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Disability Studies


Study Disability as a form of Human Diversity. Move Beyond Disability ... One of the famous gargoyles (chimi res) of the cathedral can be seen at the left ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Disability Studies

Disability Studies
  • A Discourse in Human Diversity

Why Disability Studies?
  • Dissolve Cognitive Barriers
  • Study Disability as a form of Human Diversity
  • Move Beyond Disability Rights to Disability
  • Replace Compassion with Respect
  • Universal Access Means all of us

Outline of Topics
  • Conflicting modes of Hope
  • Conflicting models of Disability
  • The Disability Rights Movement
  • Disability Studies Curriculum
  • The Construction of Disability

Outline of Topics
  • The Construction of Modernist Mode of Hope
  • The Progress of Natural Science
  • Inventing the Social Sciences
  • Technologies of Normalization
  • Disability and the Media

Outline of Topics
  • Disability and Assisted Suicide
  • Economic Implications of Disability
  • Famous People with Disabilities
  • From Disability Rights to Disability Culture

Conflicting Modes of Hope
  • Modernism and Interventionist Social Science
  • Intervention to correct the social problem
  • Based upon empirically validated science
  • Postmodernist Approaches
  • Dialog with individuals in which their knowledge
    is not disqualified, but honored
  • Inclusion, Self-advocacy, Self-determination

  • Field Museum in Chicago
  • Super graphics of Post-modern contrast with
    neoclassical architecture

Postmodern Assumption
  • Modern social sciences no longer provide a viable
    basis upon which to describe people with
  • Problems with reification of deficits/disabilities
  • Truth can be constructed within the process of
    dialog that does not disallow local knowledges

Conflicting Models of Disability
  • The Medical Model A personal tragedy, a
    personal problem that must be individually
  • The Civil Rights Model Disability is a socially
    constructed problem experienced when a person
    with an impairment encounters a social,
    structural or conceptual barrier prejudice

Medical Model of Disability
  • Cure and Correction are the only options
  • Not cured? Then marginalized by disability
  • Invalidism
  • Physical dependency institutionalization
  • Social Invalidation
  • Cure or Correction brought about by experts.
  • Privileged Knowledges
  • Technologies of Normalization

Civil Rights Model of Disability
  • The minority rights model
  • Brought about by activists and enforced by law to
    bring about full participation
  • Equal access
  • Reasonable accommodations
  • Opponents maintain that activists are
  • Not seeking equal opportunities
  • Seeking special treatment

ADA The Backlash
  • Clint Eastwood Mission Ranch
  • John Stossel The Blame Game Are We a Country
    of Victims 1994 ABC News
  • Supreme Court Toyota Motor Manufacturing Vs.
    Williams 2001-2002

Definition of Disability
  • 1. pathology
  • 2. impairment
  • Accommodation Intervention
  • 3. functional limitation
  • 4. disability

Liberation Movements Born in the 1960s
  • Anti-War Movement
  • Civil Rights Movement
  • Black Power - Black Studies
  • Womens Liberation Womens Studies
  • Gay Liberation Gay and Lesbian Studies
  • Disability Rights Disability Studies

Disability Studies Curriculum
  • Interdisciplinary
  • Cross-cultural
  • On a par with race, class, gender, sex and sexual
  • Focus is upon external barriers
  • Challenges the Medical Model of Disability

Guidelines for Disability Studies
  • It should be interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary.
  • It should challenge the view of disability as an
    individual deficit that can be remedied by
  • It should study culture in all aspects and
  • It should encourage leadership and participation
    of people with disabilities.

How is disability constructed?
  • the problem is not the person with
    disabilities the problem is the way that
    normalcy is constructed to create the problem
    of the disabled person.
  • Lennard J. Davis Enforcing Normalcy
    Disability, Deafness and the Body

The Ship of Fools
  • Hieronymous Bosch
  • Oil on Wood
  • 1490-1500
  • Musee du Louvre, Paris
  • Foucault used this as allegory for the great

François André Vincent
  • Zeuxis Choosing as Models the Most Beautiful
    Girls of the Town of Crotona
  • Aphrodite the Ideal
  • A Greek artist described by Pliny
  • 1789

  • View west over the city of Paris from the Galerie
    des Chimières of Notre-Dame de Paris. One of the
    famous gargoyles (chimières) of the cathedral can
    be seen at the left of the photograph.

The Emergence of Statistics
  • England 1830s
  • The Board of Trade 1832
  • General Register Office 1837 Vital Statistics
  • Reform Act of 1832
  • The Factory Act of 1833
  • The Poor Law of 1834

The Assumption of Normality
  • Recent artifact in language
  • Statistics, Statism, Statist,
  • Adolph Quetelet, (1796-1847)
  • Conceptualization of the lhomme moyen
  • Replaced the instrumental concept of Ideal
  • Karl Marx the average worker

Constructing the Normal
  • The rise of the bourgeoisies created the need for
    a legitimating rationale.

Classes moyen Middle class
Lhomme moyen
Bourgeois hegemony
Lhomme moyen physique Lhomme moyen morale
The Common Thread - Eugenics
  • The early statisticians
  • Sir Frances Galton Founded the Eugenics
  • Charles Darwin was a cousin of his.
  • Applied Evolution in his book Hereditary Genius.

Enforcing Normalcy
  • First instance in Literature
  • Gustave Flaubert
  • Madame Bovary
  • The concept of the ideal is replaced by that of
    the normal
  • People can be fixed so they will be normal

Progress A Modernist Construct
  • Rationalist 1750-1815
  • Romantic 1815-1860
  • Evolutionary 1860-1900
  • Modernist 1900-present

  • Orderly, mechanized structure of nature
  • The ability of human nature to understand
  • Man could adjust nature to make it better
  • Gradual outworking of Gods plan for the orderly
    progression of social institutions
  • Progress is the central intention of the author
    of nature.

  • Rationality-knowing ones truth could be pursued
    from within the individual as well
  • The self contained deep stores of truth to be
    explored in personal growth
  • The outer world would take care of itself
  • The individual could know beauty, heart, soul and
    passion independently

  • Darwin - transition not in reference to God
  • A haphazard, almost chance progression
  • A radical empiricist historical and secular
    neutrality evolved
  • Herbert Spencer melding of Darwins work with
    the grand narrative of progress
  • Species evolution, social evolution, improvement
    of scientific knowledge

Modernism and Its Discontents
  • Progress through natural science urban,
    industrial and technological culture
  • Fallout from the capitalist/technological
    expansion a variety of social ills
  • School failure
  • Delinquency
  • Crime
  • Poverty

Inventing Social Sciences
  • Imitators of the natural sciences
  • Social Sciences entrusted with interventions
  • Social Science Professions
  • Psychology
  • Social work
  • Education
  • Special Education

Social Sciences Scientific Legitimacy
  • Lester Frank Ward
  • June 18, 1841 April 18, 1913
  • Father of Sociology

Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
  • Developed a standardized developmental assessment
  • It could quantify intelligence
  • Identify students in the French educational system

Intelligence Testing
  • Henry Herbert Goddard 1866-1957
  • Measurement Psychology
  • The growth of mental retardation as a construct
  • Melding of method with respectability of science
  • Perceived connection between mental retardation
    and immorality

Stanford Binet
  • 1916 Lewis Terman at Stanford University
  • Testing comes to the United States
  • The Measurement of Intelligence
  • Began the I.Q. system

Mental Retardation As a Social Problem
  • 1905 Alfred Binet intelligence measurement.
  • Henry H. Goddard at Vineland built upon Binets
  • 1908 1924 construction of the menace of the
    feebleminded and the eugenics scare.

The Technologies of Normalization
  • Rehabilitation
  • Medicine
  • Special Education
  • Age as a disability that can be slowed
  • Diet and Plastic Surgery for Bodily Form

Disability through Corporate Media Lens
  • 1983 Mainstream Media owned by 50 corporations
  • 1993 Ownership of mainstream TV and Newspapers
    25 corporations
  • 1996 In wake of Telecommunications Act of 1996
    10 corporations
  • 157 media board members They decide what we
    will see, hear and read.

Media Depictions of Disability
  • Million Dollar Baby
  • The Sea Inside
  • Napoleon Dynamite - Fox
  • Corporate Media Concentration of Wealth
    Ownership Disability
  • Independent Media Depictions of Disability

104 of 500 People with Disabilities Arrested in
US Capital
  • When Monday, September 15, 2005
  • Where Offices of US Senate and House Leaders
  • Why Protesting 10 billion cut to Medicaid and
    Institutional bias, Inclusion of Americans with
    disabilities in emergency preparedness plans -

TENNCARE Political Sit-in
  • Longest sit-in US History
  • No Corporate Media Coverage
  • I am going to send you to a nursing home.

Sun Hudson
Wanda Hudson
Wanda Hudson and Sun
Assisted Suicide Not Dead Yet
  • John Kelley Another appointment to keep.
  • Gonzales v. Oregon

Employment Rate
Who is this Person? A quiz
  • A Socialist known as a radical
  • A public speaker
  • An anti war activist
  • A university graduate
  • Could read fluently in English, German and French
  • An author
  • A suffragist

Helen Keller the Poor, Little, Blind Girl
  • Her life is often reinterpreted to fit the
    politically conservative image of rugged
    individualism that stresses that anyone can make
    it regardless of handicap, background, etc.
  • Truth she was born to a wealthy family.
  • Alexander Graham Bell helped obtain her tutor
    Ann Sullivan
  • Mark Twain financed her education, in part, at
    the prestigious Radcliff College.
  • I have learned that the power to rise is not
    within the reach of everyone.

Helen Kellers FBI File
  • The is the front page of Helen Kellers FBI File.
    It is the Freedom of Information Privacy Acts
    Section Cover Sheet.

FDR Memorial
Author Jeremy Tugglewrites about his family.
Customized Employment
Transition Certificate
Disability Awareness Club
  • Amy Facca is President of the newest Shasta
    College Associated Student Body Club

ASB Chili Cook-off
Shasta College Football Coaches
  • Roger Hatton Equipment Specialist

Disability Studies
  • Present Day Postmodern Implications

Transition Services
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