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An Overview of Commercial Satellite Development

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Title: An Overview of Commercial Satellite Development


1
An Overview of Commercial Satellite Development
  • Cal Laurvick
  • September 2000

2
OBJECTIVE
To discuss, at a top-level, the developments in
the commercial satellite industry and how
existing systems are evolving and planned
systems are doing in getting funding, licensing,
and their business models to enter into service
3
Talk Outline September 2000
- (1) The volume commercial satellite business,
has it materialized or will it materialize? -
(2) How is the launch industry and the government
being affected by the delays and cancellations
with commercial systems? Will there EVER be
economy of scale? - (3) Which of these systems
are "vaporware" and which are "real"? - (4) How
has the bankruptcy of Iridium and ICO affected
the investment community and their interest in
pushing for such projects? - (5) Where is
Teledesic going and how are they going to get
there? - (6) Are any of these commercial launch
systems going to survive to provide cheap access
to space? - (7) How have mergers and
acquisitions affected the vendor community? (e.g.
the sale of Hughes Space and Communications to
Boeing.) - (8) What technology issues are the
commercial vendors pushing? is there anything
the government can leverage from these
developments? - (9) How are the commecial
satellite systems faring in trying to compete
with the terrestrial wireless industry, fiber
industry, cable industry, and telephone companies
in delivering narrowband and wideband services
around the globe? - (10) Updates on Expressway,
Globalstar, Ellipsat, Teledesic/ ICO-revived, and
more.
4
Example Satellite Systems
  • ACES/Garuda - (P.T. Asia/ Lockheed Martin)
    1999
  • Astrolink - (Lockheed Martin) 2003
  • Celsat -(Celsat, Inc.) 2000
  • Constellation/ ECO-8 -(Constellation
    Communications) 2001
  • Champ -(German OHB Systems of Bremen and Israeli
    EL-OP Electro
  • Optics Industries Ltd. Of
    Rehovoth) 2000
  • Early Bird - (EarthWatch, Inc./ Ball Aerospace)
    1997lt---Failed Launch
  • Ellipso - (MCHI/ Spectrum Net Sys.) 2002
  • Expressway (Hughes) 2002
  • Final Analysis - (Final Analysis, Inc.) 2002
  • Globalstar - (Loral/ Qualcomm/DASA/Alcatel/Dacom)
    1999
  • New ICO - (Inmarsat/ Comsat) 2003 lt--- Sold
    to McCaw/ Teledesic
  • Ikonos - (Space Imaging, Inc./ LMSC) 1999
  • Landsat - (NASA Space Imaging, Inc.) Vehicle
    7-1999
  • Iridium - (Motorola/ Sprint/ STET/ BCE/ DDI)
    1997

5
Example Satellite Systems (Continued)
  • LEO One - (LEO One USA) TBD
  • Motient- (Hughes/ Singapore Telecomm/ Mtel/
    McCaw-former AMSC) 1995
  • Orbcomm - (Orbital Sciences/ Teleglobe)1995
  • OrbView - (Orbital Sciences/ Tracor) 1995
  • QuickBird - (EarthWatch, Inc./Ball Aerospace)
    1999
  • RIMSAT - (RIMSAT Ltd.) 1994
  • SkyBridge - (Alcatel/ Loral) 2002
  • Skystation - (Skystation International) 2002
  • SPACEWAY - (Hughes Space and Communications)
    2002
  • Spot Imaging, Inc. (Spot Image/ Matra) Veh
    5-2002
  • Teledesic - (Microsoft/ McCaw/ ATT) 2003 lt--
    bought ICO
  • VisionStar - (VisionStar, Inc./ Orbital
    Sciences) 2002
  • Vitasat - (VITA) 1997
  • Worldspace - (WorldSpace Inc. Alcatel) 1998

6
U.S. Space Market (1958)
International Space Market
Russia (1957)
Commercial Space Systems
National Space Systems
Military Space Systems
Civil Space Systems
France (1965)
Reconnaissance - IMINT - SIGINT -
MASINT Buy Launch Sys.
Surveillance Communications Navigation Space
Defense Launch Systems
Earth Science Remote Sensing Interplanetary Commun
ications Launch Systems
Communications Imagery Remote Sensing Navigation L
aunch Systems
Australia (1967)
Japan (1970)
China (1970)
Spacecraft - Design - Fabricate - Integrate -
Test
Launch - Design - Fabricate - Integrate - Test
U.K. (1971)
India (1980)
Operations Maintenance
RD
Israel (1988)
7
Top 50 Global Space Companies (1-25)
Rank Last Year
Source Space News 07Aug00
1999 Space Revenue
1998 Space Revenue
Space Employees
1999 Total Revenue
2
Boeing, Co. Lockheed Martin Corporation Hughes
Electronics Corporation TRW, Inc. Raytheon Europea
n Aeronautic Def. Space Loral Space
Communications EchoStar Communications
Corp. United Space Alliance Alcatel
Space Intelsat Arianespace Orbital Sciences
Corporation Honeywell, Inc. NEC
Corporation PanAmSat Corporation Mitsubishi
Electric Corporation Societe Europeenne des
Satellites SA Comsat Corporation Alenia Spazio
SpA Computer Sciences Corporation Snecma Alcoa
Industrial Components Group Alliant
Techsystems Litton Industries, Inc.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
U.S. U.S. U.S. U.S. U.S. France U.S. U.S. U.S. Fra
nce U.S. France U.S. U.S. Japan U.S. Japan Luxembo
urg U.S. Italy U.S. France U.S. U.S. U.S.
6.80B 5.81B 5.56B 4.74B 2.64B 2.50B 1.86B
1.60B 1.46B 1.34B 977M 925M 875M 870M 702M
788M 702M 687M 618M 583M 557M 523M 500M 4
36M 415M
6.90B 6.71B 3.48B 4.69B 2.17B
N/A 1.69B 983M 1.41B 1.50B 1.02B 1.03B 730M
360M 590M 737M 590M 490M 617M 504M 509M
603M N/A 395M 400M
37,100 N/A 9,000 N/A 12,600 N/A 4,000
N/A 10,275 5,600 700 350 4,950 N/A
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 3,000 4,830 2,400
N/A 1,650 1,850
58.00B 25.50B 5.56B 16.97B 19.80B 33.17B 1.
86B 1.60B 1.46B 1.34B 977M 925M 914M 13.50B
39.63B 788M 39.63B 687M 618M 508M 9.37B 4
.57B 2.51B 1.10B 5.50B
1
3
4
5
NR
10
NR
8
6
NR
12
15
29
13
14
23
21
19
18
24
20
16
31
27
8
Top 50 Global Space Companies (26-50)
Rank Last Year
Source Space News 07Aug00
1999 Space Revenue
1998 Space Revenue
Space Employees
1999 Total Revenue
GenCorp Aerojet Inmarsat Ltd. Harris
Corporation Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Gilat
Satellite Networks, Ltd. Ball Aerospace Tech.
Corp. United Technologies Corporation Trimble
Navigation Ltd. JSAT Corporation Space
Communications Corp. Northrup Grumman
Corporation L3 Communications JSAT
Corporation Toshiba Corporation Telesat
Canada MAN Technologies AG BF Goodrich
Aerospace New Skies Satellites NV Ishikawajima-Har
ima Heavy Indus. EMS Technologies, Inc. Primex
Technologies, Inc. Asia Satellite Telecom. Co,
Ltd. Swales Aerospace Com Dev International Electr
onics Group IAI
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 3
8 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
410M 406M 375M 368M 338M 330M 300M 271M 2
51M 226M 225M 200M 193M 164M 163M 151M 139
M 136M 133M 120M 109M 104M 92M 90M
86M
508M N/A 400M 417M 155M 327M 590M 268M 2
26M 217M 228M 155M 262M 110M 149M 155M 105
M 117M 137M 101M 129M 116M 85M 99M
43M
2,200 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,874 N/A N/A
200 189 800 1,000 N/A N/A 165
37 972 N/A 237 1,126 750 70 683 560
220
615M 406M 813M 24.1B 338M 383M 24.1B 271M
251M 226M 9.00B 1.45B 4.60B 53.35B 163M 19
4M 5.53B 136M 9.23B 242M 544M 104M
92M 162M 906M
U.S. U.K U.S. Japan Israel U.S. U.S. U.S. Japan Ja
pan U.S. U.S. U.S. Japan Canada U.S. U.S. Netherla
nds Japan U.S. U.S. Hong Kong U.S. Canada Israel
25
NR
26
28
39
30
22
32
34
35
33
38
36
45
44
37
48
NR
40
50
41
46
NR
NR
NR
9
U.S. Spending on Space Products Services
Commercial Sales
Government Sales
Total
1997
6.9B
25.2B
32.1B
1998
8.4B
23.4B
31.8B
1999
23.4B
8.6B
32.0B
Source Aerospace Industries Association
10
Space Insurance Claims 1980-1998
1.9B
1.8B
1.6B
1.4B
1.2B
1.0B
800M
600M
400M
200M
1996
1998
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1980
Source Assicurazioni Generali and AGF
11
Rapid Growth Projected in Mobile Satellite
Service (MSS)
727M
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 20
05 2006 2007
1.134B
3.398B
7.123B
9.735B
13.324B
23.304B
27.279B
29.181B
30.603B
31.579B
Source Merrill Lynch
12
Consolidation within U.S. Aerospace Industry
DeHavilland A/C (1985) Argo Systems (1987) UTL
(1990) Litton Prec. Gear (1995)
sold to Boeing 13Jan00 3.75B
Hughes Space Comm (2000)
Boeing Aircraft Company (238,000 People)
28B/Year
GD FtWorth(1992)(1.5B) MEL (1991) Sanders
Associates (1987)
Boeing Rockwell McDonnell Douglas Lockheed Mart
in Marietta GE Aerospace Loral General
Dynamics Raytheon Texas Inst.-DSEG GM
Hughes E-Systems Northrup Westinghouse ESG
Grumman
58.0B/Year 1999
7B/Year
GE Aero (1993) (3.05B) GD Space (1994)
(200M) Gould Ocean Sys (1988)
Rockwell Intl to Boeing (1996)3.2B
15B/Year
McDonnell Douglas to Boeing (1997)13.3B
10B/Year
RCA Aerospace (1988)
Lockheed Martin Corporation (180,000 People)
8B/Year
Ford Aerospace (1990) IBM Fed (1994)
1.58B Goodyear Aero (1987) Xerox Def./Aero
(1984) Honeywell EO (1990) LTV Missiles
(1992) UnisysDef(1995)(862M) Fairchild Weston
(1989) Narda Microwave (1983) Hycor
(1986) Librascope (1991)
1993
25.5B/Year 1999
6B/Year
6B/Year
Loral Aerospace to L-M (Jan1996)9B
N-G to L-M 11.6B Merger Failed (Jul 1998)
1994
11B/Year
REMCO SA (1990) STC-PLC-Nav (1991) TRW LSI
(1992) Corporate Jets (1993)
Raytheon (110,000 People)
7B/Year
19.8B/Year 1999
3B/Year
GDMisiles(1992)(450M) CAE-Link(1994)(155M) Magna
vox(1994)(370M) BET PLC (1988)
E-Systems to Raytheon (1996)2.3B Chrysler
Tech to Raytheon (1996)455M T.I. Defense to
Raytheon (1997) 2.95B Hughes ElexDef to
Raytheon(1997)9.5B
9B/Year
Hughes to GM 1985
2B/Year
HRB Systems (1990) ERA, Inc. (1990)
TRW (122,258 People)
BDM (1998) 1.0B Lucas (1998) 7.0B
TRW
ESL, Inc. (1984)
8.17B/Year
17.0B/Year 1999
LTV A/C (51) (1994) 130M INRI (1998) 55M
Northrup-Grumman (50,000 People)
7B/Year
Ultrasystems Geodynamics
LTV-A/C (49)(92)45M
Logicon
May 1997
1997
3B/Year
8.9B/Year 1998
UT Norden Sys. (1994)
4B/Year
Grumman to Northrup (1994)2.17B Westinghouse
Def to N-G (1996)2.9B
1999
1990
1.50B 1999
aerospace/ defense unit
Orion Net Sys (1997) 490M
Loral Space Comm
685M-1B 1999
DSI ,CTA, Fairchild, Magellan
Orbital Sciences
13
Consolidation within U.S. Aerospace Industry
CACI
XEN Corporation
Litton Industries
(Nov 99)
Teledyne Elex (1995)
TASC (1998)
Linkabit (1981)
Titan Corporation
founded 1981
ITEK (1983)
Div.CtrlSys (May 96)
(17M)
Varian SSD (1991)
Unidyne (May 96)
(20M)
IMO Ind(EO)(91)
Eldyne Corp. (May 96)
(20M)
Dalmo Victor (Singer/Textron) (1988)
DBA Systems (27Feb 98)
(25M)
4.8B/Year 1999
Validity (31 Mar 98)
(18.9M)
PRC (1998)
Horizons Tech (Jul 98)
(19M)
Visicom (24 Aug 98)
(25M)
Delfin Systems(23Oct98)
(22.5M)
(9.5M-Jul98)
Welkin Assoc.
Nichols Research Corp.
CSC
TransNatl Part (Jan 99)
(17.5M-Jul98)
(9.8M)
Adv Marine Ent.
5.1B/Year 1999
1.0B/Year 2000 est.
(12M-Jul98)
Sys. Res.Corp.(9 Jun 99)
(35M)
Mnemonic Sys.
(391MSep99)
Txen, Inc.
(44M-Jul98)
Atlantic Aero. (Jul 99)
(18M)
Sol.forGrowth (Dec 99)
(15M)
31B/Year 1999
General Instruments
Motorola
(11B Oct99)
ASSIST-C.Tech (Dec 99)
(13M)
LinCom Corp. (Jan 00)
(20M)
Veridian Corporation
Calspan SRL (1997)
Adv.Com.Sys (25 Feb00)
(175M)
Veda Intl (1997)
Pulse Engr. (Mar 00)
(20M)
Rail Co. (Feb 98)
AverStar (Mar 00)
(205M)
Datumtech (Sep 98)
Appl PwrAs. (11May 00)
Pacific Sierra (Oct 98)
SenCom (01Jun 00)
(87M)
Trident Data (9/99)
IvoireTele. (07Jun 00)
600M/Year 1999
(87M)
Erim Intl (9/99)
(130M)
MRJ Tech Sol (9/99)
64B/Year 1999
(221M)
ATT
GRC Intl (Feb00)
14
Consolidation within European Aerospace Industry
to TRW
1999 TRW Total
Lucas Varity PLC
(UK)
7.0B
1997 Total
17.0B
1999 Space
Alcatel Space
(France)
1.34B
Aerospatiale (Satellite Activity)
(France)
Alacatel Space
Thomson CSF (Space)
(France)
Matra Marconi Space
(France)
1999 Space
Aerospatiale
(France)
1.82B
Astrium
Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace AG
(Germany)
European Aeronautic Defence Space Co.
British Aerospace Elex (BAE)
(UK)
Alenia Aerospazio SpA (in 2001)
(Italy)
583M
1999 Space
CASA (late 2000)
(Spain)
15
Total European Space Market
1999 European Aerospace Business 61.69
billion 1999 European Aerospace
Employees 437,701 1999 European Aerospace
Profitability 7 Civil Aerospace Business 69
Military Aerospace 31 European Aerospace
Exports to US 7.57 billion European Aerospace
Imports from US 9.06 billion European
Aerospace RD Expenditure 8.97 billion Source
AECMA
16
Projected U.S. Launch Activity
  • 29 ELV Launches/year over 20 Years (16 ETR, 13
    WTR)
  • 7 Shuttle Launches/year (7 ETR)
  • 11Ballistic Missile Tests/year (3 ETR, 8 WTR)

Source Aerospace America June 2000
17
Emerging Commercial Launch Vehicles
VentureStar
Roton Rocket
X-34
X-Prize Vehicles
Kelly Eclipse Astroliner
Beal Launch Vehicle
Kistler K-1
18
Launch History and Forecasts Total U.S. Space
Launches -- Quantity of Launches
Actual Forecast
Commercial Lower Confidence Band
1998 Forecast
Current Forecast
1996 Forecast
Commercial
Number of Launches
Civil
DoD
FY92
FY94
FY96
FY98
FY00
FY02
FY04
FY06
FY08
FY90
Bow wave continues to shift to the right Forecast
indicates government will remain a prominent
player
Sources National Launch Forecast, Space Launch
Manifest, NASA Forecast, SV and LV Contractor
Manifests, Space Launch Information Center
19
Satellites Planned for Launch, Launched, or
Attempted 1990-2004 (excluding Russian satellites)
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
67 49 44 46 49 63
66 119 128 107 114 129 140 167 166
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
96
90
91
92
93
94
95
Sources Aerospace America-March 2000
The Teal Group
20
Relative Flux Levels of Van Allen Radiation Belts
10
100
1000
10,000
Geomagnetic axis
10,000
MN
10,000
GN
12
6
8
4
24
Circular Orbit Period (hours)
Geomagnetic Equator
Geographic axis
Earth
Distance (earth radii)
7
6
4
5
2
3
LEO
MEO
GEO
21
Proposed System Orbits
900
1050
INCLINATION OF ORBIT PLANE (DEGREES)
750
1200
600
VITAsat/Gemnet
Teledesic
450
Ellipso-Borealis
Spaceway (MEO)
Skybridge
FAI
ICO
300
Globalstar
FAI
Iridium
LEO-One
Orbcomm
Sun Synchronous Champ Earlybird Ikonos Landsat Orb
view Quickbird Spot
150
Geosynchronous Aces/Garuda AMSC Astrolink Celsat
Expressway Rimsat Spaceway (GEO) VisionStar Worlds
pace
Ellipso- Concordia
ECO-8
10,000
100,000
Skystation
10
100
1,000
Altitude (km)
GEO
MEO
LEO
22
Communication Satellites
23
ACeS/ Garuda
  • IOC Late 1999 with initial launch on Proton
    D-1e
  • Sponsorship Lockheed Martin (25), Pasifik
    Satelit Nusantara (PSN) - Indonesia (25),
  • Phillipine Long Distance
    Carrier (25), Jasmine International PLC -
    Thailand (25)
  • ASIA Cellular Satellite System (ACeS),
    Garuda 1 2
  • Mission Telephone service in Asian region
    Lockheed Martin Telecommunications -
  • Sunnyvale, CA is building the satellites Telefon
    LM Ericsson - Molndal, Sweden is
  • supplying the satellite and terrestrial
    dual-compatible handsets provide voice, FAX,
  • and pager services to Southeast Asia, India,
    China Suppliers include Mitsubishi, NEC
  • Toshiba, Hitachi and Fujitsu. Use the Lockheed
    Martin A2100AX satellite bus 11,000 circuits
  • per satellite. System Cost 800 million.
  • Orbit 2 Geostationary satellites
  • Ops Concept Voice, Data, Fax, paging service
  • POC Lockheed Martin Telecommunications
  • 1272 Borregas Ave.
  • Sunnyvale, CA 94089
  • P.T. Asia Cellular Satellite
  • Sentra Mulia, Suite 1201

Lockheed Martin Global Telecom 6801 Rockledge
Ave. Bethesda, MD 20817 (301) 807-6740
24
Astrolink
  • IOC 2003 (first launch 2002)
  • Sponsorship Liberty Media Lockheed-Martin
    Global Telecommunications Telespazio TRW FCC
    license granted May 1997 (as of Apr00 1.33
    billion raised)
  • Mission 4 Geostationary S/C (initially)
    eventually 9 S/C in five orbital slots (2E,
    21.5W, 97W, 130E, 175E) Broadband services,
    voice, data, video conferencing, telecommuting,
    wireless LANs, distance learning, Tele-medicine,
    corporate training, interconnection of
    communities/ businesses worldwide 3.6 billion
    total system cost A2100 spacecraft bus design
    10,500W, 2,128 kg (4,681 Lb.), 12-Year mission
    life.
  • Orbit Geosynchronous orbit
  • Ops Concept Ka-band (30 GHz Uplink _at_ 20 Mbps,
    20 GHz Downlink _at_ 226 Mbps) 6.5 Gbps total
    capacity per satellite Three ranges of uplink
    service - 400 kbps, 2 Mbps, 20 Mbps Four
    Regional Network Control Centers (RNCC) One
    Master Network Control Center (MNCC) Two
    Satellite Operations Control Centers (SOCC)
    Three TTC facilities 30-50 Regional Gateways up
    to 110 Mbps Service terminals estimated to cost
    1,000 to 8,000 use onboard processing and
    spot beams (similar to NASA ACTS). Sep 97
    request to operate at 40 GHz range.
  • POC Astrolink - 6701 Democracy Boulevard,
    Suite 1000
  • Bethesda, MD 20817 Phone (301) 581-4000
    http//www.astrolink.com

25
CelSat
  • IOC 2000
  • Sponsorship Celsat America, Inc., Air Touch
    Communications - S.F.
  • Northern Telecom
    - Mississauga, Ontario
  • Mission Three Geosynchronous Spacecraft
    Voice, data, video service to North
  • America 500 million system development cost
    Agreement with Hughes Space
  • Communications July 96 to build spacecraft.
  • Orbit Geosynchronous Orbit (76W, 116W and one
    other slot)
  • Ops Concept 100,000 satellite circuits (w/ 3
    S/C) 149 Satellite Beams
  • QPSK modulation Forward Link Channelized CDMA
    Return Link Channelized
  • CDMA 1.25 MHz channels Uplink 1.61 - 1.6265
    GHz and Downlink 2.4835-2.5 GHz 0.10/ minute
    for low rate data services 7.00/minute for
    video services
  • 300 Terminal Cost, 20 meter dishes on S/C to
    reach handheld terminal users.
  • POC CelSat America, Inc.
  • 3460 Torrance Blvd, Torrance, CA (310) 316-1339

26Sep97 FCC Filing - 3 S/C - Cellular-like system
operation
26
Constellation (Aires)/ ECO-8
  • IOC 2002
  • Sponsorship Constellation Communications, Inc.,
    Funding from Raytheon, Bell Atlantic, SpaceVest
    Technical Team Orbital Sciences (S/C builder)
    Raytheon/ E-Systems - Dallas, TX (Ground Station
    Builder), TELEBRAS (Brazil), Brazilian Space
    Agency, Space Research National Institute (INPE)
    (Brazil), Aerospatial Technical Center (CTA)
    (Brazil) Texas Instruments, Bell Atlantic.
    Arianespace selected for launch June 1999 L-M
    ground contractor April 1999 Brazilian
  • operating license awarded by ANATEL - April 1999.
  • Mission 12 spacecraft (11 operational, 1
    spare) Equatorial ECO spacecraft spacecraft
    (Polar Aires spacecraft) 1,000-1,250 voice
    chanels (CDMA) per S/C, Voice, RDSS, FAX, data,
    paging S/C 500 kg (1,100 Lbs) each 1.0
    billion Total System Cost.
  • Orbit ECO - Qty 12 S/C - 2,000 km altitude
    (circular) 0 degrees inclined lt--- Funded
  • Aires - Qty 48 S/C - 1,020 km
    altitude (circular) 90 degrees inclined lt---
    Unfunded
  • Ops Concept 5 year MMD, 7 beams Service Link
    per spacecraft user terminal 300 mW, cost 1200
    each, omni-antenna, 10.00 month 0.75/minute
    Uplink 1.61 - 1.6265 GHz Downlink 2.4835 - 2.5
    GHz and 5.16 GHz
  • POC Constellation Communications, Inc.
    (CCI)
  • 12500 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 260
  • Fairfax, VA 22033
  • Phone (703) 227-7140
  • FAX (703) 818-8240 Website
    http//www.cciglobal.com/

Telebras (Joao Mello da Silva) 011-55-61-215-2345
Bell Atlantic (Nancy Stern) (703) 351-4595
(Web address down)
01 Jul 98 - Orbital Sciences invests 150M in
Constellation Communications, Inc. CCI awards
OSC a 500M contract to construct 12 satellites
27
Ellipso
  • IOC 2002
  • Sponsorship MCHI - Washington, DC/ Ellipsat
    International, Inc. Israeli Aircraft Industries
    Venture First II LP, HarbourVest Partners the
    Boeing Company 200M
  • Mission 17 Spacecraft, up to 600 users
    (FDMA/CDMA), Narrowband mobile telephonic system,
    RDSS, 5 Year MMD, 1.5B System Development Cost
    300 kg spacecraft, lightweight composite
    structure, 500 Lb payload, 150 sq-ft of
    nadir-facing mounting area, 3,000 W, GaAs/Ge
    solar cells, NiH2 batteries, Dual
    radiation-hardened 32-bit spacecraft processors
    with fault-tolerant architecture and 1553B TC
    bus, autonomous management and fault protection,
    active 3-axis attitude control.
  • Orbit 10-HEO (Borealis) 633 x 7605 km
    (elliptical) - 116.6 degrees inclined
  • 7-MEO (Concordia) 8,050 km (quasi-circular) -
    near equatorial orbit
  • Ops Concept Lockheed Martin - Ground
    Infrastructure 20-40 Gateways planned. Boeing -
    Spacecraft Harris Corp. - Comm. Payload
    Interdigital Comm. Corp. - User Terminals
    Israeli Aircraft Industries - Components
    Spectrum Astro - Power Subsystems L-3, Inc. -
    Ground Systems Software 350,000 users required
    to break even Terminal cost 300, 0.50/ minute
    connect time 50.00/mo. Subscription Uplink
    1.61 - 1.625 GHz Downlink 2.4835 - 2.5 GHz each
    S/C 61 antenna beams. 9.6 kbps user data rate
  • POC Mobile Communications Holdings, Inc./
    Ellipsat International, Inc. 1133 21st Street NW
    8th floor, Washington, DC 20036 Phone (202)
    466-4488 FAX (202) 466-4493, Website
    http//www.ellipso.com
  • The Boeing Company - Information Communications
    Systems - 2600 Westminster Blvd, SK71 - Seal
    Beach, CA 90740-7644 - Phone (562) 797-5989,
    FAX (562) 797-2043

Ellipso 2G filed with FCC 64 kbps
service operating at S, C, and Ku-band
28
Expressway
  • IOC 2002, FCC Filing 14 July 1997
  • Sponsorship Hughes Space Communications 3.9
    billion total system
  • Mission Ku-band and V-band, broadband
    communications.
  • Orbit 14 Geosynchronous Spacecraft
  • Ops Concept Deliver up to 588,000 high speed
    lines at 1.5 Mbps.
  • Maximum predicted data
    rates are about 155 Mbps per user.
  • POC Hughes Communications, Inc., P.O. Box
    92424 Los Angeles, CA 90009

06 Oct 1997 - Hughes announced two additional 40
GHz range systems in addition to Expressway.
SpaceCast (6 GEO) video and multimedia systems
operating in Ku-band and V-band costing 1.7
billion. StarLynx a mobile/portable service
satellite system with 4 GEO S/C and 20 MEO S/C at
a system cost of 2.9 billion.
29
Final Analysis
  • IOC 2002 using the Russian Cosmos launch
    vehicle License awarded 01Apr98
  • Sponsorship Final Analysis, Inc. General
    Dynamics Corporation Projected system cost 400
    million two experimental satellites have been
    launched to date.
  • Mission Global Data Communications Services
    32 satellites plus 6 orbiting spares
  • (current FCC license only has approved 26 4
    spares) GDIS space processors (based on Motorola
    PowerPC) and/or RAD-6000 processors (20 MIPs)
    128Mbytes storage.
  • Secondary payload program announced for space
    experimenters VHF and UHF transponders 150 kg
    spacecraft. 7-10 year Design Life.
  • Orbit LEO, Two satellites inclined at 83
    degrees/ 1000 km 6 satellites in each of 6
    planes inclined at 51 degrees (one spare per
    plane) 100 minute orbit.
  • Ops Concept Low Earth Orbit Data
    Communications Services, planning primary and
    secondary Master Ground Station and a network of
    tracking stations.
  • POC Final Analysis, Inc.
  • Lanham, MD Website
    http//www.finalanalysis.com/
  • (other facilities Logan, UT and Andoya, Norway

30
Globalstar
  • Launch First four S/C assembled Feb 97 and
    Launch 4 S/C Feb 98 (Delta) Initial
  • Service 10Oct 99 16 nations 45 nations -
    01Jan00 80 nations 31Mar00 Final FCC
  • approval 26 Nov 96. 80 European build, 20
    U.S. built
  • Sponsorship Globalstar LP, Inc. Loral Space
    Systems Qualcomm Strategic Partners AirTouch
    Comm. (S.F.), Alenia Spazio (Rome), Alcatel
    (Paris), Hyundai (Seoul), DACOM (Korea),
    Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG (Munich), Elsag Bailey
    (Genoa), France Telecom (Paris), Vodafone Group
    plc (England), China Telecom (Hong Kong)
  • Mission 48 LEO Spacecraft 8spares, 5000
    channels, (FDMA/CDMA), voice, RDSS, FAX, data,
    messaging - 9600 bps data rates 3.3B system
    cost Loral anticipating 2.7 million subscribers
    by 2002 with annual revenues of 1.6B (IPO
    14Feb95 200M at 20/share by mid-1995 494M
    raised), 33 million subscribers anticipated by
    2012 7.5 year S/C life 450 kg spacecraft, 1,100
    W power 2.6B system cost.
  • Orbit 1,414 km (750 nm) altitude, 52 degree
    inclination, 8 orbital planes 16 spot beams from
    each spacecraft 3,000 mile footprint diameter
    service 98 of earth 113 minute orbit period
    3-axis S/C 1 degree pointing.
  • Ops Concept Bent Pipe relay to local
    gateways, L-band Uplink 1.61-1.625 GHz (user to
    S/C) S-band Downlink 2.4835-2.5 GHz (S/C to user)
    C-band Uplink 5.091-5.25 GHz (gateway to S/C) and
    C-band Downlink (S/C to gateway) 1.50-2.99
    per minute 1,500 per user handset with handsets
    built by Qualcomm, Ericsson Telit Raytheon
    GaAs MMIC TR modules (16 beam Phased Array
    Antennas on S/C) Lockheed Martin- onboard
    computer elements Alcatel-Payload modules
    Alenia-Final S/C integration Daimler-Benz-solar
    arrays, power propulsion Hyundai-electronic
    components Qualcomm-transmission technology and
    software 38 Gateways planned. IS-95 and AMPS
    dual-mode service. Estimating 600,000 handsets
    will be sold worldwide in 2000.
  • POC Globalstar Telecommunications, Ltd.- 600
    Third Avenue - New York, NY 10016 - Phone (212)
    697-1105 FAX (212) 338-5662 http//www.globalst
    ar.com

31
Globalstar Launch Line (408) 933-4000 (option 3)
Globalstar (Continued)
Related News Regarding Loral Aerospace 06Oct97 -
Globalstar LP proposes an 80 satellite
constellation called GS-40 that will expand the
first generation Globalstar system and will
include voice, data, paging, and FAX services.
Loral announces 10-S/C GEO satellite system -
CyberPath - to provide broadband services. Total
system cost 1.8 billion. Operate at 40 GHz
range. 13Oct97 - Globalstar reported beginning
construction of two satellite gateways to be
built and used in Canada. Gateway buildings to
complete in Jan 98 and begin testing in July
1998. Loral plans to offer Geostationary
satellite services using its Cyberstar spacecraft
(with partner Alcatel), Skynet (bought from ATT
478M - currently 3 S/C with 7 by 2000), and
Orion Network Systems (merger 490 million
announced on 07Oct97). Telstar-5 S/C will be
used to initiate Cyberstar services 2nd quarter
1998 20Oct97 - Loral is Joint Partner in
SkyBridge system with Alcatel. Globalstar LP
reported difficulty in getting launch insurance
for Zenit. 27Oct97 - Telefonica Autrey (Mexico)
and Loral (USA) bid 688M for SatMex system to
provide North American, Television. Bid was
accepted by the Mexican government which owned
the system. Globalstar LP reported borrowing las
325M to complete financing of the 2.6 billion
Globalstar satellite system. 14Feb98 - (1st) Four
Globalstar satellites Launched on Delta II Rocket
(on Orbit Total 4) 24Apr98 - (2nd) Four
Globalstar satellites Launched on Delta II Rocket
(on Orbit Total 8) First
Operational Globalstar Call between Irwin Jacobs
(Qualcomm) and Bernard Schwartz (Loral) 10Sep98 -
Twelve Globalstar satellites lost on Zenit Rocket
(Loss will cost partners 100M) 09Feb99 - (3rd)
Four Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar
Rocket (on Orbit Total 12) 15Mar99 - (4th) Four
Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar
Rocket (on Orbit Total 16) 15Apr99 - (5th) Four
Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar
Rocket (on Orbit Total 20) 10Jun99 - (6th)
Four Globalstar satellites launched on Delta II
Rocket (on Orbit Total 24) 10Jul99 - (7th)
Four Globalstar satellites launched on Delta II
Rocket (on Orbit Total 28) 25Jul99 - (8th)
Four Globalstar satellites launched on Delta II
Rocket (on Orbit Total 32) 17Aug99 - (9th)
Four Globalstar satellites launched on Delta II
Rocket (on Orbit Total 36) 22Sep99 - (10th)
Four Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar
Rocket (on Orbit Total 40) 18Oct99 - (11th) Four
Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar
Rocket (on Orbit Total 44) Nov 99 - (12th)
Launch Dec 99 (13th) Launch
Stock Symbol GSTRF
32
Globalstar (Continued)
  • Analysts say Globalstar will have only 150,000
    subscribers by Dec 2000 and
  • only 1.25 million subscribers by Dec 2002
  • Bernard Schwartz, CEO Globalstar claims they
    will have 500,000 subscribers by
  • Dec 2000 and will generate revenues of
    300M/year. Globalstar projects 2.0 million
  • subscribers by Dec 2002
  • Mobile satellite services are expected to
    deliver about 1-2 of the total wireless
  • communications revenues. (2010 about 8.5-17
    million MSS customers)
  • Globalstar stock price 31Dec99 44.00/share,
    19Sep00 12.00/share
  • Loral stock price 31Dec00
    24.31/share, 19Sep00 6.87/share

33
New ICO Global Communications
  • IOC Service start 2003
  • Sponsorship ICO Global Communications Ltd.
    (separated from INMARSAT in 1995) Comsat
    General U.S. and Argentina 114M Germany 94M
    Netherlands, Switzerland, Spain 100M Mexico,
    Portugal, Brazil 134M Saudi Arabia, UAE,
    Kuwait, Oman, Lebanon 150M China 94M India
    94M Japan 94M Korea 80M Singapore 94M
    Thailand 65.4M 60 investors, 51 countries, 6
    continents (5 investors from Latin America) 1.5
    billion raised in first round of financing.
    Reported Oct 97 additional 225M raised from
    India, Japan, South Korea, UAE Capitalized Jan
    99 at 2.5B Data distribution agreements with
    129 territories. July98 - I.P.O. Bankruptcy
    Protection filed for 27August 1999. 1.2 billion
    offered Nov 99 by Craig McCaw, Eagle River
    Investments LLC, and Teledesic, Inc.
    8Nov99-225M, Jan00-275M, May00-700M
  • Mission 10 MEO S/C (2 spares) Voice, RDSS,
    FAX, Data, Messaging Worldwide Maritime,
    Aeronautical, Land, mobile phone service 76
    countries participating 4.5-10.0 billion
    System Cost 1.37 billion contract awarded Jul
    95 to Hughes Space and Communications for 12 S/C
    (in two planes) based on HS-601, 6,000, 3-axis
    stabilized bus - C S Band to support 4,500
    simultaneous TDMA phone calls onboard digital
    channelizer and beam former - 163 spot beams.
  • Orbit 10 S/C, 2-planes of 5 each 10,390 km
    alt, circular (6 hr) orbit 45 deg inclined.
  • Ops Concept Complement 4/5 Inmarsat-F
    Geosynchronous spacecraft 1.00-2.00/ minute
    1000 Terminal Cost with handsets built by Hughes
    Network Systems and Panasonic 30.00 Monthly
    Charge.
  • POC ICO-Teledesic Global Ltd. - 1 Queen
    Caroline Street, Hammersmith, London
  • W6, 9BN FAX 0181-563-7872
    Website http//www.icoglobal.com/

06 Oct 1997 - ICO requested frequencies set
aside at 2 GHz for planned services
34
Craig McCaw an Empire on Land, Sea and Air
(ICO-Teledesic, Nextlink, Concentric, Nextel)
ICO/ Teledesic Satellites
Mobile Voice Data
Nextlink 16,000 mile Fiber Network (60 U.S.
Markets)
PSTN Connections
Office
Office
Submarine Cable (Planned)
Submarine Cable (Planned)
Nextlink/Concentric Networks Fiber Network
Nextel Wireless Network (5.6 million users 5th
Largest in U.S.)
Source Forbes 12Jun00
35
Iridium
  • Launch First 5 Spacecraft Launched 5 May 1997
  • Sponsorship Iridium Inc. (Holding Company)/
    Motorola, Inc./ Iridium Canada -BCE/ Great Wall
    Industries Corporation (China)/ Iridum Africa,
    Inc./ Iridium Sud America (Venezuela)/ Iridium
    India Ltd./ Nippon Iridium Corporation/ Raytheon/
    Sprint/ STET-SFT (Italy)/ DDI (Sony, Mitsubishi,
    Mitsui)/ Pacific Iridium Telcom (Taiwan)/ Thai
    Satcom Ltd./ VEBACOM (Germany)/ Korean Mobile
    Telecom/ Iridium Middle East Corporation/
    Krunichev Space Center (Russia). 20
    Organizations Invested in IRIDIUM.
  • Mission 11 S/C in six planes (66 spacecraft),
    3800 channels (TDD/TDMA/FDMA), Voice, RDSS, FAX,
    Data, Messaging 4.7B system cost (as of Feb96)
    raised 1.9B, 1500 Lb spacecraft, 5 year MMD,
    Master Control Facility - Leesburg, VA opened Dec
    96, 4 Remote Facilities (TTACs) Yellowknife and
    Iqualuit - NW Territories, Oahu, HI, and Sjonolt,
    Iceland (Temp.), 12 Gateway Facilities.
  • Orbit 420 nm/ 780 km altitude, 86.4 degree
    inclination
  • Ops Concept 1987 concept developed, 1990 FCC
    filing, (L-band) Uplink 1.616-1.6265 GHz and
    (Ka-band Uplink) 29.1-29.3 GHz (Ka-band)
    Crosslink 23.18-23.38 GHz (L-band) Downlink
    1.616-1.6265 GHz and (Ka band) Downlink 19.4-19.6
    GHz 50.00/month 2.00-3.00/ minute air time
    2,500-3,000 terminal cost with handsets built
    by Motorola and Kyocera, subsystem production
    started 06/95 LMSC-structures Motorola-Comm
    P/L Raytheon-Main mission antennas
    ComDev-Crosslink antennas Gorca Systems,
    Inc.-S/C sys development and design.
  • POC Iridium, Inc. 1401 H. St. NW 800,
    Washington, DC 20005
  • (202) 326-5600 FAX (202) 842-0006 Website
    http//www.iridium.com/

(Web address dead)
36
Iridium Launch Line (888) 952-8624 (602) 441-6406
Iridium (Continued)
Iridium Launch Sequence to Date 1st Launch -
5 May 1997 - Five S/C launched on Delta II
(Vandenberg) - Total on Orbit (5) 2nd
Launch - 18 Jun 1997 - Seven S/C launched on
Proton (Baikonur) - Total on Orbit
(12) 3rd Launch - 09 Jul 1997 - Five S/C
launched on Delta II (Vandenberg) -
Total on Orbit (17) 4th Launch - 20 Aug 1997 -
Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)
- Total on Orbit (22) 5th Launch - 13 Sep
1997 - Seven S/C launched on Proton (Baikonur)
- Total on Orbit (29) 6th Launch -
26 Sep 1997 - Five S/C launched on Delta II
(Vandenberg) - Total on Orbit (34) 7th
Launch - 08 Nov 1997 - Five S/C launched on
Delta II (Vandenberg) - Total on Orbit
(39) 8th Launch - 08 Dec 1997 - Two S/C
Launched on Long March (Taiyuan) - Total on
Orbit (41) 9th Launch - 20 Dec 1997 - Five
S/C Launched on Delta II (Vandenberg) -
Total on Orbit (46) 10th Launch - 18 Feb 1998 -
Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)
- Total on Orbit (51) 11th Launch - 25 Mar 1998
- Two S/C launch on Long March (Taiyuan)
- Total on Orbit (53) 12th Launch - 30 Mar
1998 - Five S/C launched on Delta II
(Vandenberg) - Total on Orbit (58) 13th
Launch - 06 Apr 1998 - Seven S/C launched on
Proton (Baikonur) - Total on Orbit
(65) 14th Launch - 02 May 1998 - Two S/C launched
on Long March (Taiyuan) - Total on Orbit
(67) 15th Launch - 17 May 1998 - Five S/C
launched on Delta II (Vandenberg) -
Total on Orbit (72)
May 1998 - Live First Call Bob Kinzie
(Switzerland) with Durrell Hillis (AZ)
Jul 1998 - Two more Iridiums
fail - bring total failed to Seven (7) 16th
Launch - 19 Aug 1998 - Two S/C launched on Long
March (Taiyuan) - Total on Orbit (74) 17th
Launch - 08 Sep 1998 - Five S/C launched on
Delta II (Vandenberg) - Total on Orbit
(79) 01 Nov 1998 -
Iridium Service declared operational - VP Gore
calls Grosvenor 18th Launch - 06 Nov 1998 - Five
S/C launched on Delta II (Vandendberg) -
Total on Orbit (84) 17
Nov 1998 - Global Paging/Messaging Service
announced 19th Launch - 19 Dec 1998 - Two S/C
launched on Long March (Taiyuan) - Total
on Orbit (86) 20th Launch - 11 Jun 1999 - Two
S/C launched on Long March (Taiyuan) -
Total on Orbit (88)
http//www.mot.com/gss/sstg/projects/iridium/launc
h_history.html
37
Leo One USA
  • IOC TBD
  • Sponsorship Leo One USA (former cellular/
    paging company), 2/13/98 Little LEO
  • License Granted
  • Mission 48 spacecraft, near-real-time tracking
    and messaging
  • Orbit LEO - 950 km, circular - 50 degrees
    inclined, 6 S/C in 8 planes
  • Ops Concept 5-7 year MMD UHF/VHF uplink UHF
    downlink single earth coverage beam 125 kg (275
    Lb) spacecraft weight design life 5-7 years
    2.4-9.6 kbps Uplink 24 kbps Downlink Gateway 50
    kbps Uplink/Downlink 104 minute orbit
  • 210W (end-of-life)
  • POC Leo One Corporation
  • 150 North Meramec
    Avenue, Suite 620
  • St. Louis, MO 63105 (800) 807-5361 (314)
    746-0567
  • FAX (314) 746-0566 Website http//www.leo1.com/

06 Oct 1997 - LEO One USA requested additional
frequency in the 40 GHz range. The extra
frequencies would be built into satellites of the
original system.
38
(formerly AMSC)
Motient Corporation
  • IOC 1995 (First Launch MSAT-1 successful
    on 07Apr95 on Atlas ELV)
  • 1997 (Second satellite MSAT-2 leased 04Dec97 to
    ACTEL for 38M/year)
  • Sponsorship Hughes (27119M)/ Singapore
    Telecom (13.669.1M)/
  • MTEL (725.7M)/ATT-McCaw (12.545.9M)/
    General Dynamics
  • (1.713.6M)/ Public (34.6185.7M) Formed
    1988, FCC License 1989
  • 03Aug99 - Public offering raised 125 million
  • Mission Mobile Voice, FAX, and Data Services
    Skycell - TM Service to
  • U.S., Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands.
    Also owns ARDIS Network of Wireless Data
  • Services 1,750 base stations in 427 cities -
    two-way packet services, eLink Wireless Email
    Services
  • Orbit Two Geosynchronous orbit (70 Ft. long,
    3500 Hughes HS-601 S/C)
  • Ops Concept Hughes built S/C, Westinghouse
    Ground Segment, Trimble Navigation GPS Receivers,
    AMSC Gateway to PSTN to Cellular Gateway, Six
    spot transmission beams from S/C L-band Uplink
    (Mobile) Ku-Band Downlink 0.99 - 1.45/
    Minute 2,000 Terminal Cost QPSK Modulation
    Forward Link FDMA/TDMA Return Link Channelized
    CDMA 5.5 MHz channels
  • POC American Mobile Satellite Corporation,
    10802 Parkridge Blvd, Reston, VA
  • 22091 Phone (703) 758-6000 FAX (703) 758-6111
    Website http//www.ammobile.com

Stock Symbol MTNT
39
Orbcomm
  • IOC 1998 Launch 03 Apr 95 Pegasus/L-1011 of
    first two satellites Orbcomm 2
  • had reported problems immediately with the
    Gateway Communications subsystem
  • Orbcomm 1 had reported problems 15Apr95 with the
    subscriber communications subsystem. (Orbcomm 1
    restored 13 June 95, Orbcomm 2 restored in May
    95). FCC License Oct 1994.
  • Sponsorship Orbital Sciences Corporation
    (80M)/ Teleglobe, Inc. (70M) (Canada)
  • TRI, Inc. (Malaysia) Total system
    cost expected to be 220 M.
  • Mission 24 spacecraft (4 spares) cost
    2.5M each up to 74 channels FDMA Two-Way data
    for Monitoring, Paging, Tracking, Messaging 87
    Lb spacecraft Main body 38x 7 disk 7 Ft to
    (two) solar panel edges 12 Ft to extended
    antennas. 160 W BOL power.
  • Orbit 970 kilometer altitude
  • Ops Concept TTC facility - VA Twenty gateway
    earth stations NY, GA, AZ, WA Service
    distribution agreements with IWL Comms, Inc.
    (TX) Electronic Marine Systems, Inc. (NJ)
    15-30/month 0.007/byte for usage over basic
    monthly service inclusion User equipment 600
    (150-200 in quantity) VHF - Uplink 148 - 150
    MHz (2.4 kbps) VHF - Downlink 137-138 MHz
    (4.8-9.6 kbps). Modems for Earth Stations
    provided by Torrey Science Corp. - San Diego, CA
  • POC Orbital Sciences Corporation - 21700
    Atlantic Blvd., Dulles, VA20166 Phone (703)
    406-5000 FAX (703) 406-5552, Website
    http//www.orbcomm.com

40
Orbcomm (Continued)
Orbcomm Launch Sequence to Date 1st Launch
03 Apr 1995 - Two S/C launched on Pegasus
- Total on Orbit (2) 2nd Launch 23 Dec
1997 - Eight S/C launched on Pegasus XL - Total
on Orbit (10) 3rd Launch 10 Feb 1998 - Two
S/C launched on Taurus - Total on
Orbit (12) 4th Launch 02 Aug 1998 - Eight
S/C launched on Pegasus XL - Total on Orbit
(20) 5th Launch 23 Sep 1998 - Eight S/C
launched on Pegasus XL - Total on Orbit
(28) 6th Launch xx xxx 1999 - Seven S/C
- Total on
Orbit (35)
200,000 total subscriber units as of Dec 1999,
190 countries covered by service providers
06 Oct 1997 - OSC proposes a 7-satellite 900M
broadband system Orblink from a MEO altitude as
early as early as 2002
11 Jan 99 - Orbcomm interference in France
41
RIMSAT
  • IOC 1994 RIMSAT-1 (Gorizont 29) Launched 18
    Nov 1993 (130E)
  • RIMSAT-2 (Gorizont 30) Launched 20 May 1994
    (142.5E)
  • Sponsorship RIMSAT, Ltd. funding from Celcom
    and Technology Resources,
  • Inc.-Kuala Lampur (Malaysia) Sep 1995 operation
    of both satellites taken over by
  • INTERSPUTNIK due to complex legal battle.
  • Mission Voice, Data, Video services to
    Asia-Pacific region 5 year MMD Qty 2 Russian
    built Gorizont satellites Gty 10 Russian built
    Express satellites under
  • contract with INFORMCOSMOS. 2,120 kg 1300W
    3-5 year MMD
  • Orbit Geosynchronous Orbit (Using slots GEO
    slots owned by Tonga)
  • Ops Concept (Multiple) C-band and (One) Ku-band
    Transponders Voice, Data,
  • Video services provided to Iran, India, Hawaii,
    Australia, New Zealand, China
  • POC INTERSPUTNIK - 2 Smolensky Lane 1/4 -
    Moscow, 121099 CIS
  • Phone 7-95-244-0333 FAX 7-95-9906 Email
    dir_at_intersputnik.msk.ru
  • INFORMCOSMOS - 16 Kazakova Street - Moscow 103064
    Russia
  • Phone 7-095-261-5494 FAX 7-095-261-0090

42
SkyBridge
  • IOC S/C construction to begin 1999 Launch 2002
  • Sponsorship Alcatel Espace (Toulouse) Loral
    Space Communications Ltd (New York) 30M Sharp
    Corporation (Japan) 10MToshiba Corporation
    (Japan) 10M Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan)
    10M CNES (10M) started 12 Nov 1997.
  • Mission 80 LEO satellites planned Data,
    voice, and video communications 6.7 billion
    system cost for space, ground-control, monitoring
    services and development costs for terminals and
    gateways (each of 200 gateways can handle 350,000
    users per visible satellite each satellite 800
    kg ATM broadband operation anticipate being
    able to handle up to 20 million users worldwide
    2,500W per S/C 8 year mission life
  • Orbit LEO - 2 constellations of 40 satellites
    -1,469 km altitude, 55 deg. inclination
  • Ops Concept Ku-band (14 GHz Uplink/ 12 GHz
    Downlink) satellite system, use of about 200
    gateway stations 45 beams 70 of traffic
    network customers, 30 residential Subscriber
    plan 15-20 million by 2006 Terminal equipment
    (residential) 700/each Subscription fees 30
    10-Year Satellite Lifetime total system capacity
    200 Gbps Downlink data rate per user from 2-20
    Mbps
  • POC Skybridge GP, Inc.
    Website http//www.skybridgesatellite.com/
  • 5, rue Noel Pons - 92737 Nanterre Cedex - France
    (Toulouse, France)
  • Phone 33 (0) 1 46 52 65 00 FAX 33 (0) 1 46
    52 62 76
  • Skybridge GP, Inc. - 3 Bethesda Metro Center,
    Suite 700 - Bethesda, MD 20814
  • Phone (301) 657-6263 FAX (301) 657-9776

43
Sky Station
  • IOC 2002
  • Sponsorship Alexander M. Haig Jr., Harry
    Darlington, Alexander P. Haig, Robert
  • Phillips, Y.C. Lee, Paul Mahon, Christopher
    Patusky, Sofie Maddens, Stefan M. Lopatikiewicz,
    Ambassador Rinaldo Petignani (Italy), Richard
    Butler (Australia), Mr. Moses Thompson, Ms.
    Martine Rothblatt Lockheed Martin Global
    Telecommunications (system integrator Sep 99)
    Design review for stratospheric platform
    completes June 1999 FCC approval 31Jul98.
  • Mission Wireless Phone Service and Internet
    Service 2Mbps - 10Mbps
  • Altitude 250 fixed platforms at 22km altitude
    - launched 50 per year
  • Ops Concept Proposed Cost 800M - 4.2B
    47.2-48.2 GHz Downlink
  • Service Cost 0.10/
    Minute 47.9-48.2 GHz Uplink
  • POC Sky Station International, Inc.
  • 1824 R. Street, NW - Washington,
    DC 20009
  • Phone (202) 518-0900 FAX (202) 518-0802
  • Website http//www.skystation.com

Testing Sequence 40 Ft. Version at Chamber
tests NASA Lewis July 1996 100 Ft Version _at_
15,000 Ft in Early 97 Flight Units Finmeccanica
S.p.A. Alenai Aerospazio, Thomson-CSF, Dornier
Satellitensysteme GmbH, Daimler-Benz Aerospace,
COMSAT, United Solar Sys., Stanford
Telecommunications
Platform Weight 17 Tons Size 300 feet x 120
feet Propulsion Corona Ion Engine (Team
Technologies Inc. - Chantilly, VA
44
SPACEWAY
  • IOC 2002
  • Sponsorship Hughes Communications, Inc.
  • (1.3 billion Investment)
  • 3.0 billion total system cost
  • Mission Voice, Data, 2-way Video - North
    America - Ka-band
  • Orbit 8 Geosynchronous HS-702 Spacecraft
    15-Year Lifetime
  • (GEO orbit positions at 101W, 99W, 49W, 25E,
    54E, 101E, 111E, 164E)
  • 20 MEO (10,352 km) S/C _at_ 55 deg inclination
    (filed Dec 97)
  • Ops Concept Initially North American- Remote
    LAN/WAN Access, Corporate
  • Intranets/Extranets, High Speed Internet Access,
    File Transfer, Interactive Distance
  • Learning, Video Conferencing, Telecommuting,
    Information Multicast Broadcast, Telemedicine
    Total thruput 4.4 Gbps at Ka-band Satellite
    effective bandwidth 6 GHz 44 antenna beams
    FDM/TDMA uplink 16 kbps to 6 Mbps TDMA downlink
    D/L EIRP 61 dBw peak BER performance 1e-10
    Transmitter redundancy 64 for 48 modulation
    QPSK Spaceway terminals Std USAT 66cm (384
    kbps), VSAT 1.2m (1.5 Mbps), Broadcast 2.5m (6
    Mbps), Downlink data rate 108 Mbps bandwidth
    on demand service.
  • POC Hughes Communications, Inc. P.O. Box
    92424 Los Angeles, CA 90009
  • Phone (310) 364-4842 FAX (310) 364-4841 or
    Wendy Greene (310) 525-5212
  • Website http//www.hughespace.com
    http//www.spaceway.com

45
Teledesic
  • IOC 2004 (Concept Development 1998) FCC License
    granted
  • March 1997, July 99 launch contract with Lockheed
    Martin July 99-
  • S/C Integration contract with Motorola.
  • Sponsorship Bill Gates (10M) Craig McCaw
    (10M) Boeing (100M- Apr97) ATT Motorola
    (750M-Apr98), Prince Alwaleed (Saudi Arabia)
    (200M) (9B Total System Cost Planned -
    Motorola to build in 14 months) Test S/C
    (Boeing/OSC) launched 25Feb98 failed (14M loss)
    01Nov99 to Invest 1.2 billion in ICO. 01Nov99 -
    121M invested by Abu Dhabi Investment Company
    McCaw paid
  • 150M to Bankruptcy court on 11Nov99.
  • Mission Interactive, Network Quality,
    Voice, Data, Fax, 2-Way Video, Multimedia
    Ka-band operation data rates from 16 kbps - 2
    Mbps (Standard Terminal)
  • 155 Mbps to 1.2 Gbps (Gateway/ Gigalink
    terminals) Switched and point-to-point
    connections Uplinks 400 MHz and 800 MHz
    Downlinks 400 MHz and 800 MHz crosslinks 2 GHz
    coverage 70N to 70S 10-Year constellation life
    3 KW S/C power 64 beam uplink antenna 8 pair
    crosslink antennas 1,764 Lb spacecraft
  • Orbit 288 Spacecraft at 1,375 km altitude
  • Ops Concept Link availability gt 99.9 BER
    1E-9 Network capacity gt 20,000 simultaneous T-1
    links gt23 Mbps channel capacity within a 53 km x
    53 km cell additional 16 Gigalink/ Gateway
    Terminals/ spacecraft 0.25/ minute air time
  • POC ICO-Teledesic Global Ltd., 2300 Carillon
    Point - Kirkland, WA 98033
  • Phone (425) 602-0000 FAX (425)-602-0001
    Website http//www.teledesic.com

46
VisionStar
  • Launch May 2002 on Delta-3 or Ariane-5
    (Licensed May 1997)
  • Sponsorship VisionStar, Inc (N.Y. Investment
    firm) 260M System Cost Orbital Sciences to
    construct satellites using StarBus design (gained
    when they acquired CTA)
  • Mission Ka-band Communications, 30
    transponders each
  • Orbit Two (2) Geostationary spacecraft at 113W
  • Ops Concept Provide Television and Internet
    Services
  • POC Orbital Sciences Corporation - 21700
    Atlantic Blvd., Dulles, VA20166 Phone (703)
    406-5000, FAX (703) 406-5552, Website
    http//www.orbital.com

47
VITAsat/ Gemnet
  • IOC Experiments flown (UoSat-2)1984,
    (UoSat-3)1990 (failed in 1997) Operational S/C
    (GEMStar) late July 1995 on LLV-1 (66,500
    kilogram launch vehicle using Thiokol
    Corporations Castor 120 engine can lift about
    900 kilograms of payload to LEO) Launch Vehicle
    Failed. Vehicle 1R launch 1997 Plesetsk
    -Cosmos-3M (S/C built by Final Analysis, Inc.)
    1998 unrecoverable software failure. Now using
    HealthSat-2, UoSat-12
  • Sponsorship VITA, Surrey Satellite Technology,
    Ltd. (UK), Wavix, Surrey Satellite
  • Mission FCC License for two spacecraft Data
    Services for developing countries,
  • Remote Monitoring and Control,
    Users can make 6-8 contacts/day with
  • data rates of 2.4-38.4 kbps RS 6000 processor
    onboard of CDH with 16 Mbytes of message
    storage ability
  • Orbit LEO orbit, 937 km altitude, 104.4 degree
    inclination
  • Ops Concept U.S. (Rockville, MD) ground site
    and overseas ground site in Djakarta, FDMA
    operation, 1.48 GHz Uplink, 400-401 MHz Downlink
    (1992 ITU Frequency Plan) GEMStar is 136
    kilogram spacecraft built by CTA - Rockville, MD
    Vehicle 1R - 90 kg (198 Lbs) Terminal costs
    750 each (initially) 15.00/ month use fee.
  • POC VITA 1600 Wilson Blvd., suite 710
    Arlington, VA 22209
  • Phone (703) 276-1800 FAX (703) 243-1865
    Website http//www.vita.org/
  • Email vita_at_vita.org

48
WorldSpace, Inc.
  • Launch AfriStar (28Oct98) AsiaStar
    (21Mar2000) Ameristar (2001)
  • Contracted with Arianespace for
    launch
  • IOC 1998
  • Sponsorship Worldspace, Inc. (founded in
    1990) and Alcatel Espace.
  • Spacecraft being built
    by Alcatel Espace (Toulouse, France)
  • Mission Multimedia - Digital Radio, Text
    Image Broadcast Satellites
  • 947 kg S/C weight 5,550W
    S/C 3-spot beams for each satellite
  • Asian service announced 12Sep00.
  • Orbit 3 Geosynchronous S/C (14 million square
    km dissemination per channel)
  • 21E 95W 105E
  • Ops Concept Each satellite will have 3 spot
    beams Each spot beam will deliver 2x96 radio
    channels equivalent to AM or 2x48 FM monaural or
    2x24 FM stereo quality digital audio channels
    Broadcaster uses Uplink 7 GHz from 2-5 meter
    antenna at 48 dBw EIRP per 16 kbps channel
    MPEG-2 (layer 3) digital encoding of audio
    channels STARMAN chip-sets used in ground
    receivers (built by ITT Intermetall and SGS
    Thomson) Downlink 1.452-1.492 GHz
  • POC Worldspace - 11 Dupont Circle, NW - 9th
    Floor
  • Washington, DC 20036 Phone (202) 884-7800
    FAX (202) 884-7900
  • Website http//www.worldspace.com/

49
Imagery Satellites
50
Commercial One-Meter Imagery (14 S/C) 1999-2003
2000 0 2 1 1 1 0 0
2001 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
2002 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
1999 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2003 0 0 0 1 0 1 1
Space Imaging Inc. (U.S.) EarthWatch
(U.S.) OrbView (U.S.) EROS (U.S./
Israel) Russia India South Korea
Filed for 0.5 meter license-Dec99
Filed for 0.5 meter license
PD-23 (Mar 94) Shutter Control, Blackout
Zone, Distribution Control
April 1999 NRO/NIMA 1 billion 6-year program
to incorporate commercial imagery
Source Mitretek (April 2000)
51
Champ (Commercial Imagery)
  • IOC Launch Unknown, Piggyback on other launch
  • Sponsorship Construction of S/C German
    Orbital-and-Hydrotechnologie-Bremen (OHB) Systems
    of Bremen and Israeli optical equipment company
    El-Op Electro Optics Industries Ltd. of Rehovoth
    (first launch of TechSat Gurwin-1 destroyed Mar
    95 on Russian Start-1 Rocket) OHB is an 8 owner
    of Orbcomm Europe and markets the Russian COSMOS
    launch vehicle - Employs about 200 people
  • Mission Joint Space Agreement signed by
    German Space Agency (DARA) and Israeli Space
    Agency on 04 Dec 1995 to produce 5-meter imagery
    capability, 150 kg (330 Lb) spacecraft, 2-year
    mission life, operating expenses expected to be
    1.7M/year S/C construction cost 3.5M. Total
    system cost 10M.
  • Orbit Unknown
  • Ops Concept Probable government and commercial
    imagery applications
  • POC OHB-System GmBH Phone 49
    421 2020-8
  • Universitaetsallee 27-29
    FAX 49 421 2020-700
  • D-28359 Bremen
    Website http//www.ohb-system.de/
  • (Company part of the Fuchs Gruppe)

52
Other Israeli Imagery Systems
EROS A1 Oct 2000 EROS A2 Mid-2001 EROS B1
2Q-2002 EROS B2 4Q-2002 EROS B3 2Q-2003 EROS
B4 4Q-2003 EROS B5 2Q-2004 EROS B6
4Q-2004 21 Global Ground Stations 0.82-1.8 meter
imagery
Offeq-1 (19 Sep 89) - dummy Offeq-2 (Apr 90)
dummy Offeq-3 (5Apr95) Offeq-4 (failure
22Jan00) (495kg S/C. Replacement delayed Due to
2001 Defense budget cuts.)
53
EarlyBird Imagery Satellite (EarthWatch, Inc.)
  • Launch 24Dec1997 FAILED LAUNCH - Svobodny
    Launch Center -
  • on Russian Start-1 Rocket (License Approved
    Jan 1993)
  • Sponsorship EarthWatch, Inc. Satellite
    construction CTA, Merger Jan 95 w/ Ball
    Aerospace, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan) Nuova
    Telespazio s.p.a. (Italy) Macdonald, Dettwiler
    and Associates Ltd. (Canada) and Datron Systems,
    Inc. of California
  • Mission 3 Meter GSD Panchromatic 4 Mpixel
    camera (6 km x 6 km- 8 bit Gray-Scale sampling
    4MByte - uncompressed image 450-800 nm) Imagery
    and 15 M Multispectral 4 Mpixels (x3) camera
    12Mbyte - uncompressed image (30 km x 30 km - 3
    color - 24 bit-Green-500-590nm, Red 610-680 nm,
    NIR 790-890 nm), Geographic Information Systems
    (GIS), Government (Intelligence and Monitoring),
    Agriculture and Forestry, 16 Gbit / 185 Mbps/ 1
    data port SSR built by Odetics Corporation
    Camera components from Eastman Kodak
  • Orbit 470 km sun-synchronous, 97.3 degrees (94
    Min period)/ 16 orbits/day)
  • Ops Concept Ground stations in AK, CA, and
    Europe - geographic reference scenes, archived
    images Electronic and physical media delivery of
    product, New HQ Boulder, CO offices in
    Livermore/ Pleasanton, CA - revisit every 2.5-3
    days, 30 degrees off-nadir pointing
    (left-right-fore-aft), matrix of overlapping
    frames in a single pass over any area of
    interest, 500-frame capacity per orbit,
    store-and-forward to Earthwatch Ground Stations.
  • POC EarthWatch, Inc. 1900 Pike Road -
    Longmont, CO 80501-6700
  • Phone (303) 682-3800 FAX (303) 682-3848
  • Website http//www.earthwatch.com

54
Ikonos
  • Launch Ikonos-1 (27Apr1999) FAIL-Lost TLM
    after 8 min

  • 157 million insured loss
  • Ikonos-2 (24Sep1999)
  • License Approved April 1994
  • Sponsorship Space Imaging, Inc. (Formed Jan
    1995)
  • Lockheed-Martin Corporation, E-Systems,
    Mitsubishi, Eastman Kodak
  • Mission 1 meter Panchromatic Imagery (6,500
    lines per second- 450-520 nm ? - 12 micron
    detectors) / 4 meter Multispectral Imagery (48
    micron detectors - blue 450-520 nm ?, green
    520-600 nm ?, red 630-690 nm ?, Near-IR
    760-900 nm ?
  • 2 spacecraft constellation ( 1 spare) pushbroom
    scan 550 kg spacecraft - LM-900 bus lt 1kW
    average power, 7 year design life, 5-year MMD.
  • Orbit 680 km altitude, 98 degree inclination
  • Ops Concept Products Level 0 - Raw data
    Level-1 - Radiometrically Corrected data Level-2
    - Geometrically Corrected Data Level 4 - Derived
    Products System TTC - CA Commercial
    Components and Practices /- 45 degree field of
    regard 0.6 meter aperture 15 km swath width
  • POC Space Imaging, Inc., 12076 Grant Street
    - Thornton, CO 80241
  • Phone (303) 254-2000, FAX
    (303) 254-2215
  • Website http//www.spaceimage.com

55
First Ikonos-2 Image (Sep99)
56
A Physicists Back-of-the-Envelope
What would ground resolution of orbiting space
telescope be? Resolution
From IEEE Spectrum July 1986 page
49 Peacekeeping by Technical Means by John A.
Adam
Altitude of s/c focal length
x diameter of pixel
Given Typical perigee of KH-11 spy satellite
148 nm 275 km 27,500,000 cm Effective focal
length of space telescope 57.6 M 5,760
cm Pixel size of telescopes planetary camera
15 microns x 0.0015 cm Then
R x 0.0015
cm Ground resolution 7.16 cm 2.819 in
10 -4 micron
27,500,000 cm 5,760 cm
57
Landsat
  • Launch Landsat 1 (23Jul72), Landsat 2
    (22Jan75),
  • Landsat 3 (05Mar78), Landsat 4 (16Jul82),
  • Landsat 5 (01Mar84), Landsat 6 (28Sep93 - Launch
    Failure)
  • Landsat 7 (15Apr99) 800M - six-year mission
  • Sponsorship NASA - Spacecraft Development
  • Space Imaging, Inc. operates the spacecraft
  • Mission 15 meter Panchromatic (50-900
    nanometers) and 30 meter Multispectral Imagery in
    seven bands (blue 450-520 nanometers green
    520-600 nanometers red 630-690 nanometers
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