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The International Panel on Climate Change IPCC

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Title: The International Panel on Climate Change IPCC


1
The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
2
What is the IPCC?
  • Intergovernmental panel that evaluates man
    induced climate change
  • Run two UN organizations
  • World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  • The panel does not conduct research only creates
    scholarly literature based in scientific findings
  • Established in 1988

3
How the IPCC is Organized
4
IPCC
  • Panel consists of governmental representatives
    from different countries
  • Composed of three working groups each is
    responsible for a specific task
  • Working Group 1 The Physical Science Basis of
    Climate Change.
  • Working Group 2 Climate Change Impact Adaption
    and Vulnerability.
  • Working Group 3 Mitigation of Climate Change.

5
2007 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to IPCC and Al
Gore
6
IPCCs special report concerning food consumption
  • More than 800 million malnourished people
  • Food consumption pattern will double with
    increasing population
  • More agriculture is needed therefore causing
    global warming
  • Cyclic relationship between agriculture and
    global warming

7
Current Food Consumption Patterns Developed
Countries
  • The transformation of lifestyles and cultural
    models, the altered time-organization of daily
    life and the modification of market and labour
    processes are the largest factors in changing
    food choices.
  • Globally, food is no longer considered just as a
    means of survival, but is often considered a
    criterion for cultural identity and
    self-expression, but buying food in a social
    context is related to the cultural heritage of
    each individual.
  • Food consumption is heavily influenced by the
    family and social values of each group, and the
    sense of belonging is reinforced by food choices.

8
Developed Countries
  • Increasing consumption of highly processed food,
    such as pre-cut, pre-cooked, ready-to-eat food
    products (often canned, refrigerated, or frozen),
    as well as ready-made meals which can be consumed
    anywhere.
  • Convenience has become increasingly important
    when choosing fruit and vegetables.
  • In the period 19971999, for example, 52 per cent
    of vegetables were bought by US consumers as
    canned, frozen, or dried products 43 per cent of
    fruit consumed was purchased as juice. 8

9
Developed Countries
  • One of today's most evident trends, according to
    western consumers, is the lack of time for
    shopping, cooking, and eating.
  • It has been estimated that 17 per cent of frozen
    products now on the market did not exist two
    years ago.
  • The majority of women in developed countries have
    now entered the labour force the rate of
    urbanization has globally increased.

10
Developed Countries
  • Working hours and the distance between workplace
    and home have
  • Grown disposable income, available for spending
    on value added food products (such as convenience
    foods), has increased.
  • The number of people living alone increased
    dramatically in the last decade in all western
    societies and traditional meal hence no longer
    present. This additional factor then further
    encourages singles to consume readymade and quick
    meals, often eaten outside.
  • Other factors affecting consumption patterns, are
    the presence of children in the household and the
    gender of the consumers.

11
Developed Countries
  • American households with children spend about 26
    per cent more than the average consumer and often
    this increase is due to the purchase of new
    products that are specifically positioned by
    retailers in order to be very appealing to new
    moms. 9
  • The role of children is instrumental in
    determining the dietary habits of entire
    households. For example, mothers try to be more
    responsible when children are part of the
    household and usually buy more nutritional food.
  • Women are usually more sensible and cautious with
    regards to food quality and safety. In addition,
    womens priorities concerning food purchase and
    consumption are often different from those of
    men.

12
Developed Countries
  • But the key-factor has, without doubt, been the
    interest in health. 81 In the western world,
    consumers are nowadays more concerned about their
    well-being than at any other time in history.
  • Growth in the use of media and Internet
    communication public more aware of risk factors.

13
Current Food Consumption Patterns Developing
Countries
  • Most important factors behind current trends in
    developing countries are urbanization, rising
    incomes and changing lifestyles.
  • Migration Pattern People move from the
    countryside to the city, food preference change,
    less time to prepare food and a wider choice,
    more influence from other cultures (western)
  • In almost every developing country, traditional
    meals based on cereals and vegetables, as well as
    local grain and root dishes, have been rapidly
    replaced by livestock products and other
    non-traditional cereals, such as wheat.

14
Developing Countries
  • The most obvious consequence of economic growth
    is the preference for meat, fish, and dairy
    products.
  • Another important driving force behind increased
    dairy product consumption is the
    internationalization of emerging markets. This
    has created a growing demand for western style
    dairy products such as mozzarella cheese for
    pizza toppings. 105

15
Developing Countries
  • A new problem is the growing number of people in
    developing countries who suffer from obesity
    resulting from the increased meat and fat in
    their diets.
  • Significant growth in the numbers of obese and
    overweight people can be observed in Brazil,
    China, India.
  • This situation is paradoxical because in many
    developing countries, such as India, an enormous
    number of individuals, children in particular,
    suffer from malnutrition.

16
Developing Countries
  • One additional factor in the development of this
    process is the great influence of western
    lifestyle, spread by the media in developing
    countries over the last decade.
  • Thanks to the growth of international trade,
    western companies have made great efforts to try
    to capture these profitable emerging markets,
    especially through the use of advertising and
    marketing tools.
  • Western food companies. Fast food chains such as
    McDonald's, Pizza Hut, TGI Fridays,Pizza
    Express, and Dunkin Donuts are already very
    popular.

17
Developing Countries
  • A matter of real concern is that, due to the
    current process of globalization, western culture
    has been exporting not only its food products but
    also its lifestyle, including the negative
    aspects.
  • In children, demonstrated that advertisements
    encourage children to substitute regular meals
    with energy drinks and chocolate products.
  • The total amount of TV food advertising was 227
    hours per week (considering all TV channels).
  • At the top of the list of advertised products
    were chocolates, candies, chewing gums, soft
    drinks, and biscuits. 11

18
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19
Review of Impacts
  • Impact of farming
  • Poor countries degradation, erosion, irrigation,
    tree cutting
  • Rich countries excessive use of fertilizers and
    use of pesticides promotes to contamination
  • Impact of Livestock
  • Direct Impacts Gas emission, pollution and soil
    degradation
  • Indirect Impacts Production of grain and animal
    feed for cattle nutrition (more animal excretes,
    Live stock revolution and their need for space),
    forest loss, soil degradation, NH3 and CH4
    Production
  • Impact at Consumer Level
  • Lack of time to eat in, Ease of eating out, Role
    of women smarter choices, men and kids dictate
    the choice of food in a family.

20
Solutions
  • Micro
  • Practice low input farming methods
  • Use of organic crops to preserve biodiversity
  • Practice energy saving household items(energy
    saving cooking pots, decreases energy by 20
    percent, refrigerators and ovens that save
    energy)
  • Target WOMEN on smart food choices (example of
    Grameen Bank)

21
Solutions
  • Meso
  • In high yield areas, have high prices and put
    more constraint on subsidies to discourage
    excessive and irrational use
  • Promote educational seminars on childhood
    education and family planning
  • Incorporate healthy eating classes as part of the
    educational curriculum
  • Discourage eating out (spend three times more
    energy than eating in) BIG MAC reqd energy
    varies from 7.3-20 MJ, where as eating in 1.5-5
    MJ per portion.
  • Encourage a shift in lifestyle behavioral
    change (introduce round the clock groceries to
    help reduce eating out)
  • Create synergy between producers and consumers

22
Solutions
  • Macro
  • Research on alternative agricultural practices to
    decrease huge amounts of mineral fertilizers and
    pesticides
  • Establish strict policies on agricultural
    practices and fresh water conservation
  • Provide public education and programs to
    encourage environmental friendly practices
  • Promote healthy eating practices through joint
    partnerships with local media
  • Increase government funded programs for smart
    food choices (educate people and breakdown
    cultural norms on ethnic food choices situation
    in Indian subcontinent heavy eating practices,
    twice a day in developing nations )

23
Solutions
  • Enforce threshold billing the more energy you
    use, the more you pay and jumps by threshold
  • Discourage food from being a cultural identity
    and social value behavioral
  • Place more stringent laws for companies and their
    marketing tactics (unhealthy food promotes to
    unhealthy lifestyle, increases energy
    consumption, increases cost health care)
  • Monitor and introduce more stringent methods on
    foreign food chains invading developing countries
    (transfer of rich nations poor practices to the
    poorer nations, very lucrative for companies but
    devastating for ppl example Macdonalds, kellogs,
    etc.. have done), less ppl will suffer from
    obesity.

24
Solutions
  • Use health risk and environmental sustainability
    as a theme to reinforce smart food choices to
    counter current marketing practices
    (biodegradable, shows history and origin of food
    used by companies)
  • Create consumers rather than products (marketing
    war to shift choices), reaffirm sense of
    belonging, sense of identity
  • Introduce government programs to subsidize small
    farmers and companies
  • Give foreign aid to promote technology (smart
    irrigation systems, , smart management of local
    food plants in dvlp countries, pest control
    systems)
  • THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY!

25
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26
Case Study
  • Cultural and traditional practices (slaughter
    during EID)

27
Reference List
  • Boucher, J., et al. Long-term Trends in Fish
    Recruitment in the North-East Atlantic Related to
    Climate Change. Fisheries Oceanography. (2007)
    164, 336-349.
  • Brandt, S., et al. Estimating Energy Density of
    Fish. American Fisheries Society. (1995) 1243,
    347-355.
  • Eaton, J., et al. Global Warming Potential
    Changes in Fish Habitat in U.S Streams. Climate
    Change. (2003) 59, 389-409.
  • Eide, A., et al. Economic Impacts of Global
    Warming A Study of the Fishing Industry in North
    Norway. Fisheries Research. (2002) 56, 261-274.
  • Hill, D., et al. Potential Effects of Global
    Climate Warming on the Growth Prey Consumption
    of Great Lakes Fish. American Fisheries Society.
    (1990) 1192, 265-275.
  • McDonald, G., et al. The Cost of Living for
    Freshwater Fish in a Warmer, More Polluted World.
    Global Change Biology. (2001) 7, 345-355.
  • Government of Canada Fisheries Oceans.
    Canad-Nasco Implementation Plan. Retrieved Feb.
    2, 2008, from http//www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/communic/fi
    sh_man/Reports-Rapports/NASCO-OCSAN/NASCO-OCSAN_e.
    htm.
  • Government of Canada Fisheries Oceans. Fast
    Facts. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2008, from
    http//www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/communic/facts-info/facts
    -info_e.htm.
  • Neptune Industries Inc. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2008,
    from http//www.neptuneindustries.net/home.htm.
  • World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Are We Putting Our
    Fish In Hot Water? Retrieved Feb. 2, 2008, from
    http//assets.panda.org/downloads/fisherie_web_fin
    al.pdf.

28
Reference List
  • UNEP Global Environment Outlook 2000 UNEP/
    Earthscan Publication 2000 pp. 52-3, 98-9,
    120-22.
  • Wood S. et al. Agroecosystems Pilot Analysis
    of Global Ecosystems International Food Policy
    Research Institute and World Resources Institute
    2000 pp.40-42.
  • Wood S. et al. Agroecosystems Pilot Analysis
    of Global Ecosystems International Food Policy
    Research Institute and World Resources Institute
    2000 p.3
  • Amor A. J. et al. " New study reveals that
    environmental damage threatens future world food
    production" World Resources Institute Press
    Center News Releases 14 Feb 2001
  • Delgado C. et al. Livestock to 2020.The next
    food revolution Food ,Agriculture and
    Environment Paper 28 a joint FAO, IFPRI, ILRI
    publication May 1999 pp.45-7.
  • Quist J. Environmental Assessment of Shopping,
    Cooking and Eating Scenarios in the Netherlands
    Background Report, SusHouse Project, July 2000.
  • Costa A.I.A. et al. A consumeroriented
    classification system for home meal
    replacements. Food Quality and Preference, 12
    (2001) pp 229-242.
  • Food Marketing Institute Super Market Research
    Vol. 2, number 7, September/October.
  • Fagerli A. F. Changes in Norwegian food
    habits SIFO publication , Report 199.
  • Mikkelson P. The global dairy industry today
    Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation
    361/2001p.38.
  • Deshpande Shirish Impact of Food
    Advertisements on Children Mumbai Grahak
    Panchayat publication 1999.

29
Reference List
  • Moss R. et al. "The Regional Impacts of Climate
    Change An Assessmentof Vulnerability.? IPCC
    Special Report 1997
  • Greenpeace "Agriculture's climate change role
    demands urgent action",2008
  • Greenpeace "Cool Farming Climate Impacts", 2008
  • World Wildlife Fund "Global Warming", 2008
  • World Wildlife Fund "Forests and Freshwater",
    2008
  • Pachauri R. K. Presentation for the Award of the
    Nobel Peace Prizeawarded to the Intergovernmental
    Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007

30
Reference List
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vf47zqawPhmcfeatureuse
    r
  • http//www.cgdev.org/
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