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JUG320S: The Canadian Wilderness

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II: Anna Brownell Jameson, n e Murphy (1794-1860) Marries Robert Sympson Jameson in 1825 ... Duncan Campbell Scott (1862 1947) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: JUG320S: The Canadian Wilderness


1
JUG320S The Canadian Wilderness
  • Week 3 Wilderness Literature
  • Professor Emily Gilbert
  • http//individual.utoronto.ca/emilygilbert/

2
Todays Themes
  • I Wilderness and the Canadian Imagination
  • II Anna Jameson
  • III Archibald Lampman
  • IV Margaret Atwood

3
I Wilderness and the Canadian Imagination
  • Our history, our painting, our literature, along
    with our music and film, are all fundamental
    elements of Canadian culture and identity. All
    have been deeply influenced and distinguished by
    the wilderness. as we surrender our wild
    heritage, we surrender much of what distinguishes
    us as Canadian
  • Bruce Litteljohn (19)
  • we almost denigrate wilderness if we appreciate
    it only as an influence on arts and letters
  • Bruce Litteljohn (20)

4
  • In Canadian history the St. Lawrence valley, the
    Ontario peninsula, and the western prairies have
    been the regions of settlement which have
    furnished and fed the men, the fur traders, the
    lumberjacks, the prospectors, and the miners who
    have traversed the Shield and wrested from it the
    staples by which Canada has lived. And this
    alternate penetration of the wilderness and
    return to civilisation is the basic rhythm of
    Canadian life, and forms the basic element of
    Canadian character whether French or English the
    violence necessary to contend with the
    wilderness, the restraint necessary to preserve
    civilisation from the wilderness violence, and
    the puritanism which is the offspring of the
    wedding of violence to restraint. Even in an
    industrial and urban society, the old rhythm
    continues, for the typical Canadian holiday is a
    wilderness holiday, whether among the lakes of
    the Shield or the peaks of the Rockies
  • WL MORTON (1961) The Canadian Identity

5
  • Canadian life to this day is marked by a
    northern quality, the strong seasonal rhythm
    which still governs even academic sessions the
    venture now sublimated for most of us to the
    summer holiday or the autumn shoot the greatest
    of joys, the return from the lonely savagery of
    the wilderness to the peace of the home the
    puritanical restraint which masks the
    psychological tensions set up by the contrast of
    the wilderness roughness and home discipline. The
    line which marks off the frontier from the
    farmstead, the wilderness from the baseland, the
    hinterland from the metropolis, runs through
    every Canadian psyche
  • WL MORTON (1961) The Canadian Identity

6
  • I know a man whose school could never teach him
    patriotism, but who acquired that virtue when he
    felt in his bones the vastness of the land, and
    the greatness of those who founded it
  • Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1944) Exhaustion and
    fulfillment the aesthetic in the canoe

7
  • We are all creatures of the wilderness, children
    of the frontier, even though the frontier has
    been pushed back into the mists of the North,
    even though the wilderness has given way to
    concrete. Wild and mysterious, savage and
    forbidding, this is the cyclorama against which
    the drama of our past has been staged, for better
    and for worse. It has helped to fashion us into
    our distinctive Canadian mould
  • Pierre Berton (1978) Preface to the Wild
    Frontier More Tales from the Remarkable Past

8
  • Our family, like many others, had lost a great
    deal but we had also gained an enormous amount a
    country with lakes, with small-mouth bass and
    with free public education. We became addicted to
    the wilderness because, as Pierre Morency says
    Le nord nest pas dans la boussole it est ici.
    The North is not on the compass. It is right
    here.
  • Adrienne Clarkson (2001) Installation speech

9
  • Northrop Frye (1912-1991)
  • Fearful Symmetry (1947)
  • Anatomy of Criticism (1957)
  • The Great Code (1982)
  • The Bush Garden (1971)
  • Canadian literature notoriously sunk in doom
  • I have long been impressed in Canadian poetry by
    a tone of deep terror in regard to nature (Frye
    1971 225)
  • Development of a garrison mentality

10
  • To feel Canadian was to feel part of a
    no-mans land with huge rivers, lakes and islands
    that very few Canadians had ever seenOne wonders
    if any other national consciousness has had so
    large an amount of the unknown, the unrealised,
    the humanly undigested, so built into it What is
    important here, for our purposes, is the position
    of the frontier in the Canadian imagination. In
    the United States one could choose to move out to
    the frontier or retreat from it back to the
    seaboard. In the Canadas, even in the Maritimes,
    the frontier was all around one, a part and a
    condition of ones whole imaginative beingSuch a
    frontier was the immediate datum of his
    imagination, the thing that had to be dealt with
    first (Frye 1971 220)

11
  • Margaret Atwood (1939-)
  • Circle Game (1966)
  • The Edible Woman (1969)
  • Survival A Thematic Guide to Canadian
    Literature (1972)
  • Stories not about success (frontier) but about
    survival (return)
  • But also victimization
  • Nature as monster

12
  • Strange Things The Malevolent North in Canadian
    Literature (1995)
  • Canadians have long taken the North for granted,
    and weve invested a large percentage of our
    feelings about identity and belonging in it. But
    the bad news is coming in the North is not
    endless
  • The things that are killing the North will kill,
    if left unchecked, everything else
  • Oryx and Crake (2003)
  • Speculative dystopia of disastrous impact of
    human engineering on the world and the environment

13
II Anna Brownell Jameson, née Murphy (1794-1860)
  • Marries Robert Sympson Jameson in 1825
  • Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada
    (1838)
  • "A little ill-built town on low land, at the
    bottom of a frozen bay with one very ugly church,
    without tower or steeple some government
    offices, built of staring red brick, in the most
    tasteless, vulgar style imaginable three feet of
    snow all around and the gray, sullen, wintry
    lake, and the dark gloom of the pine forest
    bounding the prospect such seems Toronto to me
    now

14
Catharine Parr Trail, née Strickland (1802-1899)
  • Marries Lt. Thomas Trail 1832
  • settles on eastern shore of Lake Katchawanook
    near Peterborough
  • The Backwoods of Canada (1836)

15
Susanna Moodie, née Strickland (1803-1885)
  • Marries John Wedderburn Dunbar Moodie 1831
  • Lived near Peterborough then Belleville,
  • Roughing it in the Bush Or, Forest Life in
    Canada (1852)

16
III Archibald Lampman (1861-1899)
  • Has been called best Canadian poet of 19th
    century
  • Among the Millet (1888)
  • Lyrics of Earth (1895)
  • Alcyone and Other Poems (1899)
  • Worked at Post Office Department in Ottawa
  • Poem Snow adapted by Loreena McKennitt

17
  • Confederation Poets Duncan Campbell Scott,
    William Wilfred Campbell, Bliss Carman, Charles
    George Douglas Roberts
  • Duncan Campbell Scott (18621947)
  • Joined Department of Indian Affairs in 1879 and
    became superintendent in 1913
  • Charles GD Roberts (1860-1943)
  • Credited with inventing the animal story

18
  • Canada First Movement
  • Exclusive group that promotes nationalism
  • Founds the Nation, the National Club, and
    political party the Canadian National Association
  • Members include Goldwin Smith, Edward Blake,
    Robert Grant Haliburton

19
  • Robert Grant Haliburton (1831-1901)
  • March, 1869 We are the Northmen of the New
    World
  • The northern air was supposed to stimulate
    intelligence and encourage initiative, qualities
    necessary for the creation of political freedom
    and democracy. Canadians should never complain
    about their weather, thought the Canada Firsters
    it was the climate which weeded out the weak and
    the lazy and discouraged members of the southern
    races from settling here. The North imposed a
    form of natural selection which was constantly
    reinforcing the quality of the nation, the True
    North strong and free (Francis 1997 154)

20
IV Margaret Atwood (1939-)
  • Wilderness Tips (1991)
  • Pamela
  • Prue
  • Portia
  • Roland
  • George
  • From Sea to Sea
  • Wild Animals I Have Known
  • The Collected Poems of Robert Service
  • Our Empire Story
  • Wilderness Tips

21
  • Wacousta Lodge
  • Wacousta or, The Prophecy (1832)
  • by John Richardson
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