Crowding Into The Behavioral Sink - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Crowding Into The Behavioral Sink PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 556f6-ZTA4O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Crowding Into The Behavioral Sink

Description:

... the crowded/non-crowded groups were presented with non humor reading. the other half with 36 humorous jokes of a neutral, aggressive, and sexual nature (12 of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:388
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: jaclyn4
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Crowding Into The Behavioral Sink


1
Crowding Into The Behavioral Sink
  • Calhoun, J. B. (1962). Population Density and
    Social Pathology. Scientific American, 206,
    139-148.
  • Presented by Edward Londono

2
Introduction
  • Population density- the number of individuals in
    a given amount of space
  • Crowding- the subjective population experience
    created by density

3
Theoretical Propositions
  • Calhoun wanted to study the effects of high
    population density on social behavior.
  • Does the stress of social interaction alter
    behavior?

4
Method
  • Series of 3 studies
  • 32-56 rats to start
  • placed in a laboratory room 10ftx14ft wide
  • glass ceiling for observation

5
Method (cont.)
  • Room divided into 4 sections by electrified
    partitions
  • sections 1 and 4 were end sections
  • 3 led to 2 and 4
  • 2 led to 1 and 3
  • you could not cross from 1 to 4

6
Method (cont.)
  • Pens contained feeders, waterers, and enclosures
    for nests
  • plenty of food, water, materials for building
    nests

7
Method (cont.)
  • Normally each section could contain 12 adults,
    which would allow for 48 rats
  • Calhoun allowed rats to multiply to nearly
    double-80
  • he observed the rats under these conditions for
    16 months

8
Results
  • Males battle for dominance in all 4 pens
  • in pens 1 and 4, when one male won dominance he
    was able to defend his pen by guarding the only
    entrance into the pen
  • therefore, in pens 1 and 4 there was 1 male rat
    and a harem of 8-12 female rats
  • behavior in these pens was normal

9
Results (cont.)
  • This left about 60 or so rats crowded into the
    other 2 pens
  • this is where Calhoun termed the phenomenon which
    he called the behavioral sink
  • there were 4 extreme pathological behaviors he
    observed aggression, submissiveness, sexual
    deviants, and reproductive abnormalities

10
Aggression
  • Rather than 1 on 1 fights, male rats were
    observed in brawls for dominant positions in the
    social hierarchy
  • going berserk, attacking females and juveniles
  • biting other rats on the tail

11
Submissiveness
  • This group consisted of the most healthy looking
    rats in the pens because they avoided battles for
    dominance
  • they were observed moving through the pens in a
    sort of hypnotic trance
  • they were completely uninterested in sexual
    activity

12
Sexual Deviants (Probers)
  • Hypersexual always on the prowl for receptive
    females
  • not interested in fighting for status
  • some even became cannibalistic
  • refused to participate in natural rituals of
    mating

13
Sexual Deviants (Pansexuals)
  • Attempted to mate with any rat indiscriminately
  • males, females, and juveniles that were not in
    heat
  • did not fight for dominance

14
Reproductive Abnormalities
  • Females lost inclination to build adequate nests
  • mothers lost maternal ability to transport young
    from one place to another
  • they would forget some of the litter or sometimes
    abandon them
  • females who were in heat were chased by large
    groups of males until they were unable to
    escape-these females experienced high rates of
    complications during pregnancy and delivery

15
Significant Findings
  • One environment where the behavioral sink may
    occur is in extremely overcrowded prisons
  • a study done by The National Institute of Justice
    found significantly higher rates of mortality,
    homicide, suicide, illness, and disciplinary
    problems

16
The Development of Mood-Inhibiting Effects of
Crowding During Adolescence
  • Prerost, Frank J. Journal of Psychology, 1982,
    110, 187-202.

17
Theoretical Proposition
  • Previous studies have found that human crowding
    causes unpleasant mood states which in turn
    produces stress
  • Does crowding cause unpleasant mood states or
    does it inhibit pleasant mood states?

18
Method
  • 3 groups of 24 males and 24 females
  • groups ages were 13, 16, and 19
  • each group was divided into groups of 6
  • of the 4 groups of 6, 2 groups were placed in
    crowded settings and the others in a non-crowded
    environment

19
Method (cont.)
  • Half of the crowded/non-crowded groups were
    presented with non humor reading
  • the other half with 36 humorous jokes of a
    neutral, aggressive, and sexual nature (12 of
    each)

20
Method (cont.)
  • Aferwards, mood was assessed with the
    Nowlis-Green Mood Adjective Checklist
  • 5 mood states were presented aggression,
    euphoria, anxiety, social affection, and negative
    egotism

21
Results
  • Findings suggest that crowding, rather than being
    an unpleasant stressful condition, suppresses
    positive mood and thereby enhances the
    possibility of negative-mood development
  • males appeared to be influenced by the crowding
    more easily than females
  • the effectiveness of the positive mood-producing
    stimuli (humorous jokes) was inhibited by
    crowding
About PowerShow.com