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Turfgrass IPM

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Ecosystems are composed of beneficial and detrimental organisms. Ideally want selective ... Lady bugs, preying mantis. Insect BioControl. Pathogens, eg. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Turfgrass IPM


1
Turfgrass IPM
  • Integrated Pest Management or
  • Intelligent Pest Management
  • Ecosystems are composed of beneficial and
    detrimental organisms. Ideally want selective
    control of the detrimentals!
  • The use of all control measures to reduce a pest
    population or minimize its impact. Cultural,
    biological and chemical controls are all included.

2
A New Philosophy
  • Reduces dependence, but does not eliminate or
    preclude the use of pesticides
  • Site specific
  • Relies on tolerance thresholds rather than
    elimination
  • Cost effective
  • Good for the environment
  • Good for public image
  • Good for the industry

3
The Basics
  • Site assessment
  • Pest profiles
  • Monitoring
  • Setting thresholds
  • Stress management (the turfs)
  • Identifying management options
  • Evaluation

4
Site Assessment
  • Of entire area
  • Maps of irrigation, drainage, trees, soil types,
    elevations, shade patterns, traffic patterns,
    surface waters, structures, beds, and turf
    species. Also note problem areas, pest history.

5
Pest Profiles
  • Pest ID
  • Symptoms
  • When and where, life cycle, biology
  • Scouting and monitoring, threshold levels
  • Cultural control practices
  • Biological control options
  • Chemical control options

6
Monitoring
  • What does damage look like?
  • Patches? Size? Do they coalesce? Color? Lesions
    on the blades? Is turf intact, rooted?
  • Where does damage occur?
  • All or one species? All or one area? Shade?
    South facing slopes? Wet soils? Dry soils? Dead
    air?
  • When does the damage occur?
  • What are the associated conditions?

7
Monitoring
  • Need to monitor before and after control
    treatment to assess effectiveness
  • Evaluate the success or failure. Was weather
    involved? Timing? Incorrect ID? Improper
    selection of control/chemical? Improper
    management?
  • Know life cycles to avoid monitoring during wrong
    seasons. Saves time and .

8
Monitoring Techniques
  • For insects (grubs mainly)
  • Soil samples
  • Soap flush
  • Flooding
  • Traps (pheromone, light, pitfall)
  • For weeds
  • Transect lines
  • Random samples using frame
  • Daily collection, mapping

9
Monitoring Techniques
  • For diseases
  • Active mycelia
  • Disease symptoms
  • Disease clinic
  • Disease often in same locations, map!
  • Nematodes
  • Composite 4 soil cores, seal in plastic, send to
    laboratory
  • Take samples from site with/without symptoms

10
Setting Thresholds
  • Cannot rid a turf of pests, so need to establish
    limits for their presence and activity
  • Based on aesthetics, use, expectations, species,
    time of year
  • Also on whether control measures are available,
    and costs of control
  • Site specific

11
Controls - Stress Management
  • Mowing at proper height to maximize
    photosynthesis
  • Water management (rain, irrign, dew, ice)
  • Water quality (salts)
  • Turfgrass selection
  • Fertilization
  • Soil management (pH, compaction, thatch,
    salinity, nutrition)

12
Biological Controls
  • The use of living organisms, or products of
    living organisms to suppress pest populations or
    activity
  • Natural ecosystems contain checks and balances,
    predators and prey, which keep things on an even
    keel - few epidemics.
  • Many insect pests have been introduced or
    imported from overseas, without their natural
    enemies.

13
Biological Controls
  • Most fungi are not pathogenic, and many are
    critical to the normal health of a soil
    ecosystem. Some produce natural products which
    inhibit other fungi, including pathogens.
    Isolating these materials can lead to natural
    fungicides, eg. Heritage
  • Adding organic matter to soils usually stimulates
    general microbial activity, which can inhibit
    turf pathogenic fungi

14
Insect BioControl
  • Parasites, usually flies or wasps, lay eggs in
    their host. The larvae hatch and feed on the
    host. Often host specific, but difficult to do.
    eg. Parasitic wasps on white grubs
  • Predators which seek out and attack host.
    Usually adults. eg. Lady bugs, preying mantis

15
Insect BioControl
  • Pathogens, eg. Entomopathogenic nematodes, which
    enter host and transmit a toxic bacteria.
  • Bacteria which produce toxins specific for some
    insects. The BT toxin is the industry standard,
    and can be applied in living bacteria or in
    transgenic plants.
  • Several fungi attack certain insects but not
    plants or animals. They are not always stable
    in the soil, however.

16
Insect BioControl
  • Insect growth regulators. Juvenility hormones
    repress development and prevent the insect from
    growing and reproducing. These are usually
    species specific
  • Some growth regulators interfere with molting.
    These may be more general, and can target
    beneficial organisms.
  • Endophytes are fungi which live inside the
    turfgrass plant, between the cells, and produce
    toxins to insects (and livestock)

17
Problems with Biocontrol
  • Few success stories (Heritage and related
    fungicides the exception)
  • Introduced organisms often fail to establish or
    survive long enough to impact target host.
  • Organisms are easily damaged prior to application
  • Shear numbers and diversity of native organisms
    may exceed introduced organisms

18
Chemical Control
  • Decisions need to be based on
  • environmental risks
  • timing for optimum control
  • pesticide characteristics
  • mobility
  • persistence (many ways to lose activity)
  • pH sensitivity
  • spectrum of activity (other organisms?)
  • resistance management

19
Chemical Control Risks
  • Runoff
  • Leaching
  • Volatilization
  • Removal in/on clippings
  • Dislodgeable residues
  • Human toxicity - chronic and acute
  • Toxicity to non-target organisms
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