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Humanitarian Intervention: Somalia, 199293

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9 Dec: Marines hit the beaches. Why? (a) public opinion (b) Clinton and Bosnia ... UNITAF engaged in haphazard disarmament (French/Belgium v US) Guarding NGOs: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Humanitarian Intervention: Somalia, 199293


1
Humanitarian Intervention Somalia, 1992-93
  • Prof. Theo Farrell
  • Kings War Studies

2
Humanitarian Interventions?
  • India in East Pakistan (1971)
  • Tanzania in Uganda (1978)
  • Vietnam in Cambodia (1978)

3
Post CW interventions
  • Northern Iraq (1991)
  • Somalia (1992-93)
  • Bosnia (1992-94)
  • Rwanda (1994)
  • Haiti (1994-95)
  • Kosovo (1999)
  • East Timor (1999)

4
Impact of end of CW
  • Created new opportunities and imperatives
  • New view of 3rd world conflict
  • Growing public pressure for HI
  • Unlocked the UNSC

5
UN peacekeeping budget
  • 1988 230 m
  • 1990s 800-1,600 m

6
Post CW interventions
  • Northern Iraq (1991)
  • Somalia (1992-93)
  • Bosnia (1992-94)
  • Rwanda (1994)
  • Haiti (1994-95)
  • Kosovo (1999)
  • East Timor (1999)

7
Somalia the essentials
  • Two missions
  • (i) UNITAF Dec 92 May 93
  • (ii) UNOSOM up to Feb. 1995
  • Three UNSC resolutions
  • 794 UNITAF mandate
  • 814 UNOSOM II mandate
  • 837 Declaration of war

8
Somalia on the map
9
Background Somalia
  • Cold War legacy economic ruin and country awash
    with weapons
  • 1991 USC overthrow Siad Barre
  • 1992 Somali state collapses

10
1992 Death of Somalia
  • USC splits in warring factions
  • (a) President Ali Mahdi
  • (b) Gen. M. Farah Aideed
  • Growing humanitarian crisis war and famine
  • UN agencies flee Somalia
  • Deployment of UNOSOM (Aug)

11
Somalia war and famine
12
1992 Death of Somalia
  • USC splits in warring factions
  • (a) President Ali Mahdi
  • (b) Gen. M. Farah Aideed
  • Growing humanitarian crisis war and famine
  • UN agencies flee Somalia
  • Deployment of UNOSOM (Aug)

13
1991 brave new world
  • The Gulf War (w/Soviet help)
  • Kurdistan
  • Collapse of Soviet Union
  • New BOP and emerging normative order

14
Agenda for Peace (Jan. 1992)
  • Peace-keeping is the deployment of a United
    Nations presence in the field, hitherto with the
    consent of all the parties concerned, normally
    involving United Nations military and/or police
    personnel and frequently civilians as well.

15
Pressure builds in DC
  • Ismat Kittani report to UNSC
  • (25 Nov) 70-80 of food aid not reaching the
    hungry
  • CARE USA leads alliance of INGOs calling for
    intervention
  • Debate within deputies group our helicopters
    dont work in deserts.

16
NGOs divided
  • For CARE USA and Oxfam-USA
  • Against MSF and Save the Children
  • Unsure Concern Worldwide and Oxfam-UK

17
Pressure builds in DC
  • Ismat Kittani report to UNSC
  • (25 Nov) 70-80 of food aid not reaching the
    hungry
  • CARE USA leads alliance of INGOs calling for
    intervention
  • Debate within deputies group our helicopters
    dont work in deserts.

18
Whats this then?
19
Operation Restore Hope
  • VCJCS says yes
  • 3 Dec UNSCR 794
  • 9 Dec Marines hit the beaches
  • Why?
  • (a) public opinion
  • (b) Clinton and Bosnia

20
Weinberger-Powell Doctrine
  • Clear (doable) goals
  • Success likely
  • Decisive and overwhelming force
  • Clear (quick) exit strategy

21
UNITAF
  • 37,000 strong, over 20 nations
  • 28,000 US forces (10 Mt Div and 1 MEF)
  • Also large and capable contingents from France
    (2800), Canada (2200), Italy (1300) and Belgium.

22
UNITAF rapid deployment
  • Robert Oakley clears the path
  • 9-16 Dec secured Mogadishu, Kismayo, Baidoa, and
    Baledogle
  • 16-28 Dec completed full deployment, one month
    ahead of schedule

23
Somalia major urban centres
24
UNSCR 794
  • Based on Chap VII
  • UNITAF was to use all necessary means to
    establish as soon as possible a secure
    environment for humanitarian relief operations in
    Somalia.

25
Secure environment
  • Disarmament?
  • Guarding NGOs?
  • Creating secure zones and corridors

26
Disarmament? not likely
  • Bush (5 Dec) UNITAF to open supply routes, to
    get the food moving, and to prepare the way for a
    UN peacekeeping force.
  • Boutros-Ghali letter to Bush (8 Dec).
  • CJCS Powell Disarmament is not possible in a
    country where everybody has a weapon.
  • Lt. Gen. Johnson totally naïve.

27
Creating security?
  • UNITAF engaged in haphazard disarmament
    (French/Belgium v US)
  • Guarding NGOs
  • disarming NGO guards!
  • practice changes in Mogadishu after March
  • Australian (Baidoa) Belgian (Kismayo)
  • Patrolling US human tanks v French in skirts

28
Disarmament agreements
  • 7 point agreement btw Aideed and Ali Mahdi (11
    Dec 1992)
  • Addis Ababa agreement by 15 factions (8 Jan 1993)
  • Addis Ababa Conference on National Reconciliation
    (27 March 1993)

29
UNOSOM II
  • 28,000 troops from 30 nations
  • Major contingents from Pakistan, Belgium, France
    and Italy
  • US force stays on logistics (3,000) and QRF
    (1,150)
  • Chaotic handover Pakistanis and Italians
    ill-equipped, Indians late, exhausted and
    demoralised HQ

30
UNSCR 814
  • Prevent resumption of violence
  • Take action against peace spoilers
  • Control heavy weapons and seize small arms
  • Secure aid and protect UN/NGOs
  • all under Chap VII

31
Adm Jonathan Howe
32
Road to war
  • Early shows of force in Jan
  • SNA sneak heavy weapons back into Mogadishu
  • May Belgians repulse SNA from Kismayo
  • Possible op against Radio Mogadishu
  • 5 June SNA ambush Pakistan unit, killing 24 and
    injuring 57

33
UNSCR 837
  • UNSOM II to take all necessary measures against
    those responsible for the armed attacks.
  • Including those responsible for inciting the
    attacks

34
The UN-SNA war
  • June UNOSOM offensive
  • July UN under siege
  • August hunt for Aideed
  • (led by Task Force Ranger)

35
UNs obsession
36
Mission over
37
UNOSOM II collapses
  • 3 Oct 18 killed, 78 injured
  • 7 Oct Clinton ceases offensive ops, and US to
    pull out by March 1994
  • Europeans follow suit
  • India, Malaysia, and Pakistan left holding the
    fort until Feb. 1995

38
Myth of mission creep
  • Boutros-Ghali Albright pushing the HI agenda
  • UNOSOM II mandate overly-ambitious from the
    start
  • BBG backed Howes gunboat diplomacy

39
Public opinion
  • CNN effect
  • - policy certainty v uncertainty
  • - political unity v disunity
  • Body-bag syndrome
  • - cause and time
  • - political v public tolerance

40
Force protection v protecting civilians
  • US human tanks in Mogadishu
  • Haiti (Sept 1993)
  • 10 Mt Div in Port-au-Prince v US Marines in
    Cap Haitien
  • MNF CO Maj. Gen. Meade v CJSC Gen. Shelton

41
The shadow of Somalia
  • Gen. Sir Michael Rose (UNPROFOR) the Mogadishu
    Line
  • PDD-25 dont call us
  • Agenda for Peace 1995 consent, impartiality and
    non-use of force
  • Rwanda April-July 1994

42
(No Transcript)
43
Bosnia 1992-1995
44
Haiti 1994-1995
45
Inducing consent
  • Escalating to success
  • Request for armour and AC-130s turned down
  • Danish tanks in Bosnia
  • Getting heavy in Kosovo
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