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Human Trafficking A global problem in search of a global solution

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Title: Human Trafficking A global problem in search of a global solution


1
Human Trafficking A global problemin
search of a global solution
Marusya Lyubcheva Member of the European
Parliament International Seminar Anti-trafficki
ng actions and Human Rights based approach in
South Asia Outcomes and links with
Europe Brussels, 24-25 February 2009
2
Human Trafficking a global problem
  • After the illegal drugs and arms trade,
    trafficking in human beings is the third largest
    and most lucrative criminal industry in the world
  • An estimated 2 million victims are trafficked
    across borders each year. Most of them belong to
    the high-vulnerable groups women and children
  • Human trafficking is not a problem of a single
    state, region or community. It has already
    evolved into a global issue. No single political
    or civil entity posses sufficient human and
    financial resources to effectively combat it

3
Where are we standing now in the EU ? The EU
has adopted series of measures for combating
human trafficking
  • The provisions of the EU and the EC Treaties,
    the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European
    Union
  • Framework Decision (2002) on combating
    trafficking in human beings
  • Framework Decision (2003) on combating the
    sexual exploitation of children and child
    pornography
  • Directive (2004) on the residence permit issued
    to third-country nationals who are victims of
    trafficking in human beings
  • Standards and procedures for combating and
    preventing trafficking in human beings (2005)
  • European Parliament recommendation to the
    Council on combating the sexual exploitation of
    children and child pornography (2009)

4
Written Declaration 50 on combating trafficking
of children
  • Positive example of co-operation between policy
    makers and NGOs
  • A clear signal that the human trafficking issue
    is emerging as a priority in the EU internal
    policy
  • Identifies the most common problems at the
    present moment and proposes several solutions

5
Where should we focus our efforts now ?
  • Research and identification of the child
    trafficking push factors
  • Awareness rising among society
  • Transition from adoption to practical
    implementation of legal measures
  • Funding of cross-border co-ordination
    programmes. co-operation with NGOs, supporting
    anti-trafficking structures in new Member States
  • Active involvement in the victims treatment
    process

6
What instrument and measures do we need ?
  • LEGISLATION
  • National and community legislation (directives,
    rules, etc. )
  • Synchronization of national and of the EU
    legislation
  • Including human rights criteria in EPAs
  • Database establishment
  • ACTIONS
  • Inter- and transnational institutional
    cooperation
  • Migration monitoring
  • Reducing poverty and illiteracy
  • Reducing of quantity of marginalized groups
  • Respect to human rights
  • Intelligent use of the ICTs

7
Identification of the push factors
  • Supply-side factors
  • 1. Insufficient economic opportunities
  • 2. Lack of employment and education perspectives
  • 3. Displacement, due to natural or manmade causes
  • 4. Lack of awareness among the most vulnerable
    target-groups
  • 5. Cultural practices
  • Demand-side factors
  • 1. Expansion of the commercial and on-line sex
    industry
  • 2. Lack of sufficient regulation and control over
    the labour market
  • 3. Failure to implement high standards of
    protection of human rights

Human trafficking is often incorrectly
generalized, although it manifests itself as a
multi-sided phenomenon. Each of its various forms
demands different treatment, avoiding the
tendency of over-generalization.
8
Awareness rising
2. Introducing educational campaigns, designed
for the most vulnerable target-groups children
and young women, focusing on
1. Rising the potential of the civil society to
prevent child trafficking through awareness
towards the non-verbal clues
  • Protection from potential treats
  • Identification of common methods, used to lure
    people into trafficking networks
  • Avoid becoming a victim of trafficking
  • Signs of physical abuse
  • Evidences of controlled behavior
  • Intense fear or depression
  • Lack of identification documents
  • Non-cooperation with public authorities

9
Finding the proper balance ?
What we have
A comprehensive legal framework
Political will for the practical implementation
of the legal measures
What we need
What we aim at
  • Protection
  • Prosecution
  • Prevention

10
Prevention
  • Special training for law enforcement officials
  • Implementation of educational and
    awareness-rising programs
  • Effective protection of refugees and displaced
    persons
  • Monitoring and control over the labour market

11
Protection
  • Identification of the victims of human
    trafficking
  • Protection of the families and relatives of
    victims of trafficking and reliable witness
    protection programmes
  • Reintegration assistance if a return takes place
    or granting legal status in the host country if a
    return is not a safe option

12
Prosecution
  • Severe penalties for persons, involved in human
    trafficking
  • Drastic measures against corruption among border
    authorities
  • Establishment of special anti-trafficking units
  • Consultation and coordination with civil society
    structures

13
Cross-border and internal cooperation
2. Elaboration and additional funding of
Community initiatives
1. Active cooperation and experience exchange
  • Using the past experience of successful
    initiatives DAPHNE II-III, STOP I-II, AGIS
  • Designing new programmes in step with the
    up-do-date developments of the fight against
    human trafficking
  • Financial support for the new Member States
  • Between Members States
  • With the relevant EU authorities
  • With NGOs

14
Health consequences of human trafficking
1. Severe physical and mental trauma with
substantial consequences post-traumatic
syndrome, infertility, cervical cancer, etc.
2. Sexually transmitted (STD) and other
infectious diseases
  • Trafficking of human beings for sexual
    exploitation is a substantial factor for the
    spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic
  • The health consequences, experienced by victims
    of child trafficking need a more comprehensive
    research as a basis for future projects and
    victims treatment strategies

15
A special focus on victims treatment is needed
  • Immediate assistance with housing, food, medical
    supplies, language interpretation and legal
    services
  • Psychological assistance and counseling
  • Financial assistance
  • Safety, security and legal status guarantee

These are the four levels of victim needs, which
need to be addressed
16
Conclusions
  • Human trafficking is a global problem with
    alarming dimensions
  • Combating human trafficking requires multi-sided
    approach with a focus on prevention
  • We need to address the issues of economic
    development, protection of human rights and
    empowerment of socially disadvantaged groups
  • Additional attention to rehabilitation
    programmes for victims of human trafficking is
    necessary

17
Thank you for your attention !
  • Marusya Lyubcheva
  • Member of the European Parliament
  • Parlement europèen
  • 60, rue Wiertz
  • Bât. Altiero Spinelli, 07H162
  • 1047 Bruxelles
  • Tel. 32 (0) 2 28 45753 47753
  • fax 32 (0) 2 28 49753
  • E-mail marusyaivanova.lyubcheva-assistant_at_europar
    l.europa.eu
  • Web page www.bs-ml.eu
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