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Elizabethan England

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... universe : Copernicus (1543) and Galileo (1610) Liturgical drama. Tropes ... Puritan opposition: Stephen Gosson':'the inventions of the devil, the offerings ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Elizabethan England


1
Elizabethan England
2
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
  • Catharine Of Aragon divorced married
    previously to Arthur Mary I
  • Anne Boleyn beheaded Elizabeth I
  • Jane Seymour died Edward VI
  • Anne of Cleves divorced
  • Kathryn Howard beheaded
  • Katherine Parr --survived
  • http//www.larmouth.demon.co.uk/sarah-jayne/wives/
    wives.html

3
The Divorce
  • 1530 divorced Katharine of Aragon
  • 1534 declared himself Protector of the Church
  • 1536 dissolved the monasteries

4
Religious conflict throughout Elizabethan Age
  • Catholics vs. reformers (Martin Luther-- 1520)
  • Edward VI (1547-1553) Reformists
  • Mary I Bloody Mary (1553-1558) Catholics
  • Elizabeth I (1558-1603) passive obedience via
    media
  • James I (1603-1625) divine right alienated
    Puritans

5
Conspiracies and councillors
  • Absolute monarch
  • Primogeniture and succession Elizabeth I refused
    to name a successor or marry
  • Dudley, Burghley, Cecil, Walsingham
  • Lady Jane Grey (executed in 1554)Mary Queen of
    Scots (executed in 1587) the Essex Rebellion
    the Gunpowder Plot

6
Work
  • Enclosures agricultural life diminished
  • Trade guilds and apprentices
  • Merchants East India Company
  • Rising middle class displacing the aristocracy

7
Lifestyle
  • Gutenberg Press Martin Caxton in England
  • 1476 The Canterbury Tales
  • Infrequent Bathing and Hygiene Perfumes, Wigs,
    Powder
  • Appearance vs. Reality
  • Lack of Sanitation Bubonic Plague

8
Medieval ideas
  • Ptolemaic universe( 2nd century A.D.)
    earth-centered solar system
  • Primum mobile prime mover
  • Chain of Being everything had its place
    God-ordained and hierarchical
  • To move anything out of order would upset the
    entire system
  • Each type of being had its own ruler the sun,
    lions, the king or queen- divine right
  • The Church and its teachings were paramount
  • Castiglione The Courtier how to behave

9
Renaissance ideas
  • Return to classical texts and ideals Plato and
    Aristotle
  • Humanism emphasis on human ability reasoning
    and questioning
  • Machiavelli rulers are made not created by God
  • Reformation and Henry VIII movement away from
    Catholic Church
  • Sun-centered universe Copernicus (1543) and
    Galileo (1610)

10
Liturgical drama
  • Tropes
  • Corpus Christi celebrating the Eucharist

11
Medieval cycle plays (1200-1400)
  • Confraternities in France, Spain,Belgium
  • Trade Guilds in England showing off abilities
    commercials
  • Community involvement
  • Religious festivals Corpus Christi
  • Expressions of religious belief

12
Theatrical conventions
  • Written in everyday speech (vernacular)
  • Based on biblical stories but included common
    people, comedy, spectacle
  • Episodic structure
  • Amateur actors women in France but not in
    England
  • Intimacy between actors and audience

13
Staging
  • Outdoors
  • 1.In the round
  • 2. Processional pageant wagons that moved from
    place to place
  • 3. Stationary a number of wagons set up side by
    side with a huge common platform a neutral stage
    platea
  • Wagons contained the mansions scenic units
  • Heaven and Hell on opposite endsHeaven
    machinery for flyingHell Mouth- spewed forth
    smokeSecrets special effects- trapdoors,
    haloes, machinery, barrels of water for flood,
    live or dummy animals for the ark

14
Morality plays
  • Allegorical
  • Station drama
  • Journey
  • Vice figure devil who was humorous, would mix
    with audience

15
Secular theater
  • Touring groups
  • Opposed by church
  • Minstrels, jugglers, mimes
  • Fertility rituals maypole

16
Commedia dellarte
  • Italy 1550-1750
  • Improvised scenarios and lazzi
  • Companies of seven men and three women
  • Using stock characters from Roman comedy
    Pantalone, Dottore, Capitano, zanni Arlequino
  • Masks and emblematic costumes

17
English drama in the 1500s
  • school or university drama based on classical
    models
  • university wits Christopher Marlowe
  • boys acting companies
  • plays were episodic, often had revenge plots,
    supernatural effects, (Roman drama) non-religious
    in plot, did not follow neoclassical ideals

18
Elizabethan era
  • Burbages built the first theater The Theater in
    1576 and then moved it to Southwark in 1599 where
    it became the Globe
  • Performances at court and in public theaters
  • Public theaters outside the city limits in their
    own jurisdiction- liberties (Blackfriars,
    Shoreditch)
  • Used by specific companies the Globe for the
    Lord Chamberlains Men
  • Pits, boxes, galleries, lords rooms
  • thrust stage surrounded on three sides by
    audience
  • 2000-3000 people

19
Indoor theater
  • Blackfriars
  • used by boys companies
  • indoor spaces lit with candles
  • much smaller than public theaters

20
Acting
  • no scenery multiple settings contemporary
    costumes
  • 1574 Master of Revels who licensed the plays
  • companies needed a patron
  • acting companies shareholders , hired men,
    apprentices
  • Richard Burbage, Will Kempe Lord Chamberlains
    men
  • No women

21
Opposition to the theater
  • Dangers of plague
  • Riotous assembly
  • Puritan opposition Stephen Gossonthe
    inventions of the devil, the offerings of
    idolatry, the pomp of wordlings, the blossoms of
    vanity, the root of apostacy . .players are
    master s of vice, teachers of wantonness, spurs
    to impurity, the sons of idleness
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