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Introduction to the Book of Kings


In Baba Bathra 15a, Jeremiah is said to be the author of both Kings and Lamentations. ... Of these only B contains Kings, which is also attested in Codex ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to the Book of Kings

Introduction to the Book of Kings
  • APTS-BIB509-2006

  • "The Hebrew title of this work is simply lm or
    'Kings,' and like the two books of Samuel it was
    originally a unity in Hebrew. The division into
    two books was first introduced in the LXX
    version, doubtless because the vocalized Greek
    text occupied considerably more space than the
    unpointed Hebrew." Harrison

  • In Baba Bathra 15a, Jeremiah is said to be the
    author of both Kings and Lamentations. However
    there is not evidence to support this statement.

  • "He Noth attributed the composition to a single
    author who wrote during the exile from Palestine
    (c.550) in order to demonstrate how Israel's
    continual disobedience to the laws of God finally
    caused the nation to be destroyed through divine
    judgment." Childs, IOTS, 286

  • Dual Redaction Hypothesis
  • 1. The Idea of a dual redaction of the Dtr has
    been around since the time of Kuenen.
  • 2. The most important recent proponent has been
    F. M. Cross who argues for Josianic Exilic
    redaction of Kings.
  • 3. Other include Richard Nelson, Brian Peckham,
    Gray Knopper, etc.

The Text of Kings MT
  • "In addition to the innumerable variations, in
    large part errors, yet often scribal corrections
    of impossible or unintelligible Hebrew, occurring
    in most authoritative MSS, as also the variations
    between presence and absence of the vowel-letter,
    or their faulty placement (the simpler form often
    giving the basis of interpretation by the
    Versions), there are the many corrections by the
    vocal K9re, which have again to be diagnosed for
    their correctness. There also appear cases of the
    Sebrn, instances of 'it is the opinion that
    it is so and so,' the correction marginally
    annotated." Montgomery

The Text of Kings Special Considerations
  • ". . . parallels between Kings and sections of
    Chronicles, Isaiah and Jeremiah have to be
    seriously considered in passing judgment on some
    readings in Kings. Parallels for 2 Kgs 18-20 are
    found in Isa 36.1-39.8, for 2 Kgs 24-25 in Jer
    52, and for 2 Kgs 25 again in Jer 39 28 40-41."
  • "The parallel accounts in Chronicles must be used
    with very great caution owing to the tendentious
    nature of that work, its particular
    ecclesiastical bias, and it anachronistic
    tendency to safeguard he sanctity of the Temple
    and priestly monopoly of sacral office." Gray

The Text of Kings LXX
  • "The LXX varies from the MT in both arrangement
    and content compare the order of 1 Kgs 4-11 and
    20-21 (LXX). The LXX account of the Jeroboam I
    and the division of the United Monarchy (1 Kgs
    12.24a-z) supplies novel and sometimes
    contradictory information to the account found in
    the MT and elsewhere in the LXX. The summarizing
    'miscellanies' regarding Solomon's reign found
    after 1 Kgs 2.35 and 2.46 (LXX) have no
    consecutive counterparts in the MT." Holloway,
  • "The chronological notes of eh accessions and
    reigns of kings of Israel and Judah are also a
    notable point of divergence . . . ." Gray

The Text of Kings LXX
  • "These discrepancies and transpositions of text
    in Kings alone indicate that the tradition of the
    Hebrew text was fairly fluid when G was made. . .
    ." Gray
  • "Apart from earlier fragmentary evidence of G, as
    in citations in Philo in the first half of the
    first century AD and Josephus (c. AD 70-100), the
    oldest MSS of the Old Testament approaching
    fullness are the great uncials Sinaiticus (a) and
    Vaticanus (B) from the first part of fourth
    century AD. Of these only B contains Kings, which
    is also attested in Codex Alexandrinus (A) from
    the following century." Gray

The Text of Kings Qumran
  • "Only three manuscripts of Kings . . . were found
    in the various Judean Desert caves one each on
    leather in Cave 4 and Cave 5, and papyrus
    manuscript in Cave 6." Dead Sea Scroll Bible
  • Cave 5Q 1 Kgs 1.1, 16-17, 27-37 Cave 6Q 1
    Kgs 3.12-14 12.28-31 22.28-31 2 Kgs 5.26
    6.32 7.8-10 7.20-8.5 9.1-2 10.19-21 Cave 4Q
    portions of 1 Kgs 7 and 8.

The Text of Kings Qumran
  • "Despite the limited scope of text on most
    fragments, however, there are enough indications
    of text significantly divergent form the
    traditional Masoretic Text to suggest that the
    text of Kings was pluriform in antiquity, . . .
    In addition to numerous small variants, sometimes
    in agreement with the Greek text, there are more
    significant variants . . . . Just as 4QSama
    recovers bits of text thought to be lost, so too
    4QKgs preserves a passage (1 Kings 816) lost
    form the Masoretic Text when a scribe's eye
    skipped from one phrase below." Dead Sea Scroll

4QKgs 1 Kgs 8.16
4QKgs From the day I brought my people Israel
out from Egypt, I have not chosen a city from
among the tribes of Israel to build a house for
my name to be there, nor did I choose anyone to
be a leader my people Israel, but I chose
Jerusalem for my name to be there, and I chose
David to be over my people, over Israel.
MT-2 Chr 6.5-6 Since the day that I brought my
people out of the land of Egypt, I have not
chosen a city from any of the tribes of Israel in
which to build a house, so that my name might be
there, and I chose no one as ruler over my people
Israel but I have chosen Jerusalem in order that
my name may be there, and I have chosen David to
be over my people Israel.
  • MT
  • Since the day that I brought my people Israel
    out of Egypt, I have not chosen a city from any
    of the tribes of Israel in which to build a
    house, that my name might be there but I chose
    David to be over my people Israel.
  • LXX
  • Since the day that I brought my people Israel
    out of Egypt, I have not chosen in a city, in
    one scepter of Israel, to build a house for my
    name to be there but I chose in Ierousalem for
    my name to be there and I chose Dauid to be over
    my people Israel

Outline of Kings Childs
  • 1 Kgs 1-11 Solomon
  • 1 Kgs 12-2 Kgs 17 History of the Kings of
    Israel and Judah until the Destruction of the
    Northern Kingdom
  • 2 Kgs 18-25 History of the Kings of Judah
  • Childs, IOTS

  • I. The Reign of Solomon (1 Kgs 1.1-11.43)
  • A. Solomon's Securing of the Throne and the Death
    of David (1 Kgs 1.1-2.46)
  • B. Solomon's Reign ( 1 Kgs 3.1-11.43)
  • II. Synoptic History of the Divided Monarchy to
    the Fall of Northern Kingdom (1 Kgs 12.1-2 Kgs
  • A. Division of Solomon's Kingdom (1 Kgs
  • B. Synchronized History of the Divided monarchy
    to the Elijah Stories (1 Kgs 14.21-16.34)
  • C. The Elijah Cycle (1 Kgs 17.1-2 Kgs 1.18)
  • D. The Elisha Cycle (2 Kgs 2.1-8.29)
  • E. Synchronized History of the Divided Monarchy
    to the Fall of Israel (2 Kgs 9.1-17.41)
  • III. The Kingdom of Judah from Hezekiah to the
    Babylonian Exile (2 Kgs 18.1-25.30) Holloway

  • "The Book of Kings differs from all the preceding
    historical books, in the fact that the compiler
    refers habitually to certain authorities for
    particulars not contained in his own work." S.
    R. Driver

  • 1. "Book of the Acts of Solomon" 1 Kgs 11.41
  • "The extent and character of this work are
    difficult to assess, . . . . I would suggest that
    it is a collection of the records of Solomon's
    reign, especially inscriptions, that were extant
    in the time of the compiler. It is reasonable to
    suppose that a commemorative or memorial
    inscription would mention the building of the
    Temple and palace, possibly with dates (although
    this would be unusual), and would provide a few
    details about their construction." van Seters,
    In Search of History, 301

  • 2. "Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of
    Israel" 1 Kgs 14.19-2 Kgs 15.31 and "The Book
    of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah" 1 Kgs
    14.29-2 Kgs 24.5
  • "Those texts most closely associated with the
    chronicles of the kings of Israel/Judah include
    accounts of military campaigns and building
    activities, information that could have been
    taken from memorial inscriptions." van Seters,
  • N.B. The Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (A.
    K. Grayson)

  • 3. Prophetic Stories Sources
  • 3.1 Elijah Cycle 1 Kgs 17-19, 21 2 Kgs 1-2.
  • 3.2 Elisha Cycle 2 Kgs 2 4-10.
  • 3.3 Isaiah 2 Kgs 18.13-20.19 (Isa 36-39)
  • 3.4 Ahijah of Shiloh 1 Kgs 11.29-39 14.1-18
  • 3.5 Shemaiah 1 Kgs 12.21-24.
  • 3.6 Un-named 1 Kgs 12.32-13.32
  • 3.7 Jehu, son of Hanani 1 Kgs 16.1-4.
  • 3.8 Micaiah, son of Imlah 1 Kgs 22
  • 3.9 Un-named 2 Kgs 21.10-15

Synchronic Annals
  • "Although the Northern and Southern notices
    differ in some significant details, the general
    structure is as follows
  •      A. Introductory formula
  • 1. Date when reign commenced and length of reign
  • 2. Place of reign
  • 3. Theological assessment
  •      B. Concluding formula
  • 1. Mention of most notable deeds
  • 2. Reference to further sources
  • 3. Notice of death and burial. " DeVries

Synchronic Annals
  • 1. "One special feature of the Judahite notices
    is that they record the name of the kings
    motherimportant because this made her the hrybg,
    the official queen-mother, with important powers
    (e.g., Bathsheba, Jezebel)." DeVries

Synchronic Annals
  • 2. "Another feature is that in the theological
    assessment, the northern kings get unalleviated
    condemnation while the southern kings generally
    receive some approval. When Judahite kings are
    condemned, it is because they have somehow
    tolerated or abetted idolatry, but this is seldom
    the charge against the kings of the North
    (exception Ahab cf. 163033). They are
    uniformly berated for participating in the sin
    of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which may mean no
    more than that they did not suppress the
    Yahweh-shrines at Bethel, Dan, and elsewhere."

Two Themes of Cross's Dtr1
  • "The two themes in the Deuteronomistic Book of
    Kings appear to reflect two theological stances,
    one stemming from the old Deuteronomic covenant
    theology which regarded destruction of dynasty
    and people as tied necessarily to apostasy, and a
    second, drawn from the royal ideology in Judah
    the eternal promises to David. In the second
    instance, while chastisement has regularly come
    upon Judah in her season of apostasy, hope
    remains in the Davidic house to which Yahweh has
    sworn fidelity for David's sake, and for
    Jerusalem, the city of God. A righteous scion of
    David has sprung from Judah." Cross, (1973), 284

Two Themes of Cross's Dtr1
  • 1. "One theme is summed up in the following
    saying "This thing became the sin of the house
    of Jeroboam to crush (it) and to destroy (it)
    from the face of the earth." The crucial event in
    the history of the Northern King was the sin of
    Jeroboam." 279
  • 1.1 I Kings 1226-33
  • 1.2 "Against each of king of Israel in turn the
    judgment comes, "he did evil in the eyes of
    Yahweh, doing evil above all who were before him,
    and he walked in the way of Jeroboam." 280

Two Themes of Cross's Dtr1
  • 2. "The second theme we wish to analyze begins in
    2 Samuel 7 and runs through the book of Kings. It
    may be tersely put in the refrain-like phrase
    for the sake of David my servant and for the sake
    of Jerusalem which I have chosen." 281
  • 2.1 "While the kings of Israel were always
    condemned, each having done "that which was evil
    in the eyes of Yahweh," judgment does not come
    automatically upon the kings of Judah. Certain
    kings, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joash, Hezekiah, and
    above all Josiah "did that which was right in the
    eyes of Yahweh, as did David his father." Even
    King David and Hezekiah had peccadilloes. Josiah
    alone escaped all criticism. Josiah "did that
    which was right in the eyes of Yahweh and walked
    in all the ways of David his father and did not
    turn aside to the right or to the left." 282

The Themes of Cross's Dtr2 Exilic Edition
  • "There is to be found in the Deuteronomistic
    history a subtheme . . . . We should attribute
    this subtheme to the Exilic editor (Dtr2) who
    retouched or overwrote the Deuteronomistic work
    to bring it up to date in the Exile, to record
    the fall of Jerusalem, and to reshape the
    history, with a minimum of reworking, into a
    document relevant to exiles for whom the bright
    expectations of the Josianic era were hopelessly
    past. This subtheme is found articulated most
    clearly in the pericope dealing with Manasseh and
    the significance of his sins of syncretism and
    idolatry, in 2 Kings 212-15. The section is
    modeled almost exactly on the section treating
    the fall of Samaria." 285

The Prophetic Tradition
  • Royal Oracles 1 Kgs 11.29-39 12.15-20 2 Kgs
  • Oracles of Judgment 1 Kgs 14.7-11 16.1-4, 7,
    12 20.40-43 21.19-22 22.1-37 2 Kgs 9.6-10
  • War Oracles 1 Kgs 20.13-15, 28ff. 2 Kgs 2.12
  • Prophetic Narratives 1 Kgs 13.7-32 20.35ff.

The Temple Temple Theology
  • Introduction
  • 1. The Story of the Temple may very well begin in
    the Tabernacle
  • 2. Shiloh Temple?
  • 2.1 1 Sam 1.9 3.3
  • "Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat
    beside the doorpost of the temple of Yahweh"
  • "and Samuel lying down in the temple of Yahweh,
    where the Ark of God was."
  • 2.2 Jer 7.121-5 26.6
  • 2.3 Ps 78.56-72

The Temple Temple Theology
  • Introduction
  • 3. David the Temple
  • 3.1 The Dance and its Politics (2 Sam 6.1-23 I
    Chr 13.1-14 15.25-16.3)
  • 3.2 The House for the Ark (2 Sam 7 1 Chr 17 Ps
    78 132)
  • 3.3 Purchasing the Property (2 Sam 24 1 Chr 21)
  • 3.4 Gathering Materials (1 Kgs 7.51 1 Chr 23-26
  • 3.5 Cultic Preparation (1 Chr 23-26)

The Temple Temple Theology
  • Solomon the Temple
  • 1. Solomon Prepares to Build (1 Kgs 5.1-32)
  • 2. Temple Construction
  • 2.1 Size 60 cu. long, 20 cu. wide, 30 cu. high
    (I Kgs 6.2, compare Ezek 41.13-14)
  • 2.2 Triparite Temple or "long temple" vs. "wide

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The Temple Temple Theology
  • Solomon the Temple
  • 2.3 Porch - )ulam (1 Kgs 6.3 7.12)
  • 2.4 Jachin Boaz (1 Kgs 7.14-21)

The Temple Temple Theology
  • Solomon the Temple
  • 2.5 Hekal (1 Kgs 7.4-7, 33-36)
  • 2.6 Windows (1 Kgs 6.4)

The Temple Temple Theology
  • 2.7 Small altar (1 Kgs 6.4)
  • 2.8 10 lamp Stands (1 Kgs 6.20)
  • 2.9 Small Tables for the "bread of the presence"
    (1 Kgs 7.48)

The Temple Temple Theology
  • 2.10 Inner Sanctuary (debir 1 Kgs 6.15-22)
  • 2.11 Two Cherubim (1 Kgs 6.23.28)

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Zion-Sabaoth Theology
  • 1. YHWH is King Pss 48.3 46.5 47.3 (of all
    the earth)
  • 1.1 Earliest statement Ex 15.18 YHWH will
    reign forever and ever following this text is
    Deut 33.4-5
  • 1.2 Problems of Kingship revolt motif in Ps
  • 2. YHWHs Choice of Jerusalem
  • 2.1 Explicit Pss 78.68 132.13 (for dwelling)
  • 2.2 Implicit Pss 46.5 48.2-3, 8-9 87.2
  • 2.3 Topography high mountain and river
  • 2.4 Security Pss 46.7,8 48.4 (stronghold)

Zion-Sabaoth Theology
  • 3. Enemy
  • 3.1 Ps 46.2-4 unruly sea
  • 3.2 Pss 46.7 48.5-7 76.6-8 kings and nations
    Also note Isa 17.12-14 and Isa 8
  • 3.3 Shift in Isa 2.1-5 Mic 4.1-3
  • 4. YHWHs Rebuke Pss 46.7 76.7, 9 (Amos 1.2
    Joel 4.16)

Zion-Sabaoth Theology
  • 5. Implications for Inhabitants
  • 5.1 Only those who meet Gods righteous standards
    can live in his presence Isa 33.13-16 Ps 24.3-4
  • 5.2 Inhabitants and King have a duty to building
    Gods house Hag 1.2-11
  • 5.3 Those inhabitants who are fit to live with
    God will rejoice in the security and abundant
    life that YHWHs presence brings Pss 48.12-14
  • J. J. M. Roberts