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Albert Ellis RationalEmotive Behavioral Theory

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Initially trained as a psychoanalyst _at_ Horney Institute. ... Has published hundreds of books and articles. Founded Albert Ellis Institute in NYC and now there ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Albert Ellis RationalEmotive Behavioral Theory


1
Albert Ellis Rational-Emotive Behavioral
Theory
2
Albert Ellis Brief Biography
  • Born 1913Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • Graduated w/ Ph.D. Columbia University 1947
  • Taught at Rutgers 1948-49
  • Initially trained as a psychoanalyst _at_ Horney
    Institute.
  • Began developing RT (Rational Therapy-now called
    REBT) around 1955 because he was disenchanted w/
    psychoanalysis he thought it was too
    inefficient.
  • Has published hundreds of books and articles.
  • Founded Albert Ellis Institute in NYC and now
    there are institutes around US and world.
  • Turned 90 in September 2002 an still going strong.

3
Rational-Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT)
Overview
  • REBT is a philosophically-based, humanistic
    approach that emphasizes individuals capacity
    for creating their own self-enhancing and
    self-defeating emotions.
  • Ellis borrowed from philosophy. Epictetus, the
    Stoic philosopher said, People are not
    influenced by things but their view of things.
  • REBT holds that an individuals belief system
    affects whether s/he attains maximum pleasure
    and self-actualization. Happiness is the goal of
    all human beings.
  • REBT is a theory of how people (who want
    happiness) can inadvertently create personality
    and emotional disturbance.

4
REBT
  • ABC Model
  • A activating event (actual event, thought or
    image)
  • B belief(s) about the event
  • C emotional and/or behavioral consequence
  • ABC Model is used to help people understand the
    B-C connection and suggests that people are
    influenced by what they tell themselves. An ABC
    form is typically used. People initially only see
    the A-C connection (John made me angry I am
    depressed because I didnt get my raise)

5
Example of an Activating Event
  • John comes home from work one day and his wife
    tells him that she is leaving him for someone
    else. How do you think John feels?

6
Sample Emotions and Thoughts
  • Depression
  • Ill never find someone as wonderful as her.
  • Im a loser.
  • Anger
  • That has no right to leave. Ive given
  • her everything.
  • Happiness
  • Thank God she is leaving. I will be rid of a big
  • problem.
  • Now I can get on with my life.

7
Other Important REBT Ideas
  • Ellis thinks people are born with the potential
    to think rationally and irrationally.
  • Emotional disturbance comes largely from
    irrational thinking (elevating our desires to
    demands).
  • The REBT therapist helps clients to develop a
    more rational, non-demanding philosophy and
    thinking style.
  • REBT theory holds that if a person can think more
    rationally (especially in the face of negative
    events), s/he will suffer less emotional
    disturbance and act in less self-defeating ways.
    Rationality is the key to achieving goals.

8
Appropriate and Inappropriate Negative Emotions
  • Rationality leads to appropriate rather than
    inappropriate negative emotions in the face of
    adversity. Appropriate (-) emotions assist us to
    act in our best self interest. Inappropriate (-)
    emotions are self-defeating.
  • Sadness (I lost something I cared about) rather
    than depression (Im badno good)
  • Remorse (I did something I am sorry for) rather
    than guilt (I did something I should be damned
    for)
  • Concern (I need to take care of this) rather
    than anxiety (I will never be able to handle this
    )

9
Definition of Rational Thinking
  • Empirically consistent with reality
  • Logical
  • Goal-facilitating
  • Non-absolutist (flexible)
  • Preferential (expresses a desire not a demand)

10
Definition of Irrational Thinking
  • Cant be empirically validated and/or is
    inconsistent w/ confirmable reality
  • Illogical
  • Blocks goals
  • Dogmatic instead of flexible
  • Demand rather than preference
  • (Ellis calls this musturbation)

11
Three Core Demands (Musts) That Contribute to
Making People Miserable
  • Self-Demands- I must do well and/or be approved
    of by significant others.
  • Other Demands- I must be treated fairly by
    othersOthers are damnable if they dont treat me
    fairly.
  • Demands of the World/Life Conditions- Life
    conditions must be absolutely the way I want them
    to be.
  • When your beliefs are irrational, you also tend
    toward irrational conclusions.

12
Four Irrational Conclusions
  • Awfulizing person believes and acts like some
    situation is more than 100 bad.
  • I-cant-stand-it-itis person believes s/he can
    not be happy or endure a situation if something
    exists that they are demand not exist.
  • Damnation person is highly critical of self,
    others or some life condition (one example of
    this would be global self-rating)
  • Always and never thinking person insists on
    absolutes (e.g., that they will always fail or
    never be approved of by significant others)

13
Three REBT Insights
  • Beliefs, not events, cause disturbance. We remain
    disturbed by adhering to irrational beliefs.
  • We keep re-indoctrinating ourselves w/ these
    beliefs thereby perpetuating our disturbance
  • It will take hard work to revamp/restructure our
    misery-producing beliefs.

14
Techniques Used by Therapist to Reduce or
Eliminate Irrational Thinking
  • Active disputation asking questions in Socratic
    Style
  • Why is ______________ so terrible or awful?
  • Where is it written that you cant stand the
    situation?
  • Is there another way you can think about this?
  • What is preventing you from doing so?
  • Why must you have it this way?
  • What is the worst that can happen if you
    give up this belief?
  • What is the best that can happen?

15
Techniques Used by Therapist to Reduce or
Eliminate Irrational Thinking
  • Homework REBT clients are asked to do homework
    assignments like ABC sheets, bibliotherapy, use
    humor, etc.
  • Emotive Techniques such as role playing, shame
    attacking exercises, rational emotive imagery
  • Behavioral Techniques use relaxation protocols,
    operant conditioning and reward, and
    self-monitoring etc.

16
REBT Personality Theory
  • REBT is a theory of personality disturbance (and
    change) as opposed to being a developmental
    theory of personality.
  • Ellis has a hereditarian bias. He states that
    80 of the variance of human behavior rests on
    biology and only 20 on environmental training.
    REBT Insight 3 stems from this idea.
  • Although REBT is incomplete as a development
    theory, Ellis does have some thoughts.

17
REBT Developmental Theory
  • Ellis believes that human beings start developing
    ideas, expectations and hypotheses about
    themselves and the world in the first two years
    of life. These are vague and do not lead to many
    consistent predictions.
  • From age 2-5 and further into childhood, the
    child gets better at predicting relationships in
    the environment.
  • Ellis also says that infants have rational
    behaviors (e.g., sucking and crying out when in
    discomfort) that are self-preservative, but these
    seem largely instinctive.
  • Children develop rational ideas from age 6 onward
    (e.g., pleasure is good pain is bad).

18
REBT Developmental Theory
  • Probable first irrational idea of childhood is
    Because pain is so bad, I cant stand the
    feeling. This leads to low frustration tolerance
    (LFT).
  • Second likely irrational idea comes from self-
    evaluation of performance I should be doing
    better than I am doing and I am bad because I am
    not doing better. This leads to self-downing.
  • These are tentative hypotheses that need further
    elaboration and research.

19
3 Tenets
  • Ellis 3 basic tenets
  • People don't just get disturbed by events, but by
    the perception. B-C connection.
  • No matter when you developed your belief, you
    still believe it.
  • There is no way but work and practice the rest of
    your damn life!
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