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Westward Expansion


38 incidental deaths from the conflict. War for Texas Independence ... Spain had been too busy battling Napoleon to pay attention to her Western Hemisphere colonies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Westward Expansion

Westward Expansion
Manifest Destiny
  • It is Americas God given right to expand and
    possess the whole of the continent
  • Possess the continent from sea to shining sea
  • The phrase was coined in 1845 by journalist John
    L. O'Sullivan, then an influential advocate for
    the Democratic Party --"our manifest destiny to
    overspread the continent allotted by Providence
    for the free development of our yearly
    multiplying millions".

American Progress by John Gast (1872)
Manifest Destiny-6 Reasons
  • Hunger for Land
  • Create new markets
  • Need for living space
  • Expand trade with China using excellent West
    coast harbors
  • The panic of 1837 made people believe it would be
    easier to cope with hard times anywhere but
  • The desire to spread Americas virtues

Establishment of Americas borders
  • Question of border between U.S. and Canada at
  • Aroostook War
  • also called the Pork and Beans War, the
    Coon-Canuck War, the Lumberjack's War, and the
    Northeastern Boundary Dispute

Aroostook War
  • Early treaties dating back to the American
    Revolution unclear as to the exact border
  • Both American and New Brunswick lumbermen were
    cutting timber in the disputed territory during
    the winter of 1838-1839
  • Gen Winfield Scott sent to the area to oversee
    the tensions

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Webster-Ashburton Treaty
  • Conflict resolved by the Webster-Ashburton treaty
  • includes not only the Northeastern boundary but
    the boundary of Michigan and Minnesota
  • 38 incidental deaths from the conflict

War for Texas Independence
  • Mexico becomes independent of Spain in Aug., 1821
  • Mexico had begun a ten year revolt in 1810
  • Spain had been too busy battling Napoleon to pay
    attention to her Western Hemisphere colonies
  • This is Spains own form of benign neglect

Mexico adjusts to conditions
  • Throughout Mexico settlers were empowered to
    create their own militias to help control hostile
    Indian tribes.
  • Texas faced raids from both the Apache and
    Comanche tribes, and with little military support
    the few settlers in the region needed help. In
    the hope that an influx of settlers could control
    the Indian raids, the government liberalized its
    immigration policies

Mexico urges settlement of region
  • Requires settlers to be mindful of two things
  • 1. obey Mexicos laws
  • 2. respect Catholic Church
  • Stephen Austin begins to lead Americans into
    Mexico (1823)

Map of Mexico1824
  • Austin offered land at 12.5 cents per acre, only
    10 of what comparable acreage sold for in the
    United States.
  • Settlers would pay no customs duties for seven
    years and would not be subject to taxation for
    ten years

  • By 1829, the political faction in control in
    Mexico City saw the American constituency falling
    to the opposition. To slow immigration, slavery
    was officially outlawed in Mexico.
  • On April 6, 1830, Texas was ordered to comply
    with the emancipation proclamation or face
    military intervention
  • By 1836, there were approximately 5,000 slaves in

Mexico makes things unpleasant for Americans in
  • Americans were specifically targeted by
    rescinding the property tax law, which had
    exempted immigrants from paying taxes for ten
  • increasing tariffs on goods entering Mexico from
    the United States, causing their prices to rise
  • prohibited further immigration to Texas from the
    United States

Texians disillusioned
  • Many of the Mexican soldiers stationed in Texas
    were convicted criminals who were given the
    choice of prison or serving in the army in Texas
  • unhappy with the location of their state capital
  • Mexican Law required a "tithe" paid to the
    Catholic Church
  • Mexico demanded that the settlers produce corn,
    grain, and beef and dictated which crops each
    settler would plant and harvest

Stephen F. Austin negotiates
  • Stephen Austin travels to Mexico City to ask for
    reforms most specifically separate statehood in
    Mexico for Texas
  • Stephen Austin as a representative of the
    Convention of 1833 was arrested without specific

Santa Anna takes control
  • Santa Anna becomes President of Mexico in 1833
  • In 1834 Santa Anna dissolves state governments in
    Mexico due to the large number of American
    immigrants to Texas
  • Santa Anna arrests several cotton farmers for not
    producing the correct crop
  • Texians react and prepare to fight

Reaction to Mexican Oppression
  • On October 2, 1835 the Battle of Gonzales is
    waged and the War of Texas Indepedence begins.
  • On October 9, the Battle of Goliad takes place
    and ends with a victory for Texas.
  • On October 28, Texans are victorious at the
    Battle of Concepcion despite being outnumbered 5
    to 1.
  • On December 11, the Seige of Bexar ends with the
    Texans capturing San Antonio.

Texas Battle Map
Remember the Alamo
  • As Santa Anna approaches Texian settlers around
    Bexar head to the Alamo to await word from the
  • Santa Anna laid siege to the Alamo from Feb.
    23-Mar. 6, 1836
  • William Barrett Travis, Jim Bowie, Davy Crockett

At the Convention…
  • On March 1, the Convention of 1836 begins meeting
    to sign a new constitution and form a new
  • On March 2, the Texas Declaration of Independence
    is adopted.
  • On March 6, the Battle of the Alamo is lost by
    Texas and becomes a rallying cry for the
    continued struggle for independence.
  • On March 27, the Goliad Massacre takes place in
    which Mexican General Santa Anna orders the
    execution of 400 surrendered Texans. This also
    becomes a rallying cry for Texas independence.
  • On April 21, Texans under Sam Houston soundly
    defeat General Santa Anna at the Battle of San
    Jacinto. This victory secured Texas'

Battle Map
Santa Anna defeated
  • On Apr. 20, 1836 the armies of Santa Anna and Sam
    Houston meet at the San Jacinto River
  • At 330 am the Texians attack and after an 18
    minute battle, defeat Santa Anna (Battle of San
  • Sam Houston becomes the President of the Texas
    Republic (Lone Star Republic)
  • Stephen Austin becomes Sec. of State but dies in
    1836 of pneumonia

Texas Independence
  • Despite independence Texas petitioned to be
    annexed by the U.S. as early as 1836
  • Bowing to pressure from the North Texas withdrew
    its request

Presidential Election of 1844
  • Election centers on Westward Expansion
  • Texas becomes most important issue
  • The question of Oregon is also important

Issue of Texas
  • The deal to annex Texas is almost complete as
    early as Feb. 1844
  • Sec. of State, Abel P. Upshur, dies
  • John Tyler names John C. Calhoun Sec. of State

John C. Calhoun
  • Calhoun makes sure that Texas annexation is tied
    to expansion of slavery
  • This becomes known as the Texas bombshell

Role of Texas/Britain
  • Calhoun accuses Britain of trying to coerce Texas
    into abolishing slavery
  • There was concern that Britain wanted an
    independent Texas to use as an ally and for a
    cheap source of cotton
  • Annexation of Texas is a defensive move to
    protect slavery

Oregon boundary dispute
  • What should be the boundary between the U.S. and
  • Plays out as an election issue in 1844

Issue of Oregon
Candidates in 1844
  • Expectation is that the Democrats will nominate
    former President Martin Van Buren
  • The Democratic Convention deadlocks
  • On the eighth ballot, a dark horse candidate,
    James K. Polk, emerges
  • Polk gains the nomination on the ninth ballot

Whig Candidate
  • Henry Clay gains the Whig nomination on the first
    ballot despite being defeated for President twice

Major Presidential candidates
Tennessee Democrat James K. Polk
Kentucky Whig Henry Clay
Extra Candidates
  • John Tyler, although removed from the Whig party
    in 1841 tries to run for reelection by hosting a
    National Democratic Tyler Convention
  • James Birney ran as the anti-slavery Liberty
    Party candidate
  • After a honeymoon in New York Tyler realizes he
    does not have support and drops out of the

Candidate positions
  • Polk not only called for the annexation of Texas
    but also, the entire Oregon Territory
  • 5440 or Fight

Clays position
  • Clay was slow to push for Texas annexation
    fearing that it would hurt him with the North
  • The Oregon issue forced Clay to say he would
    support annexation of Texas after all if it could
    be accomplished without war and upon just and
    fair terms.
  • Clay comes across as wishy-washy on the Texas
  • Santa Anna has said that annexation of Texas
    would amount to a U.S. declaration of war

Electoral Map of 1844
Consequences of the election
  • Polk's election confirmed the American public's
    desire for westward expansion
  • The annexation of Texas was formalized on March
    1, 1845 before Polk even took office
  • As feared, Mexico refused to accept the
    annexation and the Mexican-American War broke out
    in 1846
  • Polk compromised and the United States and Great
    Britain negotiated the Buchanan-Pakenham Treaty,
    which divided up the Oregon Territory between the
    two countries

Mexican-American War1846-48
  • With Texas annexation the question of the
    American/Mexican border becomes a concern
  • Should the border become the Rio Grande River or
    the Nueces River

Mexican American border
President Polks Goals
  • Polk wants to acquire territory for the U.S.
  • Polk sends Zachary Taylor to build a fort on the
    Rio Grande River--Fort Brown
  • Thornton Affair

Congress votes for war
  • Polks message to Congress on May 11, 1846 stated
    that Mexico had "invaded our territory and shed
    American blood upon the American soil."
  • The United States declared war on Mexico on May
    13, 1846
  • Mexico officially declared war on July 7

Reaction to war
  • Most Whigs in the North and South opposed the
  • Most Democrats supported it
  • Northern abolitionists attacked the war as an
    attempt by slave-owners -- frequently referred to
    as "the Slave Power" to expand the grip of
    slavery and thus assure their continued influence
    in the federal government..

Moral Objections
  • Acting on his convictions, Henry David Thoreau
    was jailed for his refusal to pay taxes to
    support the war, and penned his famous essay,
    Civil Disobedience
  • Former President John Quincy Adams also expressed
    his belief that the war was fundamentally an
    effort to expand slavery

Wilmot Proviso
  • In response to such concerns, Democratic
    Congressman David Wilmot introduced the Wilmot
  • The Wilmot Proviso aimed to prohibit slavery in
    any new territory acquired from Mexico.
  • Wilmot's proposal did not pass Congress, but it
    spurred further hostility between the factions.

Zachary Taylor
  • Zachary Taylor attacks from the North first being
    successful at the Battle of Monterey
  • Taylor defeats Santa Anna at Buena Vista

Major Battles of the Mexican-American War
Winfield Scott
  • President Polk sent a second army under General
    Winfield Scott, which was transported to the port
    of Veracruz by sea, to begin an invasion of the
    Mexican heartland.
  • Scott performed the first major amphibious
    landing in the history of the United States in
    preparation for the Siege of Veracruz

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  • Captain Kirby Smith, of Scott's 3rd Infantry,
    reflected on the resistance of the Mexican army
  • "What a stupid people they are! They can do
    nothing and their continued defeats should
    convince them of it. They have lost six great
    battles we have captured six hundred and eight
    cannon, nearly one hundred thousand stands of
    arms, made twenty thousand prisoners, have the
    greatest portion of their country and are fast
    advancing on their Capital which must be
    ours,yet they refuse to retreat!"

  • Since the election of 1844 there was considerable
    interest in California based on its attractive
  • San Diego
  • San Francisco
  • The possibility of war makes these harbors even
    more attractive

Interest in California
  • U.S. Army captain John C. Frémont with about 60
    well-armed men had entered California in December
    1845 and was making a slow march to Oregon when
    they received word that war between Mexico and
    the U.S. was imminent
  • On June 15, 1846, some 30 settlers, mostly U.S.
    citizens, staged a revolt and seized the small
    Mexican garrison in Sonoma
  • They raised the "Bear Flag" of the California
    Republic over Sonoma. It lasted one week until
    the U.S. Army, led by Frémont, took over on June

Bear Flag Republic
The California state flag today is based on this
original Bear Flag, and still contains the words
"California Republic."
  • By July 19, 1846 the word had been received the
    war was official.
  • The U.S. forces easily took over the north of
    California within days they controlled San
    Francisco, Sonoma, and Sutter's Fort in

Stephen Kearney
  • General Stephen W. Kearny on December 6, 1846
  • Entered the Los Angeles area on January 8, 1847,
    linking up with Frémont's men
  • On January 12, 1847, the last significant body of
    Californios surrendered to U.S. forces
  • On January 13, 1847, the Treaty of Cahuenga was

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat
    Nicholas Trist,
  • ended the war and gave the U.S. undisputed
    control of Texas,
  • established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio
    Grande River
  • ceded to the United States the present-day states
    of California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of
    Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming.
  • The sale of land is known in the United States as
    the Mexican Cession

Mexico Receives
  • In return, Mexico received 15,000,000, less
    than half the amount the U.S. had attempted to
    offer Mexico for the land before the opening of
  • The U.S. agreed to assume 3.25 million in debts
    that the Mexican government owed to U.S. citizens

Training for future Civil War leaders
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • George B. McClellan
  • Ambrose Burnside
  • Stonewall Jackson
  • James Longstreet
  • George Meade
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Future Confederate President Jefferson Davis.

California Gold Rush
  • The California Gold Rush began on January 24,
    1848, when gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill
    in Coloma, California
  • News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in
    some 300,000 people coming to California

  • Early gold-seekers, called "forty-niners,"
    traveled to California by sailing ship

  • Others arrived in covered wagons across the
    continent, often facing substantial hardships on
    the trip

California Gold Fields
San Francisco grew from a tiny hamlet of tents to
a boomtown, and roads, churches, schools and
other towns were built
Sutters Mill
  • On January 24, 1848 James W. Marshall, a
    foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John
    Sutter, found pieces of shiny metal in the
    tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building
    for Sutter, along the American River
  • Marshall quietly brought what he found to Sutter,
    and the two of them privately tested the
    findings. The tests showed Marshall's particles
    to be gold.

  • Sutter was dismayed by this, and wanted to keep
    the news quiet because he feared what would
    happen to his plans for an agricultural empire if
    there were a mass search for gold
  • However, rumors soon started to spread and were
    confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco
    newspaper publisher and merchant Samuel Brannan.
  • The most famous quote of the California Gold Rush
    was by Brannan "Gold! Gold! Gold from the
    American River!"

Gold Fever
  • On August 19 1848, the New York Herald was the
    first major newspaper on the East Coast to report
    that there was a gold rush in California
  • on December 5, President James Polk confirmed the
    discovery of gold in an address to Congress
  • Soon, waves of immigrants from around the world,
    later called the "forty-niners," invaded the Gold
    Country of California or "Mother Lode"
  • As Sutter had feared, he was ruined his workers
    left in search of gold, and squatters invaded his
    land and stole his crops and cattle

Presidential election of 1848
  • Polk does not run for reelection
  • Will be dead just 4 months after leaving office

Candidates for 1848
  • Zachary Taylor, the hero of the Mexican-American
    War, declares himself a Whig and receives their
  • The Democrats choose Michigan Governor/Senator
    Lewis Cass

Free Soil Party
  • The Democrats chose a platform that remained
    silent on slavery, and with Cass suspected of
    pro-slavery leanings, many anti-slavery Democrats
    walked out of the Baltimore convention to begin
    the Free Soil party
  • Free Soil Party nominates Martin Van Buren
  • Free Soil objects to the expansion of slavery
    into the Western territories

  • Nominee Zachary Taylor Lewis Cass
  • Party Whig Democratic
  • Home state Louisiana Michigan
  • Running mate Millard Fillmore William
  • Electoral vote 163 127
  • States carried 15 15
  • Popular vote 1,361,393 1,223,460
  • Percentage 47.3 42.5

  • The split in the Democratic Party throws the
    election to Taylor

California petition for statehood
  • One of the principal issues facing the Taylor
    administration was the status of California
  • A succession of senior American military leaders
    stationed in California urged that a civilian
    government be established as quickly as possible.

Call for California statehood
  • President Taylor agreed with the need and
    advocated immediate statehood for California
    without going through a period of territorial
    status (the usual path to statehood)
  • He stimulated a constitutional convention in
    Monterey in September 1849 which, among other
    things, called for immediate statehood free of

Northwest Ordinance had established rules for
admitting new states
  • As soon as there was a population of 5,000 "free
    male inhabitants of full age"
  • Creation of new states from the region, once a
    population of 60,000 had been achieved within a
    particular territory
  • News of the discovery of gold resulted in some
    300,000 people coming to California

Other Westward Expansion/Mormonism
  • The Latter Day Saint movement arose in the
    Palmyra/Manchester area of western New York,
    where its founder, Joseph Smith, Jr., was raised
    during a period of religious revival in the early
    19th century called the Second Great Awakening
  • The beginning of Mormonism centers around a
    number of early charismatic experiences with the
    heavenly and the spiritual by Joseph Smith, Jr.
    and his associates. Many of these experiences,
    such as visions, visits from angels, prophecy,
    and the hearing of God's voice, are still common
    parts of charismatic Christianity

  • The beginnings of Mormonism focus on Joseph
    Smith's First Vision, which he said he had in
    about 1820 in the woods near his home
  • By 1831, the church's headquarters were
    established in Kirtland, Ohio and Smith urged the
    membership to gather there or to a second outpost
    of the church in Missouri
  • In 1838, Joseph Smith Jr., abandoned the former
    church headquarters of Kirtland and relocated to
    Far West, Missouri

  • In the spring of 1839 the Latter Day Saint
    established a new headquarters in Nauvoo,
  • In Illinois, Joseph began to follow a practice
    known as plural marriage
  • Smith is arrested after destroying a printing
    press that was going to write unflattering
    articles about him
  • Others feared the Mormons could create a
  • Smith is killed in Carthage when the sheriff
    removes deputies from his protection

Mormon Exodus
  • Brigham Young emerges as the new leader
  • Winter of 1845-46 saw the enormous preparations
    for the Mormon Exodus across the Great Plains
  • Entered Salt Lake Valley in 1847

(No Transcript)
Trail System West
  • Oregon Trail
  • Santa Fe Trail

Map of Trail System West
Compromise of 1850
  • With California applying for statehood concerns
    are raised about the maintaining the parity in
    the Senate
  • Other issues get in the way
  • If the South doesnt get its way the question of
    secession is raised again

Henry Clay offers compromise
  • Allow California to be admitted as a free state
  • Utah and New Mexico organized into territories
    with no provision on slavery
  • New Mexico gains disputed land from Texas and
    Texas receives 10,000,000
  • The slave trade, but not slavery, is declared
    illegal in the District of Columbia
  • A stronger fugitive slave law enacted

Omnibus Bill
  • Clays ideas are presented as an all-inclusive
    single piece of legislation in a speech given on
    Jan. 29, 1850
  • John C. Calhoun leads the opposition with the
    help of Jefferson Davis

  • Daniel Webster worked with Clay to try to get the
    bill passed trying to preserve the Union

William Seward
  • William Seward offers another viewpoint
  • In his speech, Higher Law, Seward suggests that
    there is perhaps a higher law than the
    Constitution that Congress should consider

  • The Omnibus Bill never passes
  • Some of the debate over the bill becomes so
    heated that Henry S. Foote of Mississippi drew a
    pistol on Senator Benton of Missouri

Death of Zachary Taylor
  • Zachary Taylor was opposed to the Compromise of
    1850 and would not let it pass
  • At a 4th of July picnic Taylor eats some bad
    cherries and cream and experiences severe
    abdominal distress

Millard Fillmore
  • Millard Fillmore succeeds to the Presidency and
    now the Compromise of 1850 has new life

Stephen Douglas
  • Stephen Douglas of Illinois breaks up the Omnibus
    Bill and passes each measure individually
  • The Wilmot Proviso idea that has hung around
    Congress is now replaced with the concept of
    popular sovereignty

Popular Sovereignty
  • It called for allowing the people of a specific
    territory whether or not they would want slavery
    where they live
  • Destroys the concept of the Missouri Compromise

  • Douglas passes the bill by using abstentions and
    other tactics

Compromise of 1850
  • Allow California to be admitted as a free state
  • Utah and New Mexico organized into territories
    with no provision on slavery
  • New Mexico gains disputed land from Texas and
    Texas receives 10,000,000
  • The slave trade, but not slavery, is declared
    illegal in the District of Columbia
  • A stronger fugitive slave law enacted

End of an Era
  • By the time of the passage of the Compromise of
    1850 there is a marked change in the way that
    Congress conducts its business
  • Clay is gone
  • Webster is gone
  • Calhoun is gone
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