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Update on Ultrawideband UWBTechnologies throughout the world

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Title: Update on Ultrawideband UWBTechnologies throughout the world


1
Update on Ultrawideband (UWB)Technologies
throughout the world
  • Prof. Theodore S. Rappaport
  • Wireless Networking and Communications Group
    (WNCG)
  • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • The College of Engineering
  • The University of Texas at Austin email
    wireless_at_mail.utexas.edu
  • www.wncg.org

2
UWB Technology Update Outline
  • Introduction to UWB and its historical and
    technical origins
  • UWB applications as viewed by Consumer Electronic
    (CE) and Computer companies
  • Challenges for Global Adoption International
    Regulatory climate
  • Standards battle UWB-DS vs. MBOA, and
    up-to-the-minute activities
  • New network management concepts based on
    knowledge of position and environment

3
Original FCC Definition of UWB
  • UWB signals .. have a fractional bandwidth (the
    ratio of baseband bandwidth to RF carrier
    frequency) of greater than 0.20, or a UWB
    bandwidth greater than 500 MHz. UWB bandwidth is
    defined as the frequency band bounded by the
    points that are 10 dB below the highest radiated
    emission
  • FCC, First Report and Order 02-48. February 2002.

4
FCC Spectrum Mask 2002
  • -41.25 dbm/MHz UWB Emission Limit for Outdoor
    Hand-held systems

5
FCC Indoor UWB Spectrum Mask
6
UWB uses ultra wideband signaling
7
The Idea for UWB
8
Early days of modern UWB
  • IEEE 802.15 Task Group (TG) 3a formed in late
    2001
  • FCC approves unlicensed spectrum use in 3.1
    10.6 GHz on February 14, 2002
  • Standards activities heat up within IEEE 802.15
  • IEEE Standard Proposals for UWB put forth
    beginning March 2003
  • Xtreme Spectrum (XSI) produces first working UWB
    chip
  • Intel and TI merge Multiband OFDM proposals on
    July 14, 2003
  • Motorola acquires Xtreme Spectrum in Nov. 2003
    and bolsters DS-SS UWB
  • FCC adopts Second RO on UWB, effective March 05
  • Source The Evolution of Ultra Wide Band (UWB)
    Radio for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN),
    by Mandke, et.al., September 2003, High Frequency
    Electronics Magazine

9
IEEE 802.15 Standards Activities
10
UWB Technical Goals
11
Original IEEE 802.15.3a Timeline
12
Two approaches to UWB
13
UWB Technology Update Outline
  • Introduction to UWB and its historical and
    technical origins
  • UWB applications as viewed by Consumer Electronic
    (CE) and Computer companies
  • Challenges for Global Adoption International
    Regulatory climate
  • Standards battle UWB-DS vs. MBOA, and
    up-to-the-minute activities
  • New network management concepts based on
    knowledge of position and environment

14
Technology Landscape
Dell Competing technologies and standards drive
design complexity and cost.
Personal Connectivity 10 meters
Wide Area Connectivity Beyond 100 meters
Local Area Connectivity 100 meters
Wireless Story Elements
WPANs
WWANs/WMANs
WLANs
  • Cable Replacement
  • Local Data Sync
  • Device Connectivity
  • Ad-Hoc Connections
  • Mobile Ethernet
  • Office
  • Home
  • Hot Spots/Travel
  • Internet Access Anywhere
  • Alternative BB Technologies
  • Low-to-Medium Data Rates

15
Wireless Technology Landscape
WiMax 802.16d 70 Mbps
WiMax 802.16e 10 Mbps
WMAN
WCDMA 3 Mbps -
HSDPA 8Mbps
EDGE 384 Kbps
GPRS
40-70 Kbps
WWAN
cdma2000 1xRTT
1xEV-DO 1.8 Mbps
1xEV-DV 3 Mbps
54 Mbps at 2.4 GHz
802.11g
802.11b
802.11n (MIMO)
WLAN
Dual-Band
11 Mbps at 2.4GHz
802.11a
100 - 500 Mbps at 2.4/5 GHz
54 Mbps at 5GHz
Bluetooth EDR
Btooth 2.0
Bluetooth 1.1
10 Mbps
WPAN
721 Kbps
3 Mbps
480 Mbps
480 1 Gbps
Past
CY03
CY04
CY05
CY06
CY07
16
Dells UWB Usage Models
17
Dell Wireless Architecture Plan
Competing Wireless Technologies drive platform
cost, power size and design complexity.
WWAN Antenna Structure
WLAN Antenna Structures
Additional Antennas for 802.11n/MIMO
Internal Platform Slot options
WPAN Module. UWB will drive new module and
antenna design requirements. Standards based
solutions and worldwide spectrum harmonization
are key PC OEM requirements for wireless device
integration.
WWAN SIM
18
PC OEMs serve global markets standards and
spectrum harmonization drive lower cost
  • Global Spectrum Harmonization
  • Non-aligned Spectrum drives design complexity,
    cost and TTM
  • Regional Markets
  • Customer Support
  • Product transformation
  • Regulatory and Spectrum compliance
  • PC OEMs serve worldwide market segments
  • Design Leverage, and alignment of overlapping
    technologies
  • Device and spectrum co-existence
  • Reduced product development cycles

19
UWB Consumer Applications
Freescale Semi.
Home Entertainment
Mobile Devices
Computing
Automotive
20
Entertainment Applications
  • Connect between sources and displays
  • Drivers are wire elimination for install and
    freedom of component placement
  • Requirements
  • Bandwidth
  • Each MPEG2 HD Stream 20-29 Mbps
  • Two full rate streams required for PIP
  • Handheld can be used for PIP viewing or channel
    surfing (SD stream)
  • Range
  • Media center to display or handheld
  • Anywhere in the room (lt10m)
  • QoS with low latency
  • Channel change, typing, gamers
  • Available Now both SD and HD

21
Content Transfer Mobile Devices
  • Applications
  • Smartphone/PDA, MP3, DSC
  • Media Player, Storage, display
  • Requirements
  • Mobile device storage sizes
  • Flash 5, 32, 512, 2048 … MB
  • HD 4, …, 60 GB
  • Range is near device (lt 2m)
  • User requires xfer time lt 10s

Low Power Use Cases
Images from camera to storage/network
MP3 titles to music player
Low Power High Data Rate Use
Exchange your music data
MPEG4 movie (512 MB) to player
Print from handheld
Mount portable HD
22
Content Streaming
  • Applications
  • Digital video camcorder (DVC)
  • Smartphone/PDS, Media player
  • Requirements
  • Range is in view of display (lt 5m)
  • DV Format 30 Mbps with QoS
  • MPEG 2 at 12-20Mbps
  • Power budget lt 500 mW

Use Cases
Stream DV or MPEG DS-UWB is just a shift register
Stream presentation from Smartphone/PDA to
projector
Channel surf and PIP to handheld
23
CEA WG7 R7 RFI Results
  • WG received information about technologies shown
    at the right
  • WG held teleconference for each responder
  • Clarifications
  • Follow-up questions
  • WG identified additional characteristic (power
    consumption)
  • WG has prepared summary of the responses (Table
    3)
  • Technologies Surveyed
  • 802.11b (WG effort)
  • 802.11abg (Received two responses)
  • 802.15.1 .1a (Bluetooth)
  • 802.15.3 (WG effort)
  • Proposed 802.15.3a
  • UWB/DS
  • UWB/MB-OFDM
  • 802.15.4 (Zigbee)
  • 802.16
  • HiperLAN2

24
CEA WG7 Range Coverage Area
  • Most important and understandable characteristics
  • In many technologies, range is linked to
    throughput
  • Application requirements vary
  • Entire house A/V distribution
  • Cord replacement
  • Handset
  • Example Technologies
  • 802.11b measurements of 6.3Mbps _at_ 45m (point to
    point)
  • 802.15.1a (Bluetooth) standard requires 700kbps _at_
    10m reported to be supported by anecdotal
    evidence
  • 802.15.3a UWB/DS reported 85Mbps _at_ 10m 750Mbps _at_
    2m
  • 802.15.3a UWB/MB-OFDM reported 105 Mbps _at_ 11m
    460Mbps _at_ 3.5m

25
CEA WG7 Network Topology
  • WG Terms Bridged peer-to-peer or peer-to
    multi-peer, Ad Hoc, Managed peer-to-peer, Mesh,
    Infrastructure mode (Star), Star with multiple
    APs, Star with repeater Cluster tree added
    when 802.15.4 was discussed.
  • Example Technologies
  • 802.16 reported mesh (under development) and
    point-to-multipoint 1600 (1024) nodes
  • 802.15.4 reported bridged peer-to-peer
    (peer-to-multi-peer), managed peer-to-peer, Ad
    hoc, Mesh, Cluster tree (modified star) 264
    nodes
  • 802.15.3a UWB/DS and 802.15.3a UWB/MB-OFDM (as
    alternate physical layers) support same as
    802.15.3 managed peer-to-peer 236 nodes

26
UWB Technology Update Outline
  • Introduction to UWB and its historical and
    technical origins
  • UWB applications as viewed by Consumer Electronic
    (CE) and Computer companies
  • Challenges for Global Adoption International
    Regulatory climate
  • Standards battle UWB-DS vs. MBOA, and
    up-to-the-minute activities
  • New network management concepts based on
    knowledge of position and environment

27
European Organizations
  • CEPT (European Conference of Postal and
    Telecommunications Administrations)
  • ECC (Electronic Communications Committee)
  • ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards
    Institute)
  • ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union,
    Radiocommunication Sector)
  • Ofcom (Office of Communications, UK)

28
Europes standardization progress
  • ETSI proposed its own UWB spectral mask
  • Compared to FCCs mask, ETSI mask imposes tighter
    limits at the edges (3 and 10 GHz, -65 dBm/MHz at
    2.1 Ghz) 6
  • Further discussion schedule in April 2005 at the
    12th CEPT conference 7

29
Ofcoms Consultation
  • Published January 13, 2005
  • Open to response until March 24, 2005
  • This document deals only with the indoor use of
    UWB and indoor masks 6
  • Ofcom predicts negative benefits if UK adopts the
    FCC mask due to interference with other services
  • Significant impact on UMTS (Universal Mobile
    Telecommunications System) costs
  • Ofcom proposed revision to the ETSI mask, with
    even tighter edge limits (-85 dBm/MHz at 2.1 GHz
    for 3G) but same in-band specs as FCCs indoor
    mask 6

30
Ofcoms economic analysis
Source 6
31
Ofcoms proposed mask
Source 6
32
Ofcoms Conclusion
  • Favors allowing UWB deployment
  • Currently allowing licensed UWB devices such as
    ground probing radar, through the wall
    imaging
  • Favors license-exempt approach for UWB
    communication devices
  • Favors ETSIs mask or its own version , but never
    FCCs indoor mask 6

33
CEPT- ECCs Consultation
  • Studies exclusively on the effects of UWB on
    existing services, not economic benefits
  • Studies only the FCC indoor mask since it would
    be the most common UWB type
  • Consultation is closed 15

34
CEPT- ECCs Consultation
  • Concluded that FCCs indoor mask is not stringent
    enough
  • Most radio devices require up 20-30 dB more
    stringent generic UWB PSD limits 15
  • Few are sufficiently protected while some radio
    astronomy bands require 50 to 80 dB tighter
    limits
  • Presented a graph of minimum limit required for
    sufficient protection 15

35
ECCs Spectral mask all services
Source 15
36
UWB in Japan
  • MPHPT (Ministry of Public Management, Home
    Affairs, and Posts and Telecom
  • UWB frequencies 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz
  • Intel multi-band prototype of UWB physical layer
    received first experimental radio license from
    MPHPT
  • April 11, 2003, up to 252 Mbps
  • Wisair established an office to demo its UWB
    technology and obtained an experimental license.
    (July 2003)

37
UWB in Japan
  • Japan formed UWB Technology Institute within NICT
    to investigate OFDM and Impulse radio 16
  • Members include Yokohama Ntnl. University, Sanyo,
    Casio, Fujitsu, other companies and universities
  • Japan MPHPTs UWB Radio Systems Subcommittee
    published interim report March 04
  • Theoretical calculations conclude significant
    separation needed to avoid interference.
    Experimental studies and simulations are the next
    step 17
  • Contributes to IEEE 802.15 and ITU-R
  • Inclined to adopt ITU-Rs regulation

38
DS-UWB presence in China
  • Freescale (DS-UWB) hosted the first UWB Wireless
    Tech. Forum on Sept. 24, 2004 11
  • China UWB Forum, associated with the US UWB
    Forum, has members that include
  • Flaircomm Technologies, Inc
  • Universal Scientific Industrial - Shanghai
  • Skyworth, Inc, Shenzhen 13
  • Haier Corp. demonstrated DS-UWB-enabled digital
    camcorders, with rates up to 114 Mbps

39
UWB Technology Update Outline
  • Introduction to UWB and its historical and
    technical origins
  • UWB applications as viewed by Consumer Electronic
    (CE) and Computer companies
  • Challenges for Global Adoption International
    Regulatory climate
  • Standards battle UWB-DS vs. MBOA, and up
    to-the-minute activities
  • New network management concepts based on
    knowledge of position and environment

40
IEEE Standardization
  • Deadlocked for past 15 months
  • Formation of Special Interest Groups (SIG)
  • Standard for Wireless USB will be done outside
    IEEE
  • Similar to wired USB and Bluetooth
  • Two main proposals for UWB PHY standard are
    backed by
  • Multi-Band OFDM Alliance (MBOA)
  • 528 MHz band channels 128 tones at 4.125 MHz FH
    OFDM
  • UWB Forum supporting DS-UWB
  • 3.1 to 4.9 GHz low band 6.2 to 9.7 GHz high,
    DS-SS BPSK
  • Optional 4BOK (Quadrature Biorthogonal keying)

41
OFDM-UWB (MBOA) Camp
  • 9 major semiconductor manufacturers
  • Intel, Infineon, NEC Electronics, Philips,
    Samsung, ST Microelectronics, Texas Instruments,
    Renesas, Toshiba
  • Major consumer-electronics manufacturers
  • Mitsubishi, Olympus, Panasonic, Philips, Samsung,
    Sharp, SONY, Toshiba, Hitachi
  • Industry alliances that have officially announced
    their support of MB-OFDM
  • Wireless USB Working Group
  • WiMedia Alliance/MBOA
  • Wireless 1394 Trade Association

42
MBOA Alliance
  • Primary supporters are Intel, Texas Instruments
    formed in June 2003
  • Supports UWB specification based on OFDM approach
  • Last proposal updated in Sept 2004
  • Established SIG and released full PHY spec ver
    1.0 to members in Nov 2004
  • Broad industry support 175 members
  • First chipset released by Wisair in Oct 2004
  • Realtek, Alerion, Staccato also have silicon

43
WiMedia Alliance
  • Endorses MB-OFDM UWB specifications
  • Certification and interoperability program to
    define common platform for coexistence with
    Wireless USB and Wireless 1394
  • Supports a multi-protocol system
  • W-USB, W-1394, DLNA profiles
  • Fairness policies, security privacy
  • Supports technical specifications for UPnP/IP
    Platform

44
WiMedia Alliance
  • WiMedia Alliance has absorbed MBOA to promote
    OFDM-UWB
  • The DS-UWB camp has challenged that OFDM devices
    emit more radiation than FCC allowed
  • The original conservative procedure measures with
    the hopping stopped (continuous transmission at
    same frequency)
  • These procedures can result in measured emission
    levels that are greater than the UWB signal
    levels under actual operation 24

45
WiMedia gets FCC waiver
  • FCC has just recently granted WiMedia a waiver of
    the emission measurement procedures. Can measure
    PSD with hopping between bands
  • The waiver is effective until the Commission
    finalizes a rule making proceeding dealing with
    these measurement issues
  • FCCs stance is to enable any UWB technology it
    is possible to enable, provided we protect
    incumbents 25 and not to pick a particular
    technology 26

46
Wireless USB
  • The standard is based upon MBOA goals
  • Chose MB-OFDM UWB
  • Wireless USB 1.0 spec was just completed March 05
  • Constructing USB compliant application stack
  • Working with 1394 and WiMedia to create radio
    sharing rules

(Source http//www.staccatocommunications.com/pre
ssroom/articles_presentations.html)
47
UWB Forum
  • Supports Direct Sequence (DS) UWB specification
    for global UWB standard
  • 80 companies
  • Freescale, Motorola, Samsung
  • Ahead of MBOA competitors in terms of UWB silicon
  • Freescale received first FCC certification for
    UWB chipset in August 2004

48
Example UWB Activity
  • Samsung and Freescale demonstrate DS-UWB-enabled
    cell phone at 3GSM World Congress in Cannes,
    February 2005
  • The demo used UWB to transfer photos from the
    handset to PC, and music and contact data from
    the PC to phone
  • Staccato is teaming it's MB-OFDM UWB PHY with
    Wisme's MAC technology to develop a single-chip
    CMOS UWB system. Production scheduled to start
    2006
  • Just deploy, and well figure it out FCC
    chair Michael Powell (Source interview with
    Consumer Electronics Association President Gary
    Shapiro, January 2005)

49
UWB Technology Update Outline
  • Introduction to UWB and its historical and
    technical origins
  • UWB applications as viewed by Consumer Electronic
    (CE) and Computer companies
  • Challenges for Global Adoption International
    Regulatory climate
  • Standards battle UWB-DS vs. MBOA, and
    up-to-the-minute activities
  • New network management concepts based on
    knowledge of position and environment

50
Smarter Radios in the future
Interference Map
Desired Power Spectrum
Coexistence Engine
Interference temperature
Local Regulatory Policy
  • Smart radio would use spectral policy, spectrum
    sculpting to create a spectrum tailored to match
    environment

51
Site Specific knowledge is needed in Next
Generation Networks
  • We can substantially increase battery life,
    network performance, enhance coexistence, reduce
    support calls, and deploy no-fault wireless using
    site specific knowledge
  • PHY/MAC/Radio Resources of today will move to
    baseband processing and digital environmental
    map in each client
  • Power vs. processing tradeoffs RF power
    consumption and Network Inefficiencies (today)
    versus baseband processing and clients
    environmental awareness (next gen)

52
Computing and device trends
  • Vector graphics, 3-D processing capability
    evolving naturally as part of microprocessor
  • Multiple radios, frequency bands, applications,
    to become part of PCs, phones, home media,
    enterprise network products
  • Memory costs and cost per MIPS decreasing
    exponentially, at much faster rate than battery
    and RF antenna/propagation breakthroughs
  • History of wireless has not exploited
    environmental/spatial knowledge in the network,
    yet propagation depends solely on this!

53
Deployed Network Coverage
Cube-farm has no coverage in the deployed network
due to human deployment error or bad equipment
or interference
54
Autonomous Network Management using site-specific
information
AP01 is automatically reconfigured using
digitized map at switch cube-farm now has
desired coverage in the deployed network
55
Site-specific RF Network Management
DESIGNED
DEPLOYED
SSID COVERAGE
RF REMEDIATION / RECONFIGURATION w/SITE SPECIFIC
56
Conclusion
  • UWB products will begin appearing over next 2
    quarters
  • Major applications Wireless USB, streaming data,
    massive downloading
  • Market will not mature until global spectrum
    regulations converge not likely within the next
    year due to EU
  • UWB ushers in a new world of massive bandwidth.
    However, 60 Ghz will be next frontier where it
    matures
  • UWB offers position location capabilities and
    radar for building an environmental or spectrum
    map. This is key for smart radio
  • Site-specific knowledge can vastly improve
    network management, and we will see new network
    management concepts based on knowledge of
    position and environment emerge

57
References
  • 1 IEEE. DS-UWB Physical Layer Submission to
    802.15 Task Group 3a. Accessed Feb. 20, 2005.
    Available at http//www.uwbforum.org/index.php?op
    tioncom_contenttask viewid38Itemid60
  • 2 Bill Shvodian. MD-OFDM no vote reasons.
    Freescale.
  • 3 MBOA. MultiBand OFDM Physical Layer Proposal
    for IEEE 802.15 Task Group 3a. Accessed Feb.
    20, 2005. Available at http//www.multibandofdm.o
    rg/ieee_proposal_spec.html
  • 4 Charles Razzell. No vote respopnse.
    Philips Semiconductors.
  • 5 UWB Forum. Proposal comparison summary.
    Accessed Feb. 20, 2005. Available at
    http//www.uwbforum.org/index.php?optioncom_cont
    enttask viewid38Itemid60
  • 6 Office of Communications, Ultra Wideband,
    Accessed Feb. 20, 2005 (http//www.ofcom.org.uk/c
    onsult/condocs/uwb/uwb.pdf)

58
References
  • 7 CEPT, European Electronic Communications
    Regulatory Forum, Accessed Feb. 20, 2005.
    Available at http//www.cept.org/69D2D33E-0770-44
    CB-BEF1- 9A8C74C04DBD.W5Doc
  • 8 Clendenin, Mike, Taiwans Realtek has UWB
    transceiver in CMOS, Commsdesign, Accessed Feb
    24, 2005. Available at http//www.commsdesign.co
    m/news/product_news/showArticle.j html?articleID5
    9200071
  • 9 Tech on China, ?ISSCC?Current PPL cant
    keep up new UWB frequency synthesizer
    unleashed, Accessed Feb 24, 2005.
    (http//china5.nikkeibp.co.jp/china/news/elec/ele
    c200502140111.html)
  • 10 China UWB Forum, First Chinese UWB
    technical expo, Accessed March 1, 2005.
    Available at http//www.uwbforum.org.cn/news/news
    20040924.htm
  • 11 China UWB Forum, ISCIT 2005 will be hosted
    in Beijing, 1 Accessed March 1, 2005. Available
    at http//www.uwbforum.org.cn/news/news20041105.h
    tm

59
References
  • 12 China UWB Forum, Elite members, Accessed
    March 1, 2005. Available at http//www.uwbforum.
    org.cn/memberList.php?Qulify1
  • 13 USI Co., Ltd., USI expands its wireless
    product line, Accessed March 3, 2005.
    Available at http//www.usi.com.tw/index1.asp?NID
    107
  • 14 ECC, Draft ECC report on the protection
    requirements of radiocommunication systems below
    10.6 GHz from generic UWB applications,
    presented at Working Group Spectrum Engineering.
    Helsinki, February 2005. 11
  • 15 ERO, Brief from the latest WG SE, Accessed
    March 3, 2005. Available at http//www.ero.dk/8F
    EE601F-93C7-4175-A175- FADB4C655DD2.W5Doc
  • 16 Latta, John N., Joint UWBST IWUWBS 2004,
    Accessed March 4, 2005. Available at
    http//www.wave- report.com/conference_reports/200
    4/UWBST2004.htm

60
References
  • 17 TCICTS UWB Radio Systems Committee, Interim
    report summary, Accessed March 4, 2005.
    Available at http//www.soumu.go.jp/joho_tsusin/e
    ng/Releases/Telecommunication s/040324.pdf
  • 18 Staccato Communications, MBOA UWB A World
    without Cables, September 27, 2004
  • 19 Federal Register, FCC, UWB Transmission
    Systems Unlicensed Operation, February
    2nd,2005
  • 20 Spread Spectrum Magazine, Online
    Edition Accessed March 1st, 2005, Available
    at http//www.sss-mag.com/newiss.htmluwb
  • 21 FCC's 2nd Report and Order and Second
    Memorandum Opinion and Order in ET Docket No.
    98-153, Available at http//hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edoc
    s_public/attachmatch/FCC-04-285A1.pdf
  • 22 Techworld Online Edition, UWB standards war
    splits to three contenders, Accessed, March
    1st, 2005. Available at
  • http//www.techworld.com/mobility/news/index.cfm
    ?NewsID3199
  • 23 UWB Insider, What Happens Now? Accessed
    March 1st, 2005. Available at http//www.uwbinsid
    er.com/industry/2_1_ds-uwb.html

61
References
  • 24 Judge, Peter, UWBs fate to be decided this
    week, Accessed March 15, 2005. Available at
    http//www.techworld.com/mobility/news/index.cfm?
    NewsID3263
  • 25 Judge, Peter, WiMedia gets FCC approval,
    Accessed March 15, 2005. Available at
    http//www.techworld.com/networking/news/index.cf
    m?NewsID3297
  • 26 Walko, John, MBOA ultrawideband waiver
    request gets nod from FCC, Accessed March 15,
    2005. Available at http//www.commsdesign.com/ne
    ws/showArticle.jhtmljsessionidIV0V EK1QAC5MSQSND
    BCSKHSCJUMEKJVN?articleID159400693
  • 27 FCC TAC Meeting, October 24, 2004, FCC HQ
  • 28 IEEE 802.11-04-1473-00, Site Specific
    Knowledge- a new Paradigm by T.S. Rappaport
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