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Sam Williams, the chief engineer, shrieked at all of the layabouts who were ... [4] P.R. Keller and M.M. Keller, Visual Cues, Los Alamitos, CA, IEEE Computer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1 of 35


1
Referencing Conventions
  • Give credit to others for ideas and words
  • Important feature of scholarship
  • Vary from one field to another
  • Require attention to detail
  • Involves citations and reference lists

2
Acknowledgements
  • Use for general contributions to a document
  • Keep the acknowledgement short and direct
  • Example I would like to thank John Smith for
    contributing
  • his expertise in the area of hydraulic erosion
    to
  • this report.

3
Footnotes
  • Use smaller font (8 or 9 point) to distinguish it
    from the text.
  • Use 1.5 to 2 inch horizontal line to separate
    footnote from text.
  • If more than 2 or 3 footnotes, number them if
    only a few notes, use symbols such as or .
  • Avoid footnotes if using footers if you must use
    them, leave 1/2 to 1 inch blank space between
    footnote and footer.
  • If possible, avoid more than one footnote per
    page.

4
Citations
  • Citations provide just enough information for a
    reader to find the source of an idea or quotation
    in a reference list.
  • Two common types of citations Numbers or
    Author/Date
  • Using numbers saves space, but provides little
    information
  • Designing a robust controller requires a nominal
    model of the controlled plant 1.
  • 10, 11, 12 propose alternative models.

5
Author/Date Citations
  • Author/date system acknowledges authors ideas
    and words by last name(s) and year of
    publication.
  • This information is useful to someone who knows
    the literature in the field.
  • Recent research (Black Johnston 2002) supports
    this explanation.
  • One expert claims that such groups can be the
    forward-thinking, value-oriented, leading bodies
    we claim them to be (Carver 1997).

6
Citing Sources
  • Two or more publications by same author(s) in
    same year
  • (Chan 1999a 1999b)
  • Use these letters after dates in reference list.
  • More than one author
  • Two authors (Santos and Martin 2001)
  • Three authors (Smith, Trinh, and Matsui 2001)
    for first reference. (Smith et al. 2001) for
    subsequent references
  • Four or more authors, et al. for all references
    (McManus et al. 1998)

7
Citing Sources
  • More Than One Source Cited
  • Separate sources with semi-colons
  • (Vincent 1998 Wong 2000 Young and Rawicz 2001)
  • If more than one source by the same author, give
    name once and then just dates
  • (Carver 1986 1992, 1995, 2000)

8
Citing Sources
  • Author Unknown
  • Substitute association, corporation, government
    agency, or other group.
  • If group name is in sentence, omit from citation.
  • (NRC 1999)
  • These estimates are based on data provided by
    the
  • National Research Council (1999).

9
Citing Sources
  • Additional Information
  • To help readers find information, include volume,
    page, section, equation numbers, etc.
  • Separate this additional information from the
    date with a comma
  • (Singh 2001, 55) to refer to a single page
  • (Jones 2002, 63-65) to refer to more than one
    page
  • (Xu 1999, sec 11.5) to refer to a relevant
    section
  • (Peterson 2000, eq. 10) to refer to an equation

10
Citing Sources
  • Unnecessary Information.
  • Omit any information already given in the text.
  • Saif first proposed this method in 1994 (45-51).

11
Citing Sources
  • Unconventional Sources
  • For interviews, personal letters, mail or e-mail
    exchanges, provide full name and nature and date
    of communication.
  • (John Brown, letter to the author, July 2000)
  • (Bill Smith, telephone interview, 10 Sept 1999)
  • (Susan Eaglets, e-mail exchange, Aug-Sept 1998)
  • (Aaron Bates, e-mail to the author, 4 Nov 2000)

12
Citing Sources
  • On-line Sources
  • Provide author/date, author, short title, or name
    of organization much as for text-based sources.
  • Only use URL as the citation if the item is not
    in your reference list and the site is stable.
  • If not including item in reference list, provide
    enough information for a reader to locate the
    information.
  • (XYZ Inc., Thermistor Price List, accessed 22
    May 1999 lthttp//www.xyz.nz/thermistors/pricelist
    /gt

13
Placing Citations in Sentences
  • Whenever possible, place citations at the ends of
    sentences or before a punctuation mark.
  • Take care that citations are placed to clarify
    the points they support.
  • Which of the following sentences is unclear?
  • Researchers (Lightfoot and Jackson 1998) have
    reported findings that support this alternative
    explanation.
  • Researchers have reported findings that support
    this alternative explanation (Lightfoot and
    Jackson 1998).

14
Quoting Sources
  • If you borrow even a phrase from another writer,
    acknowledge the source and use quotation marks.
  • Incorporate short quotations into your sentences
  • One of the requirements is that Each bid must
    be accompanied by a certified check or cash to
    the among of nine thousand dollars (Brantwurst
    1989, 46).

15
Quoting Sources
  • For a longer quote, omit quotation marks, single
    space, indent, and put citation after the
    period
  • Eric Brantwurst notes the following requirement
  • Each bid must be accompanied by a certified
    check or cash in the amount of nine thousand
    dollars. All certified checks must be drawn on
    some responsible bank doing business in the city
    of Vancouver, and shall be made payable to the
    City of Vancouver. (1989, 45)

16
Quoting Sources
  • How to quote a passage that contains a quotation
    depends on whether or not the quotation is part
    of a sentence
  • As part of a sentence
  • Dagwood Brunster recalls an extraordinary
    engineering feat Sam Williams, the chief
    engineer, shrieked at all of the layabouts who
    were drinking coffee laced with rum, Get off
    your duffs, or Ill recall your engineering
    licenses, and throw you overboard to boot!
    (1999, 47).

17
Quoting Sources
  • Quoting within an indented quotation
  • Dagwood Brunster recalls an extraordinary
    engineering feat
  • Sam Williams, the chief engineer, shrieked at
    all of the layabouts who were drinking coffee
    laced with rum, Get off your duffs, or Ill
    recall your engineering licenses, and throw you
    overboard to boot. Move it before you lose it!
    Shortly, they were all back at work, sweating
    profusely under the warm Arctic summer sun.
    (1999, 4748)

18
Quoting Sources
  • Sometimes you need to make changes to quotations
    so they match the grammar of your sentence.
  • Indicate changes by placing them in square
    brackets.
  • As Humphreys explains, Major investors were
    pleased with the Presidents successor.
  • On rare occasions, you may want to note an error
    in a quotation by using sic.
  • Before you use this convention, assess its
    affect sic on your readers.

19
Reference Lists
  • Prepare a reference list if you have more than a
    few sources in a document otherwise consider
    using footnotes
  • Refer to the list as References in the Sciences
    and as a Bibliography in the Humanities
  • Create an alphabetical list by authors last name
    for the author/date citation system
  • Organize a list according the numbers assigned to
    sources for a numbered citation system
  • Pay careful attention to details such as
    punctuation, capitalization, indentation, and the
    use of quotation marks and italics

20
Reference Lists
  • Two works by the same author (or by the same
    authors in exactly the same order)
  • Burnett, R.E. 1993. Conflict in collaborative
    decision making. Professional Communication The
    Social Perspective, eds. N.R. Blyler and C.
    Thralls. Newbury Park, CA Sage Publications,
    144-162.
  • ------. 1997. Collaboration in workplace
    communication. Chapter 5 in Technical
    Communication, 4th ed. Belmont, CA Wadsworth,
    85-114.

21
Reference Lists
  • Journal articles
  • Harney, M. 2000. Is technical writing an
    engineering discipline? IEEE Trans. Prof.
    Commun. 432, 210- 212.
  • Markus, L. 1994. Electronic mail as the medium
    of managerial choice. Organization Sci. 54, 504.

22
Reference Lists
  • Articles in collections other than journals
  • Barchilon, M.G. Sept. 1998. Technologys impact
    on online résumés. Proc. Int. Professional
    Communication Conf. Quebec City, Que. Canada.
  • Burnett, R.E. 1993. Conflict in collaborative
    decision making. Professional Communication The
    Social Perspective, eds. N.R. Blyler and C.
    Thralls. Newbury Park, CA Sage, 144-162.
  • Robey, D., M.C. Boudreau, and V.C. Storey. 1998.
    Looking before we leap. Electronic Commerce
    Papers from the Third International Conference
    on Management of Networked Organizations, eds.
    G. St Amant and M. Amani. 275-290.

23
Reference Lists
  • Unpublished conference papers
  • Divsalar, D. and J.K. Omura. June 1979.
    Performance of mismatched Viterbi receiver on
    satellite channels. Presented at Int. Conf.
    Commun., Boston MA.

24
Reference Lists
  • Unpublished theses or dissertations
  • Newland, P.A. 1990. Understanding Designers
    Knowledge Acquisition Processes A Potential
    for Enhancing Information Transfer. PhD
    dissertation. Portsmouth Univ., Portsmouth, UK.

25
Reference Lists
  • Books
  • Austin, J.L. 1975. How to Do Things with Words,
    2nd ed., J.O. Urmson and M. Sbisá editors.
    Cambridge MA Harvard University Press.
  • Berners-Lee, T. and M. Fischetti. 1999. Weaving
    the Web The Original Design and Ultimate
    Destiny of the World Wide Web by Its Inventor.
    New York Harper Collins.

26
Reference Lists
  • On-line sources
  • Conventions still evolving
  • Include as much of same information as for
    text-based source as possible
  • Include date you accessed site and the URL

27
Reference Lists
  • Web articles
  • Beverley, C. 1993. The ethics of technology in
    education. 30 Aug. 2000 lthttp//rgfn.epcc.edu/ p
    rograms/trainer/ethics.htmlgt

28
Reference Lists
  • Published articles accessed on the web
  • Whitbeck.C. Fall 1996. Problems and cases New
    directions in ethics 1980-1996. 30 Aug. 2000
    lthttp//www.onlineethics.org/essays/education/
  • index.htmlgt.

29
Reference Lists
  • On-line publications
  • Greenleaf, G. June 1996. A proposed privacy code
    for Asia-Pacific cyberlaw. Journal of
    Computer- Mediated Communication, ed. A.W.
    Branscomb. 21. 30 Aug 2000 lthttp//www.ascusc.or
    g.vol2/issue1gt.

30
Reference Lists
  • On-line discussion groups
  • Adamowski, T. Writers resource. IEEE PCS Online
    Discussion Forum. 14 Dec. 1999
    lthttp//ieeepcs.org/ wwwboard/gt,

31
Sample Reference List
32
Variations
  • Referencing conventions vary among disciplines,
    fields, publications, and companies
  • Wise, Penelope. Money Today Two Cents for a
    Dollar. No Profit Review 2 (1987) 123-42.
  • Wise. P. Money Today Two cents for a dollar. No
    Profit Rev. 2 123-42.
  • Wise. P. 1987. Money today. No Profit Rev. 2
    123-42.
  • Wise, P. 1987. No Profit Rev. 2 123-42.

33
Disciplinary Differences in Ref. Lists
34
IEEE Style
  • 1 B. Oakley, II, HyperCard courseware for
    introduction to circuit analysis, in Proc. ASEE
    Annu. Meet., 1991, pp. 496-500.
  • 2 Microsoft Video for Windows, Microsoft Corp.
    232-100-901, 1994.
  • 3 K.L. Conway, Putting technology in its
    place the classroom, Institute for Academic
    Technology, Spring 1991, p. 5.
  • 4 P.R. Keller and M.M. Keller, Visual Cues, Los
    Alamitos, CA, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1993.

35
ASEE Style
  • 1. Tonso, K.L. Becoming Engineers While
    Working Collaboratively Knowledge and Gender in
    a Non-Traditional Engineering Course, part of
    Margaret Eisenharts Final Report to the Spencer
    Foundation entitled The Construction of
    Scientific Knowledge Outside School, 1993.
  • 2. Lunsford, A. Ede L., Why Write . . .
    Together A Research Update, Rhetoric Review, 5,
    1986, pp. 71-76.
  • 3. Learning Together Makes a Difference, The
    Teaching Professor, June/July 1995, p. 5.
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