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socscie 14 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: secularization

  • a process by which the society is slowly
    transforming from that having close
    identification with the religious institution to
    a more separated relationship.
  • was considered to be the dawn of Philippine
    Nationalism, particularly after the execution of

  • began in 1861 when the parishes of Mindanao
    originally managed by the Recollect friars were
    handed to the Jesuits.
  • The Jesuits were expelled from the Philippines in
    1768 because of the conflict they had between the
    European leaders. However, they returned to the
    country in 1861 and regain power over the
    Mindanao parishes from the Recollects who took
    over during their absence.
  • The Recollects were bestowed the parishes of
    Manila and Caviteby the colonial government to
    appeased their loss.
  • The original administrators of the parishes, the
    Filipino secular priests, naturally protested.

The Seculars
  • those who were not bound by monastic vows or
  • discriminated by the Dominicans, Jesuits,
    Franciscans and Recollects
  • The Filipino priests then were assigned as
    assistants to Spanish friars.

The Gomburza
  • headed the secularization movement.
  • an acronym for Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose
    Apolonio Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, three
    Filipino priests who were executed on February17,
    1872 by Spanish colonial authorities on
    trumped-up charges of subversion arising from the
    1872 Cavite mutiny.
  • advocated the right of the Filipino secular
    clergy over the assignment of parishes rather
    than giving them to the newly arrived Spanish
    friars in the country.

The Gomburza
  • The uprising by workers in the Cavite Naval Yard
    was the pretext needed by the authorities to
    redress a perceived humiliation from the
    principal objective, Father Jose Burgos, a rising
    star who, by dint of intellectual gifts and
    scholastic achievement, threatened the
    established order.
  • Father Burgos was Spanish Mestizo, a Doctor of
    Philosophy whose prominence extended even in
    Spain, such that when the new Governor and
    Captain-General Carlos Maria de la Torre arrived
    from Spain to assume his duties, he invited
    Father Burgos to sit beside him in his carriage
    during the inaugural procession, a place
    traditionally reserved for the Archbishop and
    who, as expected, was a Peninsular Spaniard.

The Gomburza
  • The arrival of the liberal governor de la Torre
    was not welcomed by the ruling minority of
    friars, regular priests who belonged to an order
    (Dominicans, Augustinians, Recollects,
    Franciscans) and their minions in civil
    government, but mistakenly embraced by the
    secular priests, majority of these Mestizos and
    natives or Indios assigned to parishes and
    far-flung communities, who believed the reforms
    and the equality they sought with Peninsular
    Spaniards were at hand.
  • In less than two years de la Torre was replaced
    by Governor-General Izquierdo who turned out to
    be a pliant tool of the friars.

The Gomburza
  • The so-called Cavite Mutiny of workers in the
    arsenal in the naval shipyard over pay reduction
    owing to increased taxation produced a willing
    witness to implicate the three priests, who were
    summarily tried and sentenced to death by
  • Father Gómez, the oldest, went to his death
  • Father Zamora, the youngest, guileless and
    totally befuddled, died with a whimper.
  • Father Burgos, hoping for a reprieve which never
    came and scanning the distance till the very last
    moment, met his death soaked in his own tears.

The Gomburza
  • Their unjust execution enraged and left a
    profound and bitter effect on many Filipinos,
    especially Joe Rizal, the national hero, who,
    himself, was to suffer a mock trial leading to
    his execution.
  • Significantly, in the archives of Spain, there is
    no record of how Izquierdo, himself a liberal,
    could have been influenced to authorize these

The Gomburza Aftermath
  • The aftermath of the witch hunt produced scores
    of suspects most of whom were exiled to Guam in
    the Marianas, who, except a few who managed to
    escape to other ports like Hong Kong, died there
    in neediness.
  • It was a period when a pall of hopelessness
    enveloped the country, steeling the resolve and
    patriotism of a sentient minority, giving rise to
    a new generation of heroes of whom the Rizal
    family was to become the standard bearer.