STATE OF THE ART OF RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELLS, MARKET, AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES EPA Fuel Cell Workshop - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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STATE OF THE ART OF RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELLS, MARKET, AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES EPA Fuel Cell Workshop

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Makeup Water? Natural Gas, Propane, Methanol? 120/240. VAC ... Demo vs Com'l makeup? Electrical. Inverter capabilities. Day-night load management ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: STATE OF THE ART OF RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELLS, MARKET, AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES EPA Fuel Cell Workshop


1
STATE OF THE ART OF RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELLS,
MARKET, AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUESEPA Fuel
Cell WorkshopCincinnati, Ohio June 26-27,
2001E. A. Torrero

R. H.
McClellandNational Rural Electric Cooperative
Association
Energy
Signature Associates, Inc.Cooperative Research
Network

Pittsburgh, PAArlington, VA
2
Who Co-ops are . . .
  • Customer owned non-profit rural electric
    providers
  • 1000 co-ops in 46 states
  • 10 of power supply, 30 GW
  • 45 of distribution lines, 75 of land mass
  • 13 million service connections, 34 million
    customers
  • 60 residential, 35 commercial/industrial load

3
Developing Significant DG Expertise . . .
  • Broad range of Distributed Generation Programs
    underway due to co-op needs and markets
  • Various demonstration programs implemented
    incorporating substantial fuel cell expertise

CRN Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration
East Kentucky PC Winchester, KY
Illinois REC Jacksonville, IL
Delaware County EC Deli, NY

Chugach EA Anchorage, AK
Tri-State GT Denver, CO
North Carolina EMC Raleigh, NC
Associated EC Springfield, MO
TVA Chattanooga, TN
Flint Energies Reynolds, GA
4
Presentation Agenda . . .
  • Fuel cell types and applicability to workshop
  • CRN Residential Demonstration Program
  • PEM technology overview
  • Issues impacting PEM future
  • Environmental assessment guidance?

5
Fuel Cells and Their Status . . .
Minimal fuel processing. Catalysts are
rare earths Raw materials 15 / kW Not
poisoned by CO! Actually burns it as fuel.
Electrolyte is O- ion carrier. - Gas sealing
not easy. - Still under development.
6
Fuel Cells and Their Status . . .
Substantial fuel processing required Fairly
tolerant to CO because of 350 F stack Good
CHP potential - Platinum catalysts - 2,000 /
kW significantly limits market
7
Fuel Cells and Their Status . . .
Significant automobile effort helps
technology Straightforward cell stack
materials - Water product as liquid complicates
stack design - Platinum catalyst - CO acts as
temporary poison to cell stack - Very
substantial fuel processing required -
Marginal CHP potential
8
Next Agenda Item . . .
  • Fuel cell types and applicability to workshop
  • CRN Residential Demonstration Program
  • PEM technology overview
  • Issues impacting PEM future?
  • Environmental assessment guidance?

9
Diverse Participants and Manufacturers . . .
  • Multiple Manufacturers

East Kentucky PC Winchester, KY
Illinois REC Jacksonville, IL
Delaware County EC Deli, NY
  • Broad spread of climates and sites

Chugach EA Anchorage, AK
  • Significant funding and cooperation NRECAs CRN,
    Co-ops, DoE, DoD, EPRI, etc.

Tri-State GT Denver, CO
North Carolina EMC Raleigh, NC
Associated EC Springfield, MO
TVA Chattanooga, TN
Flint Energies Reynolds, GA
10
Typical CRN Demonstration Unit . . .
Thermal?
Natural Gas,

120/240
Propane,
VAC
Methanol?
Makeup Water?
Ambient Air
11
Basic Issues . . .
Issue is NOT will RFCs work but how long will
they work . . . and . . . Price / Markets?
  • Life and aging of cell stack
  • Reformer life and response
  • Inverter load following
  • Reliability and maintainability
  • Can Mfgrs deliver on production-cost curve
  • Application economics vs typical customer size
  • Market Profile

12
Next Agenda Item . . .
  • Fuel cell types and applicability to workshop
  • CRN Residential Demonstration Program
  • PEM technology overview
  • Issues impacting PEM future?
  • Environmental assessment guidance?

13
PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant . . .
Partial Review of Development and Design Issues
  • Cell Stack
  • Basic chemistry
  • Cell stack efficiency
  • Square feet and cell number
  • Calculating H2 input
  • CO tolerance
  • Calculating cooling water need
  • Calculating air requirement
  • Water pumping from anode to cathode
  • Water drowning and removal
  • PEM membrane and cost
  • Platinum catalyst and cost
  • Managing air and fuel flows to cell plates
  • Cell Stack cost example
  • Fuel Processing
  • Propane and natural gas chemistry
  • Fuel costs and issues
  • Reaction need for catalyst
  • Water recovery and makeup
  • Need for by fuel processor
  • Recovery from exhaust
  • Demo vs Coml makeup?
  • Electrical
  • Inverter capabilities
  • Day-night load management
  • Battery storage need
  • Battery life - use profile
  • Grid and Customer load monitoring needs
  • Interconnect criteria and issues
  • Control system operation normal, startup
  • Thermal Recovery
  • Potential uses
  • Projected installation and equipment costs
  • Application to water heating loads
  • Conversion of Heat Pump suppl Heaters

14
5 kW Residential Fuel Cell . . .
CELL STACK
Thermal?
Natural Gas,

120/240
Propane,
VAC
Methanol?
Makeup Water?
Ambient Air
Outdoor 2 to 3 x 3 to 4 x 4 to 5 high,
1500 to 2000 lbs
15
Designing a Residential 5 kW Unit . . .
  • Efficiency??

Theoretical Output Voltage
1.23 Volts
47
16
Designing a Residential 5 kW Unit . . .
-

Spent Fuel
E L E C T R O L Y T E
C A T H O D E
A N O D E
Hydrogen
  • Platinum catalyst is required to make PEM fuel
    cell
  • work!
  • Used for both anode and cathode
  • Reduced from 400 to 60 per kW over the last
    10 years
  • Loading is around 1 gram per square foot 3
    grams/ kW
  • Likes CO much better than H2!
  • For PEMs Over 50 ppm (0.005) CO will
    poison the reaction by taking up H2 sites!

17
Designing a Residential 5 kW Unit . . .
How much might our cell stack cost today?
Cost estimate is for illustration purposes only!
18
Designing a Residential 5 kW Unit . . .
Thermal?
Natural Gas,

120/240
Propane,
VAC
Methanol?
Makeup Water?
Ambient Air
Outdoor 2 to 3 x 3 to 4 x 4 to 5 high,
1500 to 2000 lbs
19
Fuel Processor Chemistry . . .
  • Combines natural gas or propane with steam to
    make hydrogen
  • Requires heat, some of which we can get back
    and catalysts to make reaction go.
  • Practice is a lot harder than theory!

20
Designing a Residential 5 kW Unit . . .
Thermal?
Natural Gas,

120/240
Propane,
VAC
Methanol?
Makeup Water?
Ambient Air
Outdoor 2 to 3 x 3 to 4 x 4 to 5 high,
1500 to 2000 lbs
21
Designing a Residential 5 kW Unit . . .
  • Design Philosophy
  • Fuel Cell Stack is base loaded
  • Batteries charged at night to supply daytime
    peaks

Cooling Peak Day --Western Utility Source Peter
Bos, SSFCCG
22
Designing a Residential 5 kW Unit . . .
  • RFC batteries not like an auto battery
  • Have thick plates about 1/10 inch 3x automobile
    battery
  • Managing charge-discharge cycle vs cell stack
    voltage far from trivial!
  • Over 60 MW sold a year for PV solar systems
  • Same batteries as used in Green solar and wind
    power!
  • Overall charge efficiency
    about 85 to 90 percent
  • 1,000 cycles will lower the
    capacity 15 to 30 even for
    well designed, deep discharge
    batteries

See www.sandia.gov/pv/bos and www.windsun.com
23
Updated System for Battery Control . . .
  • Added DC to DC converter for battery management
    (95 efficiency)

24
Next Agenda Item . . .
  • Fuel cell types and applicability to workshop
  • CRN Residential Demonstration Program
  • PEM technology overview
  • Issues impacting PEM future?
  • Environmental assessment guidance?

25
Significant Effort Underway. . .
  • Millions of dollars being expended annually
  • Stationary fuel cells much more attainable target

26
Typical RFC Early Entrance Markets . . .
  • Off-grid homes and other off-grid uses
  • Line extension or single phase service line is
    14,000 to 20,000 per mile
  • Difficult, or impossible, to secure right-of-ways
    in parts of country
  • Home office users
  • Avoid snow or ice storm interruptions
    (Cost-effective digital satellite now
    available for telephone and www)
  • Avoid hurricane outages
  • Partial power supply to outage sensitive
    office and other customers
  • High income technophiles or greens
  • Green or upscale housing developers

27
Last Agenda Item . . .
  • Fuel cell types and applicability to workshop
  • CRN Residential Demonstration Program
  • PEM technology overview
  • Issues impacting PEM future?
  • Environmental assessment guidance?

28
Environmental Assessment Guidelines . . .
  • Consider energy from source to use including
    generation and distribution losses before and
    after fuel cell installation.

29
Environmental Assessment Guidelines . . .
  • Since electric fuel sources vary widely, consider
    separate calculations by grouped electric
    reliability areas.

30
Environmental Assessment Guidelines . . .
  • Consider both propane and natural gas fuel
    sources for the energy side of RFCs. (Emissions
    should not vary between these fuels.)

Percent Availability of Utility Gas
Percent Availability of Propane
Data Developed from 1993 National Energy Census
by US DoE Energy Information Administration
by Energy Signature Associates
31
Environmental Assessment Guidelines . . .
  • Assume electric or propane water heater converted
    to fuel cell thermal recovery for energy and
    emissions calculations.
  • Will probably need to eliminate the electric
    water
    heaters 4.5 kW demand anyway.
  • Savings from electric or propane water heating
    will
    generally pay for thermal recovery
    conversion.
    Natural gas less costly
    so incentive less clear-cut.

Resulting Energy and Emission Profiles Will Vary
Regionally
Electric Water Heater Saturation
Source EnSig proprietary analysis
of 1993 DoE EIA Census
raw data. gtgt
32
Environmental Assessment Guidelines . . .
  • Consider commercial residential fuel cells to
    be in water balance. They will neither discharge
    or require water!
  • Ample supply available. Cell stack produces
    twice as much water as needed by fuel processing.
    (However, even if no water was recovered, the
    fuel cell water use is only about ten gallons a
    day.)
  • Manufacturers will not want to require makeup
    water since it adds 1000 to the site
    installation cost.
  • Manufacturers will avoid recovering excess water
    because of the fan horsepower and heat exchange
    cost associated with water recovery.
  • Even if recovered water were discharged it should
    not pose a problem. It is produced by an
    electrochemical H2-O2 cell stack reaction.
  • Consider merging the PEM and PAFC assessments
    together. (These units have similar fuel
    processing systems, hydrogen carrier type
    electrolytes, and thus similar environmental
    profiles.)
  • Assume that RFC units will be returned to the
    manufacturer to salvage catalysts, etc.

33

Thank You
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