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Human Trafficking


Why Human Trafficking? Late 1990s, human trafficking became ... What is human trafficking? 'Trafficking in persons' includes: ... Human Trafficking Problem ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking
  • In South Asia

Why Human Trafficking?
  • Late 1990s, human trafficking became centerpiece
  • High-profile articles in major media sources
  • Social service providers witnessed increase in
    trafficked persons
  • Clinton administration at forefront
  • Helped draft Palermo Protocol with UN

Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA)- 2000
  • Unilateral sanctions against countries that fail
    to meet U.S. minimum standards
  • U.S. is the global watchdog
  • TIP reports assess each countrys effort to
    combat trafficking
  • Countries given Tier rankings

What is human trafficking?
  • Trafficking in persons includes
  • Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring,
    or receipt of persons
  • Threat, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception
  • For the purposes of exploitation

Human Trafficking Problem
  • Every year, 800,000 people are trafficked
    across international borders
  • 80 are women or girls
  • 50 are minors (under age 18)
  • 2,450,000 persons globally are in forced labor
  • Trafficking industry estimated worth is 20
    Billion a year (up to 14 of gross domestic
  • 5 Billion is directly from child prostitution

(No Transcript)
Trafficking-South Asia
  • 300,000 to 450,000 people are trafficked within
    Asia each year (UNDP, 2007)
  • More than half takes place in South Asia
  • Asia has lucrative sex tourism prostitution
  • Contributing factors are
  • Mobility of people via tourism
  • Migration policies of government
  • Building of infrastructure for sexual

Nepal to India
  • No immigration control or documentation procedure
  • An estimated 5,000-7,000 Nepali girls trafficked
    annually to India (Huda, 2006)
  • There are approximately 270,000 child prostitutes
    in India alone with the sexual exploitation of
    children on the rise

Women Trafficked from Nepal
Push Factors
  • Low employment prospects
  • Lack of education and/or opportunities
  • Political and armed conflict
  • Discrimination against women
  • Devdasi and Nat system
  • Lead to desertion, divorce, husbands 2nd
    marriage, dowry issues

Pull Factors
  • High demand for prostituted sex
  • Misconceptions of young girls
  • Globalization and spread of modernization with
    greater access to transport, media,
  • Conflicts and natural disasters
  • Migration policies exclude unskilled from legal
    means for migration

Trafficking Conceptual Model
Pre-departure Phase
  • Traffickers coerce young women and their families
  • Many trafficked women leave their homes of their
    own volition
  • Many have limited knowledge of what awaits them
  • Promise economic or employment opportunities
  • Dalal (sex trade broker) poses as boyfriend or
    marriage broker and trick them into false
    marriage (12)
  • Tricked into accompanying employer or friend on a
    visit to India
  • Forcibly abducted (17)

Travel and Transit
  • Sold to a Dalal (sex trade broker) once they
    cross the Nepali border
  • Transported to a brothel in Mumbai

Destination- sex work
  • Debt bondage -must repay cost of transport and
    repurchase in India
  • Break in period- Gang rapes/sexual violence
  • Physical and mental abuse
  • Deprived of food, water, shelter, and access to
  • Forced to service up to 20 clients a day

HIV/AIDS in India
  • Low prevalence of HIV (1)
  • Estimated 2.5 million in India are infected with
  • Sex trafficking
  • Direct cause and effect link to spread and
    mutation of HIV.

India HIV/AIDS Sex trafficked
  • Victims of sex trafficking in South Asia high
    prevalence of HIV and other STDs
  • Self-reported HIV prevalence rates of 8.3
  • There are 2,000,000 prostitutes in India
  • 60 of women in prostitution in Mumbai are HIV
    positive (Huda, 2006)
  • Clients serve as the bridging population to
    general population

Girls and HIV/AIDS
  • Girls are in high demand because of
  • Girls earn the virgin price
  • Young body is 2-times more likely for HIV
  • immature and highly vascularized cervix
  • the putative site of most heterosexual
    transmission of HIV

  • 1995-WHO estimated 26,000 HIV-positive people,
    with adult infection rate of 0.5
  • HIV/AIDS and other STIs now prevalent across
    urban and rural sectors of Nepal
  • Nepalese girls returned home by Indian
    brothel-keepers b/c suspected of having AIDS
  • 60-70 of sex workers return from India with
  • AIDS is projected to become one of leading causes
    of mortality in people 15-49 years of age by the
    year 2010

Human Rights Violation
  • Sex-trafficked women have no control over
    condom-use or number of clients
  • Universal right to life, liberty, and security of
    the person
  • India is on the Tier 2 watch list

What is being done?
  • Department of Women and Child Development provide
    support services
  • NGOs
  • Targeted intervention
  • Programs for HIV positive trafficked
  • Awareness campaigns
  • UNDP Trafficking and HIV/AIDS Project

Thank you!