Turfgrass IPM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Turfgrass IPM PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 56237-YjNmZ


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Turfgrass IPM


Ecosystems are composed of beneficial and detrimental organisms. Ideally want selective ... Lady bugs, preying mantis. Insect BioControl. Pathogens, eg. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:91
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 20
Provided by: danielc95


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Turfgrass IPM

Turfgrass IPM
  • Integrated Pest Management or
  • Intelligent Pest Management
  • Ecosystems are composed of beneficial and
    detrimental organisms. Ideally want selective
    control of the detrimentals!
  • The use of all control measures to reduce a pest
    population or minimize its impact. Cultural,
    biological and chemical controls are all included.

A New Philosophy
  • Reduces dependence, but does not eliminate or
    preclude the use of pesticides
  • Site specific
  • Relies on tolerance thresholds rather than
  • Cost effective
  • Good for the environment
  • Good for public image
  • Good for the industry

The Basics
  • Site assessment
  • Pest profiles
  • Monitoring
  • Setting thresholds
  • Stress management (the turfs)
  • Identifying management options
  • Evaluation

Site Assessment
  • Of entire area
  • Maps of irrigation, drainage, trees, soil types,
    elevations, shade patterns, traffic patterns,
    surface waters, structures, beds, and turf
    species. Also note problem areas, pest history.

Pest Profiles
  • Pest ID
  • Symptoms
  • When and where, life cycle, biology
  • Scouting and monitoring, threshold levels
  • Cultural control practices
  • Biological control options
  • Chemical control options

  • What does damage look like?
  • Patches? Size? Do they coalesce? Color? Lesions
    on the blades? Is turf intact, rooted?
  • Where does damage occur?
  • All or one species? All or one area? Shade?
    South facing slopes? Wet soils? Dry soils? Dead
  • When does the damage occur?
  • What are the associated conditions?

  • Need to monitor before and after control
    treatment to assess effectiveness
  • Evaluate the success or failure. Was weather
    involved? Timing? Incorrect ID? Improper
    selection of control/chemical? Improper
  • Know life cycles to avoid monitoring during wrong
    seasons. Saves time and .

Monitoring Techniques
  • For insects (grubs mainly)
  • Soil samples
  • Soap flush
  • Flooding
  • Traps (pheromone, light, pitfall)
  • For weeds
  • Transect lines
  • Random samples using frame
  • Daily collection, mapping

Monitoring Techniques
  • For diseases
  • Active mycelia
  • Disease symptoms
  • Disease clinic
  • Disease often in same locations, map!
  • Nematodes
  • Composite 4 soil cores, seal in plastic, send to
  • Take samples from site with/without symptoms

Setting Thresholds
  • Cannot rid a turf of pests, so need to establish
    limits for their presence and activity
  • Based on aesthetics, use, expectations, species,
    time of year
  • Also on whether control measures are available,
    and costs of control
  • Site specific

Controls - Stress Management
  • Mowing at proper height to maximize
  • Water management (rain, irrign, dew, ice)
  • Water quality (salts)
  • Turfgrass selection
  • Fertilization
  • Soil management (pH, compaction, thatch,
    salinity, nutrition)

Biological Controls
  • The use of living organisms, or products of
    living organisms to suppress pest populations or
  • Natural ecosystems contain checks and balances,
    predators and prey, which keep things on an even
    keel - few epidemics.
  • Many insect pests have been introduced or
    imported from overseas, without their natural

Biological Controls
  • Most fungi are not pathogenic, and many are
    critical to the normal health of a soil
    ecosystem. Some produce natural products which
    inhibit other fungi, including pathogens.
    Isolating these materials can lead to natural
    fungicides, eg. Heritage
  • Adding organic matter to soils usually stimulates
    general microbial activity, which can inhibit
    turf pathogenic fungi

Insect BioControl
  • Parasites, usually flies or wasps, lay eggs in
    their host. The larvae hatch and feed on the
    host. Often host specific, but difficult to do.
    eg. Parasitic wasps on white grubs
  • Predators which seek out and attack host.
    Usually adults. eg. Lady bugs, preying mantis

Insect BioControl
  • Pathogens, eg. Entomopathogenic nematodes, which
    enter host and transmit a toxic bacteria.
  • Bacteria which produce toxins specific for some
    insects. The BT toxin is the industry standard,
    and can be applied in living bacteria or in
    transgenic plants.
  • Several fungi attack certain insects but not
    plants or animals. They are not always stable
    in the soil, however.

Insect BioControl
  • Insect growth regulators. Juvenility hormones
    repress development and prevent the insect from
    growing and reproducing. These are usually
    species specific
  • Some growth regulators interfere with molting.
    These may be more general, and can target
    beneficial organisms.
  • Endophytes are fungi which live inside the
    turfgrass plant, between the cells, and produce
    toxins to insects (and livestock)

Problems with Biocontrol
  • Few success stories (Heritage and related
    fungicides the exception)
  • Introduced organisms often fail to establish or
    survive long enough to impact target host.
  • Organisms are easily damaged prior to application
  • Shear numbers and diversity of native organisms
    may exceed introduced organisms

Chemical Control
  • Decisions need to be based on
  • environmental risks
  • timing for optimum control
  • pesticide characteristics
  • mobility
  • persistence (many ways to lose activity)
  • pH sensitivity
  • spectrum of activity (other organisms?)
  • resistance management

Chemical Control Risks
  • Runoff
  • Leaching
  • Volatilization
  • Removal in/on clippings
  • Dislodgeable residues
  • Human toxicity - chronic and acute
  • Toxicity to non-target organisms
About PowerShow.com