211.25 mass reactive magnesia, 3.75
mass Portland cement, 85 mass
aggregate. Emissions.25 tonnes to the tonne.
After carbonation. approximately .140 tonne to
the tonne.
Capture CO2. Fly and Bottom Ash11.25 mass
reactive magnesia, 3.75 mass Portland cement, 85
mass aggregate. Emissions.126 tonnes to the
tonne. After carbonation. Approximately .113
tonne to the tonne.
For 85 wt Aggregates 15 wt Cement
Eco-cements in porous products absorb carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere. Brucite carbonates
forming lansfordite, nesquehonite and an
amorphous phase, completing the thermodynamic
cycle.
Greater Sustainability
.299 gt .241 gt.140 gt.113Bricks, blocks, pavers,
mortars and pavement made using eco-cement, fly
and bottom ash (with capture of CO2 during
manufacture of reactive magnesia) have 2.65 times
less emissions than if they were made with
Portland cement.
70
TecEco Technology in Practice
gt Earthship Brighton, UK
By Taus Larsen, (Architect, Low Carbon Network
Ltd.) The Low Carbon Network (www.lowcarbon.co.uk)
was established to raise awareness of the links
between buildings, the working and living
patterns they create, and global warming and aims
to initiate change through the application of
innovative ideas and approaches to construction.
Englands first Earthship is nearly completed in
southern England outside Brighton at Stanmer Park
and TecEco technologies have been used for the
floors and some walling.
Earthships are exemplars of low-carbon design,
construction and living and were invented and
developed in the USA by Mike Reynolds over 20
years of practical building exploration. They are
autonomous earth-sheltered buildings independent
from mains electricity, water and waste systems
and have little or no utility costs. For
information about the Earthship Brighton and
other projects please go to the TecEco web site.
71
Earthship Brighton
The first building in the world made with
Eco-Cement which sets by absorbing CO2 and wastes
72
Tec-Cement Slab Whittlesea, Vic. Australia
gt Tec-Cement Concrete Slabs
  • On 17th March 2005 TecEco poured the first
    commercial slab in the world using tec-cement
    concrete with the assistance of one of the larger
    cement and pre-mix companies.
  • The formulation strategy was to adjust a standard
    20 MPa high fly ash (36) mix from the company as
    a basis of comparison.
  • Strength development, and in particular early
    strength development was good. Interestingly some
    70 days later the slab is still gaining strength
    at the rate of about 5 MPa a month.
  • Also noticeable was the fact that the concrete
    was not as "sticky" as it normally is with a fly
    ash mix and that it did not bleed quite as much.
  • Shrinkage was low. 7 days - 133 micro strains, 14
    days - 240 micro strains, 28 days - 316 micros
    strains and at 56 days - 470 microstrains.

73
TecEco Technology in Practice - Whittlesea, Vic.
Australia
gt Eco-Cement Mud Bricks
  • First Eco-cement mud bricks and mortars in
    Australia
  • Tested up twice as strong as the PC controls
  • Mud brick addition rate 2.5
  • Addition rate for mortars 18 not 13 because of
    molar ratio volume increase with MgO compared to
    lime.

74
TecEco Technology in Practice AMC Hire Tilt Up
Panels
gt Tec-Cement Tilt Ups
Our Tec-Cement concrete tilt ups are free of
plastic cracking, obvious bleed marking and other
defects.
75
Tec Eco Cement Foamed Concretes
gt Foamed Concretes
Foamed TecEco cement concretes can be produced to
about 30 weight reduction in concrete trucks
using cellflow (or equivalents) or to about 70
weight reduction using a foaming machine with
mearlcrete (or equivalents).
BUILD LITE CELLULAR CONCRETE4 Rosebank Ave 
Clayton Sth  MELBOURNE  AUSTRALIA 3169PH  61 3
9547 0255    FX  61 3 9547 0266
76
Tec Eco Cement Foamed Concrete
gt Foamed Concretes Slabs
77
Tec Eco Cement Foamed Concretes
gt Foamed Concretes
Foam infill in steel frames.
78
TecEco Technology in Practice
gt Topping Coats
Tec-Cement concretes exhibit little or no
shrinkage. At 10 substitution of MgO for PC the
shrinkage is less than half normal. At 18
substitution with no added pozzolan there was no
measurable shrinkage or expansion.
The above photo shows a tec-cement concrete
topping coat (with no flyash) 20mm thick away
from the door and 80 mm thick near the door. Note
that there has been no tendency to push the tiles
or shrink away from the borders as would normally
be the case.
79
TecEco Technology in Practice
gt Waterproofing Render
The Clifton Surf Life Saving Club was built by
first pouring footings, On the footings block
walls were erected and then at a later date
concrete was laid in between. As the ground
underneath the footings was sandy, wet most of
the time and full of salts it was a recipe for
disaster. Predictably the salty water rose up
through the footings and then through the blocks
and where the water evaporated there was strong
efflorescence, pitting, loss of material and
damage.
The TecEco solution was to make up a formulation
of eco-cement mortar which we doctored with some
special chemicals to prevent the rise of any more
moisture and salt. The solution worked well and
appears to have stopped the problem.
80
TecEco Technology in Practice
gt Our First Slab Ever!
Mike Burdon, Builder and Plumber. Mike works for
a council interested in sutainability and has
been involved with TecEco since around 2001 in a
private capacity helping with large scale testing
of TecEco tec-cements at our shack. Mike is
interested in the potentially superior strength
development and sustainability aspects. To date
Mike has poured two slabs, footings, part of a
launching ramp and some tilt up panels using
formulations and materials supplied by John
Harrison of TecEco. Mike believes that research
into the new TecEco cements essential as he has
found
  • The rheological performance even without
    plasticizer was excellent. As testimony to this
    the contractors on the site commented on how easy
    the concrete was to place and finish.
  • The formulations are extremely easy to pump and
    place. Once in position they appeared to gel up
    quickly allowing stepping for a foundation to a
    brick wall.
  • Strength gain was more rapid than with Portland
    cement controls from the same premix plant and
    continued for longer.
  • The surfaces of the concrete appeared to be
    particularly hard and Mike attributes this to the
    fact that much less bleeding was observed than
    would be expected with a Portland cement only
    formulation

81
TecEco Technology in Practice
gt Concrete Bricks, Blocks and Pavers
TecEco Tec and Eco-Cement bricks, blocks and
pavers are now being made commercially in
Tasmania and with freight equalization may be
viable to ship to the mainland for your green
project. Otherwise we may be able to get a local
manufacturer to make them for you.
82
TecEco Eco-Cement Permecocrete
gt Permecocrete
Allow many mega litres of good fresh water to
become contaminated by the pollutants on our
streets and pollute coastal waterways
Permecocrete
Or
Capture and cleanse the water for our use?
TecEco have now perfected porous pavements that
can be made out of mono-graded recycled
aggregates and other wastes and that sequester
CO2.
It does not get much greener!
83
TecEco Eco-Cement Permecocrete - Mimicking Nature
  • Permecocrete is made with Eco-Cements that set by
    absorbing CO2 and can use recycled aggregates. It
    does not get any greener!
  • Freedom from water restrictions forever!
  • Pure fresh water from your own block.
  • Filtration through Permecocrete and water feature
    in garden will keep water pure and fresh.
  • Cooler house and garden (cycle under slab for
    house cooling/heating option).
  • Lower infrastructure costs for local council.

Water featurekeeps water clean
All rainwater redirected to pavement filter.
Permecocrete porous pavement
Pump
Water storage e.g. under drive
84
TecEco Permecocrete Biomicking Nature
Pavements are not just for vehicles. They must do
much more
Cooling Evaporation
Sequestration
Moisture retention
Cleansing microbial activity and oxygenation
The substrate must be properly designed
Optional groundwater recharge
Optional impervious layer, underground drainage
and storage. Dual water supply or parks etc. only.
85
Holistic Roads for the Future
In Australia we run many duplicate services down
each side of a road. Given the high cost of
installing infrastructure it would be smarter to
adopt a system whereby services run down the
middle of a road down what amount to giant box
culverts.
Conventional bitumen or concrete footpath pavement
Pervious Eco-Cement concrete pavement
(Permecocrete) surface using recycled aggregates
Pervious gravel under for collection, cleansing
and storage of water
Services to either side of the road. All in same
trench of conduit
Service conduit down middle of road
Foamed Eco-Cement concrete root redirectors and
pavement protectors. Roots will grow away from
the foamed concrete because of its general
alkalinity. It will also give to some extent
preventing surface pavement cracking.
Collection drains to transport drain or pipe in
service conduit at intervals
Impermeable layer (concrete or plastic liner)
angling for main flow towards collection drains
Possible leakage to street trees and underground
aquifers
Its time for a road re think!
86
So Far - Has Anything Really Changed?
  • Building materials and methods have not really
    changed much in spite of all the pretense about
    sustainability.
  • So far mostly green wash.
  • Big improvements in our understanding of the
    importance of design but
  • No real paradigm shifts in technology with
    perhaps a few exceptions
  • Neon light globes
  • Solar panels etc.
  • To solve sustainability problems of the magnitude
    we have we must change the paradigm from the
    bottom up.
  • We have to do things very differently!!
  • TecEcos answer is to convert waste and CO2 to
    resource by building with them.

There is enormous scope for change in the built
environment
87
Challenge in the Construction Business
  • The challenge now facing people in the
    construction business is to
  • Implement sustainable materialsin more
    sustainable ways.
  • As builders of cities we have
  • dense concentrations of people
  • the juxtaposition of many industries
  • concentrations of materials
  • Real opportunities to reduce energy and material
    through-put!

88
What is Stopping Us?
  • A lack of awareness
  • The conservative nature of players in the
    industry
  • Prescription standards, regulation etc.
  • Lack of government leadership
  • Politics
  • Legacy subsidies for non sustainable materials
    and practices
  • Failure by leaders in the market to buy
    sustainability
  • Economies of scale
  • Short term rather than long term
  • A disconnect between builders and users
  • A chronic lack of skills in the industry to take
    up new more sustainable technologies

We are holding ourselves down!
We must change from the bottom up!
89
A Sustainable Built Environment
CO2 H2O gtHydrocarbons compounds using bacteria
CO2
OTHERWASTES
PERMANENT SEQUESTRATION WASTE UTILISATION (Man
made carbonate rock incorporating wastes as a
building material) Paretos principle -80 of the
build environment in non structural and could be
carbonate from Greensols held together by
Eco-Cements
GREENSOLS
ECO-CEMENTCONCRETES
MgO
TECECO KILN
MAGNESIUM CARBONATE
RECYCLED BUILDING MATERIALS
There is a way to make our city streets as green
as the Amazon rainforest. Fred Pearce, New
Scientist Magazine
SUSTAINABLE CITIES
Made with manufactured carbonate and waste!
90
A Post Carbon Age
As Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist Magazine
(Pearce, F., 2002), There is a way to make our
city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest.
About PowerShow.com