Energy Resources - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Energy Resources PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5a275-YWNkM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Energy Resources

Description:

Petroleum refers to the natural crude oil found underground and on Earth's surface. ... burned more cleanly than pure gasoline in conventional gasoline engines. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:174
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 40
Provided by: auburns
Category:
Tags: energy | resources

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Energy Resources


1
Chapter 26
  • Energy Resources

2
Transfer of Solar Energy
  • The energy that humans and all other organisms
    use comes mostly from the Sun.

3
Transfer of Solar Energy
  • Traditional sources of energy, such as wood,
    peat, and fossil fuels, are derived from
    producers such as plants.
  • The energy stored in organic materials is
    released when they are burned.

4
Traditional Sources of Energy
  • Humans have been able to survive in cold climates
    primarily because of their ability to alter the
    environment to meet their needs.
  • Fuels are materials that are burned to produce
    heat or power.
  • Traditional fuels include renewable resources
    such as wood, dried field crops, and dried fecal
    material from animals such as cows and bison.

5
Traditional Sources of Energy
  • Wood
  • Humans have been using wood as an energy source
    for thousands of years.
  • People living in developing countries use half of
    the worlds wood supply as their primary source
    of fuel, which has led to deforestation in many
    areas.
  • In industrialized countries, trees are cut down
    for lumber and paper production rather than fuel.

6
Traditional Sources of Energy
  • Field Crops
  • Humans use other materials, including field
    crops, as fuel when wood is scarce.
  • The simplest way to use field crops is to burn
    them directly.
  • Crop residues left after harvest are other
    sources of energy. All of these can be burned to
    provide heat.

7
Traditional Sources of Energy
  • Fecal Material
  • Feces are the solid wastes of animals.
  • In many cases, dried feces contain undigested
    pieces of grass that help the material to burn.
  • Fecal material from cows often meets the energy
    needs of people in developing countries that have
    limited forest resources.

8
Traditional Sources of Energy
  • Peat
  • Bogs are poorly drained areas with spongy, wet
    ground that is composed mainly of dead and
    decaying plant matter.
  • Plants in bogs including Sphagnum moss, which
    forms large mats on top of the water, accumulate
    as they die.
  • Peat is a light, spongy material that is formed
    when dead plant material is compressed in a bog.
  • Highly decomposed peat burns with greater fuel
    efficiency than wood.

9
Fossil Fuels
  • Fossil fuels are energy sources that formed over
    geologic time as a result of the compression and
    partial decomposition of plants and other organic
    matter.
  • Fossil fuels are considered to be nonrenewable
    because their formation occurred over thousands
    or even millions of years.
  • Fossil fuels include peat, coal, natural gas, and
    petroleum.
  • The high concentration of carbon and hydrogen in
    fossil fuels makes them very efficient energy
    sources.
  • All fossil fuels originated from organic matter
    trapped in sedimentary rock.

10
Fossil Fuels
  • Coal
  • Lignite is a soft, brown, low-grade coal that
    forms from peat and has carbon concentrations of
    around 40 percent.
  • Bituminous coal is the most distributed coal in
    the United States and has carbon concentrations
    as high as 85 percent.
  • Anthracite is the most efficient and most cleanly
    burning coal with carbon concentrations of 90 to
    95 percent.
  • Bituminous coal is the most widely used coal in
    the United States although carbon and sulfur and
    nitrogen oxides are released into the air when it
    burns.

11
Fossil Fuels
  • Petroleum and Natural Gas
  • Petroleum refers to the natural crude oil found
    underground and on Earths surface.
  • Crude oil is a mixture of compounds of hydrogen
    and carbon called hydrocarbons, which can be
    burned to release energy.
  • Oil originated organically as organisms died and
    fell to the oxygen-poor environment at the bottom
    of the seas where they were compressed into
    sedimentary rocks.
  • Bacteria that do not require oxygen partially
    decomposed the accumulated organisms and released
    methane, which is one of the components of
    natural gas.

12
Alternative Energy Resources
  • Most people rely on nonrenewable fossil fuels for
    their energy needs which are being used up at an
    alarming rate.
  • Some experts estimate that petroleum resources
    may be used up within the next 60 years.
  • Renewable alternatives to traditional energy
    resources include solar energy, wind, water,
    geothermal energy, nuclear energy, and biomass.

13
Solar Energy
  • Passive Solar Heating
  • The Sun can heat up the inside of a car or a
    building just by shining through the windows.
  • The Suns energy also can be captured to be
    released during the evening in floors and walls
    made of concrete, adobe, brick, stone, or tile,
    which have heat-storing capacities.
  • Passive solar designs can provide up to 70
    percent of the energy needed to heat a house, as
    well as up to 60 percent of the energy needed to
    cool it.

14
Solar Energy
  • Passive Solar Heating

15
Solar Energy
  • Active Solar Heating
  • Active solar-heating systems include collectors
    such as solar panels that absorb solar energy and
    fans or pumps that distribute that energy
    throughout the house.
  • Heat collected by the solar panels can be used to
    heat a house directly, or it can be stored for
    later use in insulated tanks that contain rocks,
    water, or a heat-absorbing chemical.

16
Solar Energy
  • Solar Cookers
  • Solar cookers can be used effectively where fuels
    are scarce or expensive, as in countries that
    have cut down most of their forests.
  • A solar cooker can be as simple as an enclosed
    box with reflectors to direct the Suns rays
    inside the box.

17
Solar Energy
  • Photovoltaic Cells
  • Photovoltaic cells are thin, transparent wafers
    made up of layers of boron- and
    phosphorus-enriched silicon, convert solar energy
    into electrical energy.
  • The electricity produced by photovoltaic cells
    can be stored in batteries.
  • It is estimated that power towers may someday
    supply 30 percent of the electric power used
    worldwide.

18
(No Transcript)
19
Energy from Water
  • Hydroelectric power is energy produced by water
    moving through turbines that drive generators.
  • Hydroelectric power currently provides about 20
    percent of the worlds electricity and 6 percent
    of its total energy.
  • One advantage of hydroelectric power is that it
    is nonpolluting.
  • Dams built to harness hydroelectric power have
    negative impacts including flooding large areas,
    destroying wildlife habitats, and changing the
    natural pattern of water flow.

20
(No Transcript)
21
Energy from Water
  • Energy from the Oceans
  • The kinetic energy in waves, which is created
    primarily by wind, can be used to generate
    electricity.
  • Barriers built across estuaries or inlets can
    capture the energy associated with the ebb and
    flow of tides for use in tidal power plants.
  • While power from moving ocean water is renewable
    and nonpolluting, barriers in the ocean can
    change the water level and may disrupt coastal
    and marine ecosystems.

22
(No Transcript)
23
Geothermal Energy
  • Geothermal energy is energy produced by steam
    and hot water generated by Earths own internal
    heat.
  • Abundant at some surface locations usually
    coinciding with plate boundaries, geothermal
    energy can be harnessed to heat homes and
    businesses and generate electricity.
  • If developed, geothermal reservoirs in the United
    States could possibly provide up to 30 times as
    much energy as the country currently uses.

24
(No Transcript)
25
Wind Energy
  • The wind turbines on a wind farm convert the
    energy of the wind to mechanical energy, which is
    then used to produce electrical energy.
  • Most of the wind farms in the United States are
    currently in California, although North Dakota,
    South Dakota, and Texas have the best locations.
  • Wind power could supply more than 10 percent of
    the worlds electricity by the year 2050.

26
(No Transcript)
27
Nuclear Energy
  • During nuclear fission, a large amount of energy
    is released when a heavy nucleus divides to form
    smaller nuclei and one or two neutrons.
  • Uranium is a radioactive element that is commonly
    used in the production of nuclear energy.
  • Nuclear power plants do not produce carbon
    dioxide or any other greenhouse gases.
  • After 50 years, 424 nuclear reactors in 25
    countries currently are producing only 17 percent
    of the worlds electricity.
  • No new nuclear plants have been built in the
    United States since 1978.

28
Biomass
  • Biomass is a renewable energy resource as long as
    the organisms that provide the biomass are
    replaced.
  • Bacteria and chemical processes can be used to
    convert solid biomass into gaseous and liquid
    biofuels, such as biogas, liquid ethanol, and
    liquid methanol.
  • A disadvantage of biomass fuels is that when they
    are burned, they release carbon dioxide and
    particulate matter into the atmosphere.

29
Biomass
  • Biogas
  • a mixture of gases that includes 50 to 70 percent
    methane gas and 30 to 48 percent carbon-dioxide
    gas.
  • Plant and animal wastes can be converted into
    methane gas in simple containers, called
    digesters, by the action of bacteria.
  • In the digesters, gas is separated from the solid
    wastes and piped into homes for use as a cooking
    fuel.

30
Biomass
  • Ethanol and Methanol
  • Liquid ethanol is another name for grain alcohol
    that can be made from sugar and grain crops
    including sugar cane, sugar beets, sorghum, and
    corn.
  • Gasohol is gasoline mixed with ethanol produced
    from corn, which can be burned more cleanly than
    pure gasoline in conventional gasoline engines.

31
Conservation of Energy Resources
  • Although fossil fuels are nonrenewable and in
    limited supply, industrialized countries continue
    to consume these resources at ever increasing
    rates.

32
Conservation of Energy Resources
  • The best way to meet energy needs is a
    combination of improved energy efficiency and
    increased use of locally available, renewable
    energy resources.

33
Energy Efficiency
  • Conservation of Energy Resources
  • There are many ways that you could conserve
    energy at home, at school, and in the workplace.
  • turning lights off when you leave a room.
  • Recycle old appliances and replace with newer
    energy efficient models.
  • Use energy efficient light bulbs
  • Change your heater/AC to a more efficient
    setting.
  • Conserving energy is, in the long run, less
    expensive than finding new energy sources.

34
Getting More for Less
  • Higher energy demand requires a greater supply
    and results in higher costs.
  • In the United States, approximately 43 percent of
    the energy used by motor vehicles and to heat
    homes and businesses is wasted.
  • Shifting to the more efficient use of energy
    rather than the search for more energy would
    reduce demand, thus lowering the total cost of
    energy.

35
Getting More for Less
  • Cogeneration is the production of two usable
    forms of energy, such as steam and electricity,
    at the same time from the same process.
  • Cogeneration can produce income and reduce the
    need for additional energy resources.

36
Getting More for Less
  • Improving Efficiency in Transportation
  • Conservation practices can help reduce dependency
    on the fuel resources used for transportation.
  • The use of fuel-efficient vehicles and driving at
    lower speeds reduces the amount of petroleum
    resources consumed by motor vehicles.
  • Using bicycles, public transportation, or
    carpooling reduces the number of vehicles on the
    roads which in turn reduces gasoline consumption.
  • Computers and access to the Internet allow more
    jobs to be performed from home.

37
Getting More for Less
  • Improving Efficiency in Industry
  • Cogeneration has allowed some industries to
    increase production while leveling off their
    energy use in part by the use of more efficient
    machinery.
  • Industries can further improve their energy
    efficiency by making greater efforts to reduce
    their use of both materials and the energy used
    to produce those materials.

38
Getting More for Less
  • Increasing Efficiency at Home
  • The use of energy-efficient appliances can
    significantly reduce energy consumption.
  • The use of building materials and windows with
    high insulation values (R-values) can
    significantly reduce energy consumption.
  • Incorporating passive and active solar heating in
    new buildings can reduce the consumption of
    traditional energy resources.
  • New buildings that are designed to save energy
    cost more initially, but they can save money and
    resources in the long run.

39
Sustainable Energy
  • Energy resources on Earth are interrelated,
    meaning that they affect one another.
  • Sustainable energy involves the global management
    of Earths natural resources to meet current and
    future energy needs without causing environmental
    damage.
  • A good management plan incorporates both
    conservation and energy efficiency.
  • Global cooperation can help ensure the necessary
    balance between protection of the environment and
    economic growth.
About PowerShow.com