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KEY FACTORS IN HEALTH

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Division of Health Promotion, Education and Communication ... Health is created and lived by people within the settings of their everyday life; ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: KEY FACTORS IN HEALTH


1
KEY FACTORS IN HEALTH
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
income education work physical environments p
ublic policies
child development social support family and frie
nds
caring communicaties
inherited tendency and response to disease
health behaviours smoking drinking driving
physical eating, etc.
Source Premiers Council on Health Strategy
(1987-1991)
November 1996
2
MOVING INTO THE FUTURE
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Health is created and lived by people within the
settings of their everyday life where they
learn, work, play and love.
Source Ottawa Charter
November 1996
3
FOUR INTERRELATED THEMES
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
  • Ensuring equity in health
  • Adding life to years
  • Adding health to life
  • Adding years to life

Source Health for All Targets)
November 1996
4
LIFESTYLES CONDUCIVE TOHEALTH
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Goal
Strategies
Support
Healthy lifestyles Target 16 Healthy living Targ
et 17 Tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drugs
Healthy promotion in action Target 14 Settings fo
r health promotion
Target 15 Health competence
Policy Target 13 Healthy public policy
Source Health for All Targets
November 1996
5
THE HEALTH FOR ALL TARGETS
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Equity in health Target 1 Quality in life Tar
get 2
Better health status Targets 3 - 12
Goal (Chapter 3)
Lifestyles conducive to health
Targets 13 - 17 Healthy environment Targets 18
- 25
Appropriate care Targets 26 - 31
Strategies (Chapters 4, 5 and 6)
Support (Chapter 7)
Health for all development strategies
Targets 32 - 38
Source Health for All Targets
November 1996
6
HEALTH FIELD CONCEPT
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
biological factors
physical environment
health status of the population
health care services
social environment
Healthy Policy
lifestyle factors
Source WWC 1987
November 1996
7
CAUSES OF DEATH 1990
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
10 Leading Causes of Death
Actual Causes of Death
Health disease 720 058 Cancer 505 322 Cerebrovas
cular disease 144 088 Unintentional injuries 91 9
83 Chronic lung disease 86 679 Pneumonia and inf
luenza 79 513 Diabetes 47 664 Suicide 30 906 Ch
ronic liver disease 25 815 HIV infection 25 188
TOTAL 1 757 216
Tobacco 400 000 Diet/inactivity patterns 300 000
Alcohol 100 000 Certain infections 90
000 Toxic agents 60 000 Firearms 35 000 Sexual
behaviour 30 000 Motor vehicles 25 000 Drug use
20 000 TOTAL 1 060 000
November 1996
SourceNational Center for Health Statistics,
Advance Report of Final Mortality Statistics,
1990, Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 41
No. 7. Source McGinnis, J.M., and Foege, W.H.
Actual Causes of Death in the United States,
The Journal of the American Medical Association,
1993. 2702207-2212.
8
12 indicators of the GLOBAL HEALTH FOR
ALLstrategy that were to be assessed by all
countries in the world
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
  • HFA policy endorsed at the highest official
    level
  • Mechanisms for involving people in implementation
    of functioning strategies
  • At least 5 of the Gross National Product to be
    spent on health
  • A reasonable percentage of the national health
    expenditure devoted to local health care
  • Equal distribution of resources
  • Number of developing countries receiving support
    from rich countries for sound HFA strategies
  • Primary health care available for the whole
    population, with at least
  • safe drinking water and adequate sanitary
    facilites in or near the home
  • immunization (diphtheria, tetanus, whooping
    cough, measles, poliomyelitis and tuberculosis)
  • local health care (including at least 20
    essential drugs) within one hours walk or
    travel
  • trained personnel to guide pregnancy, childbirth
    and child care
  • Nutritional status of children adequate (90 of
    newborns weigh at least 2500g weight of 90 of
    children corresponds to reference values)
  • Infant mortality for all identifable subgroups is
    below 50 per 1000 live births
  • Life expectancy at birth is over 60 years
  • The adult literacy rate for both men and women
    exceeds 70
  • The Gross National Product per head exceeds US
    500.

Source Bulls Eye or Achilles Heel
November 1996
9
SETTING HEALTH OBJECTIVES
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Health for All 2000 introduced three key
principles for health policy and two strategies
  • Health
  • For All Equity
  • 2000 Timeframes and accountability
  • Intersectorality
  • Participation

November 1996
10
OTTAWA CHARTERFOR HEALTH PROMOTION
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
5 key action areas
  • Healthy Public Policy
  • Supportive Environments
  • Community Action
  • Personal Skills
  • Reorienting Health Services

Source Health for All Targets
November 1996
11
Second Generation Objectives
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
  • Theoretical premise health
  • Public health premise investment
  • Practical premise community development,
    organizational development, participation and
    partnerships

November 1996
12
OTTAWA CHARTERFOR HEALTH PROMOTION
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Definition of health adopted by the government of
British Columbia, Canada Health is the extent t
o which an individual or group is able, on the
one hand, to develop aspirations and satisfy
needs and on the other hand, to change or cope
with the environment. Health is therefore seen
as a resource for everyday life, not the
objective of living it is seen as a positive
concept emphasizing social and personal
resources, as well as physical capacities.
Source Health for All Targets
November 1996
13
OTTAWA CHARTERFOR HEALTH PROMOTION
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Health is created and lived by people within the
settings of their everyday life where they
learn, work, play and love.
November 1996
14
Hints for the second generation
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Three lead questions Where is health created?
Which investment creates the largest health
gain? Does this investment help reduce the health
gap and ensure human rights?
November 1996
15
Quebec Policy on Health and Wellbeing
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Three principles Interaction between the individ
ual and the environment Shared responsibility for
creating health Public health and wellbeing is a
fundamental investment that creates
Source Health for All Targets
November 1996
16
Quebec Policy on Health and Wellbeing
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
5 priority areas social adjustment physical hea
lth public health mental health social integrat
ion
Source Health for All Targets
November 1996
17
Quebec Policy on Health and Wellbeing
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Integrated strategic approach
encourage the reinforcement of the individuals
potential provide support in social settings and
develop healthy and safe environments
inprove living conditions act for and with groups
at risk coordinate public policy and action to p
romote health and wellbeing orient the health and
social services system towards the most
effective and least costly solutions
Source Health for All Targets
November 1996
18
Goals - Where we will concentrate our efforts
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
Goal 1 Foster positive and supportive living and
working conditions in all our communities.
Goal 2 Support all individuals to develop the
capacities, skills and attitudes we need to
thrive and meet lifes challenges.
Goal 3 Ensure an environment that is naturally
diverse and has clean, healthy and safe
ecosystems of air, water and land for humans and
all living things, now and for future
generations. Goal 4 Ensure that our public polici
es and investments recognize all of the important
influences on our health, and result in the best
possible health outcomes. Goal 5 Reduce preventab
le illness, injuries and premature deaths.
Goal 6 Foster joint action to improve the health
of Aboriginal peoples.
November 1996
19
Six principles forsecond generation objectives
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
  • Social model of health
  • Investment goals
  • Reducing health gaps and social gradients
  • Policy relevant data indices
  • Partnerships and alliances
  • International and sustainable development
    dimensions

November 1996
20
Policy Papers
World Health Organization
Division of Health Promotion, Education and
Communication
  • Targets for health for all. World Health
    Organization, Copenhagen 1991
  • The policy on health and well-being, Quebec
    1992
  • The Health of the Nation, London 1992
  • Nurturing Health, Ontario 1993
  • A strategic direction to improve and protect the
    public health, Wellington, New Zealand,
    1993-1994
  • Better Health Outcomes for Australians,
    Commonwealth of Australia, 1994
  • Healthy People 2000. Midcourse review, 1995
  • Health Goals for British Columbia, November 1995

Source Health for All Targets
November 1996
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